PubMed | HealthCom Research and Solutions Inc., Saint Louis University, University of Houston, Oregon State University and Saint Lukes Health System
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in public health | Year: 2015
The objective of this study is to explore the extent to which managed care market penetration in the United States is associated with the presence of chronic disease. Diabetes was selected as the chronic disease of interest due to its increasing prevalence as well as the disease management protocols that can lessen disease complications. We hypothesized that greater managed care market penetration would be associated with (1) lower prevalence of diabetes and (2) lower prevalence of diabetes-related comorbidities (DRCs) among diabetics. Data for this analysis came from two sources. We merged Medicare Advantage (MA) market penetration data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) with data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) (2004-2008). Results suggest that county-level MA market penetration is not significantly associated with prevalence of diabetes or DRCs. That finding is quite interesting in that managed care market penetration has been shown to have an effect on utilization of inpatient services. It may be that managed care protocols do not offer the same benefits beyond the inpatient setting.
PubMed | University of Washington, University of Pennsylvania, Northwestern University, Saint Lukes Health System and 11 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase I | Journal: Leukemia & lymphoma | Year: 2015
This phase 1/2 study was the first to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6-specific inhibitor palbociclib (PD-0332991) in sequential combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. The recommended phase 2 dose was palbociclib 100 mg orally once daily on days 1-12 of a 21-day cycle with bortezomib 1.0 mg/m2 (intravenous) and dexamethasone 20 mg (orally 30 min pre-bortezomib dosing) on days 8 and 11 (early G1 arrest) and days 15 and 18 (cell cycle resumed). Dose-limiting toxicities were primarily cytopenias; most other treatment-related adverse events were grade3. At a bortezomib dose lower than that in other combination therapy studies, antitumor activity was observed (phase 1). In phase 2, objective responses were achieved in 5 (20%) patients; 11 (44%) achieved stable disease. Biomarker and pharmacodynamic assessments demonstrated that palbociclib inhibited CDK4/6 and the cell cycle initially in most patients.
Martin B.I.,Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center |
Gerkovich M.M.,University of Missouri - Kansas City |
Deyo R.A.,Oregon Health And Science University |
Deyo R.A.,Kaiser Permanente |
And 5 more authors.
Medical Care | Year: 2012
BACKGROUND: Health care costs associated with use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by patients with spine problems have not been studied in a national sample. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the total and spine-specific medical expenditures among CAM and non-CAM users with spine problems. RESEARCH DESIGN: Analysis of the 2002-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. SUBJECTS: Adults (above 17 y) with self-reported neck and back problems who did or did not use CAM services. MEASURES: Survey-weighted generalized linear regression and propensity matching to examine expenditure differences between CAM users and non-CAM users while controlling for patient, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 12,036 respondents with spine problems were included, including 4306 (35.8%) CAM users (40.8% in weighted sample). CAM users had significantly better self-reported health, education, and comorbidity compared with non-CAM users. Adjusted annual medical costs among CAM users was $424 lower (95% confidence interval: $240, $609; P<0.001) for spine-related costs, and $796 lower (95% confidence interval: $121, $1470; P=0.021) for total health care cost than among non-CAM users. Average expenditure for CAM users, based on propensity matching, was $526 lower for spine-specific costs (P<0.001) and $298 lower for total health costs (P=0.403). Expenditure differences were primarily due to lower inpatient expenditures among CAM users. CONCLUSIONS: CAM users did not add to the overall medical spending in a nationally representative sample with neck and back problems. As the causal associations remain unclear in these cross-sectional data, future research exploring these cost differences might benefit from research designs that minimize confounding. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Musselman M.E.,Saint Lukes Health System |
Pettit R.S.,Indiana University |
Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012
Dyslipidemia is a growing concern causing significant morbidity and mortality. High cholesterol levels increase the risk of individuals developing heart disease, stroke, and other disease states. Dietary modification is the initial approach for treatment, but many patients require statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A reductase inhibitors) to reduce cardiovascular risk. Unfortunately, a number of patients cannot tolerate statins, leading to practitioners searching for alternative regimens. One alternative that has been extensively studied is red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus), a dietary supplement. In patients with dyslipidemia, red yeast rice was efficacious and safe for short-term use (<6 weeks). Red yeast rice has also been studied head to head with statins and was shown to be noninferior in reducing cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk. Because of the positive clinical effects seen in dyslipidemia, researchers have begun to study its use in other disease states. © SAGE Publications 2012.
PubMed | University of Kansas Medical Center, Childrens Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, University of Missouri - Kansas City, Saint Lukes Health System and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of behavioral medicine | Year: 2016
Between 30 and 50% of MS patients may prematurely discontinue disease modifying therapies. Little research has examined how to best talk with patients who have discontinued treatment against medical advice. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether telephone counseling increases disease modifying therapy (DMT) re-initiation among nonadherent patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants were eligible if they had relapsing-remitting disease, had stopped taking a DMT, and had no plan to re-initiate treatment despite a provider recommendation. Following a baseline assessment, 81 patients were randomly assigned to either five 20 min, weekly sessions of Motivational Interviewing/Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MI-CBT) or Treatment as Usual (TAU) with brief education. At 10 weeks, patients initially assigned to TAU switched over to MI-CBT. Compared to patients in the TAU group, patients undergoing MI-CBT were significantly more likely to indicate they were re-initiating DMT (41.7 vs. 14.3%). These significant results were replicated among patients crossing over from TAU to MI-CBT. Treatment satisfaction was high, with 97% of participants reporting that they would recommend MI-CBT to other patients with MS. Results of this pilot study provide initial support for the use of MI-CBT among MS patients who have discontinued treatment against medical advice.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01925690.
Ahmed A.H.,Saint Lukes Health System |
Ahmed A.H.,University of Missouri - Kansas City
Hospital Medicine Clinics | Year: 2014
Severe, moderate, and mild hospital-acquired anemia (HAA) is prevalent in the intensive care unit as well as on the wards. Patients who are anemic before admission are at risk of worsening anemia during hospitalization. Causes of HAA include blood draws, erythropoietin (EPO) suppression, and downregulation of iron. HAA recognition and treatment affect patient outcomes. Prevention and management of HAA demand a team approach and a culture that supports recognition and reduction of unnecessary laboratory testing and procedures. Pharmacologic treatment is evolving, and evidence-based use of intravenous iron and EPO may have a role in supporting erythropoiesis to help prevent transfusion. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Stroh G.,University of Kansas |
Rosell T.,University of Kansas Medical Center |
Dong F.,University of Kansas |
Forster J.,Saint Lukes Health System
American Journal of Transplantation | Year: 2015
Patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis may not survive to fulfill the standard 6 months of abstinence and counseling prior to transplantation. A prospective study demonstrated that early liver transplantation in such patients improved 2 year survival from 23% to 71% and only 3 of 26 patients returned to drinking after 1140 days; graft function was unaffected. Nonetheless, this treatment protocol may raise public concerns and affect organ donation rates. A total of 503 participants took a survey made available at an online crowdsourcing marketplace. The survey measured attitudes on liver transplantation generally and early transplantation for this patient population, in addition to measuring responses to nine vignettes describing fictional candidates. The majority of respondents (81.5%, n = 410) was at least neutral toward early transplantation for these patients; only a minority (26.3%) indicated that transplantation in any vignette would make them hesitant to donate their organs. Middle-aged patients with good social support and financial stability were viewed most favorably (p < 0.001). Age was considered the most important selection factor and financial stability the least important factor (each p < 0.001). Results indicate early transplantation for carefully selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis may not be as controversial to the public as previously thought. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
PubMed | University of Kansas, University of Kansas Medical Center and Saint Lukes Health System
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons | Year: 2015
Patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis may not survive to fulfill the standard 6 months of abstinence and counseling prior to transplantation. A prospective study demonstrated that early liver transplantation in such patients improved 2 year survival from 23% to 71% and only 3 of 26 patients returned to drinking after 1140 days; graft function was unaffected. Nonetheless, this treatment protocol may raise public concerns and affect organ donation rates. A total of 503 participants took a survey made available at an online crowdsourcing marketplace. The survey measured attitudes on liver transplantation generally and early transplantation for this patient population, in addition to measuring responses to nine vignettes describing fictional candidates. The majority of respondents (81.5%, n=410) was at least neutral toward early transplantation for these patients; only a minority (26.3%) indicated that transplantation in any vignette would make them hesitant to donate their organs. Middle-aged patients with good social support and financial stability were viewed most favorably (p<0.001). Age was considered the most important selection factor and financial stability the least important factor (each p<0.001). Results indicate early transplantation for carefully selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis may not be as controversial to the public as previously thought.
PubMed | University of Kansas Medical Center, The Center for Womens Health and Saint Lukes Health System
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Placenta | Year: 2015
Maternal T-cells reactive towards paternally inherited fetal minor histocompatibility antigens are expanded during pregnancy. Placental trophoblast cells express at least four fetal antigens, including human minor histocompatibility antigen 1 (HA-1). We investigated oxygen as a potential regulator of HA-1 and whether HA-1 expression is altered in preeclamptic placentas.Expression and regulation of HA-1 mRNA and protein were examined by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, using first, second, and third trimester placentas, first trimester placental explant cultures, and term purified cytotrophoblast cells. Low oxygen conditions were achieved by varying ambient oxygen, and were mimicked using cobalt chloride. HA-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated in preeclamptic and control placentas.HA-1 protein expression was higher in the syncytiotrophoblast of first trimester as compared to second trimester and term placentas (P<0.01). HA-1 mRNA was increased in cobalt chloride-treated placental explants and purified cytotrophoblast cells (P = 0.04 and P<0.01, respectively) and in purified cytotrophoblast cells cultured under 2% as compared to 8% and 21% oxygen (P<0.01). HA-1 mRNA expression in preeclamptic vs. control placentas was increased 3.3-fold (P = 0.015). HA-1 protein expression was increased in syncytial nuclear aggregates and the syncytiotrophoblast of preeclamptic vs. control placentas (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively).Placental HA-1 expression is regulated by oxygen and is increased in the syncytial nuclear aggregates and syncytiotrophoblast of preeclamptic as compared to control placentas. Increased HA-1 expression, combined with increased preeclamptic syncytiotrophoblast deportation, provides a novel potential mechanism for exposure of the maternal immune system to increased fetal antigenic load during preeclampsia.
Hansen K.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Johnson R.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Johnson R.E.,Saint Lukes Health System |
Chambers K.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
And 4 more authors.
JAMA Internal Medicine | Year: 2015
Importance: Experts debate optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels for musculoskeletal health. Objective: To compare the effects of placebo, low-dose cholecalciferol, and high-dose cholecalciferol on 1-year changes in total fractional calcium absorption, bone mineral density, Timed Up and Go and five sit-to-stand tests, and muscle mass in postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at a single center in Madison, Wisconsin, from May 1, 2010, through July 31, 2013, and the final visit was completed on August 8, 2014. A total of 230 postmenopausal women 75 years or younger with baseline 25(OH)D levels of 14 through 27 ng/mL and no osteoporosis were studied. Interventions: Three arms included daily white and twice monthly yellow placebo (n=76), daily 800 IU vitamin D3 and twice monthly yellow placebo (n=75), and daily white placebo and twice monthly 50,000 IU vitamin D3 (n=79). The high-dose vitamin D regimen achieved and maintained 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/mL. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcome measureswere 1-year change in total fractional calcium absorption using 2 stable isotopes, bone mineral density and muscle mass using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, Timed Up and Go and five sit-to-stand tests, functional status (Health Assessment Questionnaire), and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly), with Benjamini-Hochberg correction of P values to control for the false discovery rate. Results: After baseline absorption was controlled for, calcium absorption increased 1% (10 mg/d) in the high-dose arm but decreased 2%in the low-dose arm (P = .005 vs high-dose arm) and 1.3% in the placebo arm (P = .03 vs high-dose arm). We found no between-arm changes in spine, mean total-hip, mean femoral neck, or total-body bone mineral density, trabecular bone score, muscle mass, and Timed Up and Go or five sit-to-stand test scores. Likewise, we found no between-arm differences for numbers of falls, number of fallers, physical activity, or functional status. Conclusions and Relevance: High-dose cholecalciferol therapy increased calcium absorption, but the effect was small and did not translate into beneficial effects on bone mineral density, muscle function, muscle mass, or falls. We found no data to support experts' recommendations to maintain serum 25(OH)D levels of 30 ng/mL or higher in postmenopausal women. Instead, we found that low- and high-dose cholecalciferol were equivalent to placebo in their effects on bone and muscle outcomes in this cohort of postmenopausal women with 25(OH)D levels less than 30 ng/mL. Copyright © 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.