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St. Louis, MO, United States

Sari E.H.R.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Klompen H.,Ohio State University | Parker P.G.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Parker P.G.,Saint Louis Zoo WildCare Institute
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2013

Aim: To discover the origins of the lice, haemosporidian parasites and feather mites found on or in Galápagos flycatchers (Myiarchus magnirostris), by testing whether they colonized the islands with the ancestors of M. magnirostris or if they were acquired by M. magnirostris after its arrival in the Galápagos Islands. Location: The Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) and north-western Costa Rica. Methods: We collected lice, feather mites and blood samples from M. magnirostris on seven of the Galápagos Islands (n = 254), and from its continental sister species, M. tyrannulus, in Costa Rica (n = 74), and identified them to species level using traditional taxonomy and DNA sequencing. Results: The blood parasites from the two bird species were different: Plasmodium was found only in M. tyrannulus, while a few individuals of M. magnirostris were infected by Haemoproteus multipigmentatus from Galápagos doves (Zenaida galapagoensis). Myiarchus tyrannulus was parasitized by three louse species, two of which (Ricinus marginatus and Menacanthus distinctus) were also found on Myiarchus magnirostris. We also collected one louse specimen from M. magnirostris, which was identified as Brueelia interposita, a species commonly found on finches and yellow warblers from the Galápagos, but never recorded on M. tyrannulus. The richness of mite species was lower for M. magnirostris than for M. tyrannulus; all mite species or genera from M. magnirostris were also sampled on M. tyrannulus, but M. tyrannulus had two additional mite species. Main conclusions: Our results revealed that two of the louse and three of the mite species we found on M. magnirostris are likely to have come to the archipelago with these birds' colonizing ancestors, but that one louse and one haemosporidian species were acquired from the Galápagos bird community after the arrival of the M. magnirostris lineage. We also confirmed that, for closely related hosts, island mite richness was lower than on the continent. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Rivera-Parra J.L.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Rivera-Parra J.L.,National Polytechnic School of Ecuador | Levin I.I.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Parker P.G.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Parker P.G.,Saint Louis Zoo WildCare Institute
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2014

In this paper we describe the ectoparasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) found on 5 species of seabirds (magnificent frigatebird Fregata magnificens; great frigatebird Fregata minor; Nazca booby Sula granti; blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii; and red-footed booby Sula sula) on the Galapagos Archipelago. We found 9 species of ectoparasitic lice: 5 species of Pectinopygus ischnocerans, 1 infesting each host; 2 species of Colpocephalum amblyceran lice, 1 on each frigatebird species; and 2 shared amblycerans, Eidmanniella albescens (Piaget, 1880) found on Nazca and blue-footed boobies and Fregatiella aurifasciata (Kellogg, 1899) found on the 2 frigatebirds. We tested the relative importance and interactions of host sex, body size, host, island, host family, and breeding status and found that inter-island differences were the main predictors of prevalence and infestation intensity. These differences could be related to host density or weather, but further evidence is needed. © American Society of Parasitologists 2014. Source

Rivera-Parra J.L.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Rivera-Parra J.L.,National Polytechnic School of Ecuador | Levin I.I.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Levin I.I.,University of Colorado at Boulder | And 3 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2015

Parasites comprise a significant percentage of the biodiversity of the planet and are useful systems to test evolutionary and ecological hypotheses. In this study, we analyze the effect of host species identity and the immediate local species assemblage within mixed species colonies of nesting seabirds on patterns of genetic clustering within two species of multihost ectoparasitic lice. We use three genetic markers (one mitochondrial, COI, and two nuclear, EF1-α and wingless) and maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees to test whether (1) parasites show lineage sorting based on their host species; and (2) switching of lineages to the alternate host species depends on the immediate local species assemblage of individual hosts within a colony. Specifically, we examine the genetic structure of two louse species: Eidmanniella albescens, infecting both Nazca (Sula granti) and blue-footed boobies (Sula nebouxii), and Fregatiella aurifasciata, infecting both great (Fregata minor) and magnificent frigatebirds (Fregata magnificens). We found that host species identity was the only factor explaining the patterns of genetic structure in both parasites. In both cases, there is evident genetic differentiation depending on the host species. Thus, a revision of the taxonomy of these louse species is needed. One possible explanation of this pattern is extremely low louse migration rates between host species, perhaps influenced by fine-scale spatial separation of host species within mixed colonies, and low parasite infrapopulation numbers. © 2015 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Sari E.H.R.,University of Missouri | Parker P.G.,University of Missouri | Parker P.G.,Saint Louis Zoo WildCare Institute
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

The Galápagos archipelago has never been connected to any continental land masses, so it is of interest to know the colonization and diversification history of its endemic species. We analyzed the phylogenetic placement of the endemic Galápagos flycatcher, M. magnirostris, within Myiarchus by using the genes ND2 and cytb (1970. bp) to compare 16 of the 22 species that comprise this genus. We also analyzed variability in cytb sequences from 154 M. magnirostris individuals captured on seven Galápagos islands. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered the two main Myiarchus clades that had been described by previous genetic, morphological, and vocal analyses. M. magnirostris is monophyletic and its closest living relative is M. tyrannulus from Mexico and Central America. The average age for the split node between these two groups was approximately 850,000. years (95% C.I. 630,735-1,087,557). M. tyrannulus, M. nugator, M. nuttingi, M. sagrae, and M. stolidus are not monophyletic species. Within M. magnirostris itself, we found low nucleotide and haplotype diversities (π= 0.0009 and h= 0.4913, respectively) and a high genetic structure among populations. We also detected a star-shaped haplotype network and significantly negative values for Tajima's D and Fu's Fs for this species. Our results suggest that M. magnirostris originated from a single colonization event and had a recent population expansion in the Galápagos archipelago. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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