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(Caribbean Netherlands), Netherlands Antilles

Saint James School of Medicine is a private, for-profit medical school headquartered in Park Ridge, Illinois with basic science campuses in Kralendijk, Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands, British Overseas Territory of Anguilla and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Saint James confers upon its graduates the Doctor of Medicine degree. Wikipedia.

Bao S.,Saint James School of Medicine
Journal of Neurogenetics | Year: 2014

Differential adhesion provides a mechanical force to drive cells into stable configurations during the assembly of tissues and organs. This is well illustrated in the Drosophila eye where differential adhesion plays a role in sequential recruitment of all support cells. Cell adhesion, on the other hand, is linked to the cytoskeleton and subject to regulation by cell signaling. The integration of cell adhesion with the cytoskeleton and cell signaling may provide a more thorough explanation for the diversity of forms and shapes seen in tissues and organs. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Bao S.,Saint James School of Medicine
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

Sporadic evidence suggests Notch is involved in cell adhesion. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here I have investigated an epithelial remodeling process in the Drosophila eye in which two primary pigment cells (PPCs) with a characteristic 'kidney' shape enwrap and eventually isolate a group of cone cells from inter-ommatidial cells (IOCs). This paper shows that in the developing Drosophila eye the ligand Delta was transcribed in cone cells and Notch was activated in the adjacent PPC precursors. In the absence of Notch, emerging PPCs failed to enwrap cone cells, and hibris (hbs) and sns, two genes coding for adhesion molecules of the Nephrin group that mediate preferential adhesion, were not transcribed in PPC precursors. Conversely, activation of Notch in single IOCs led to ectopic expression of hbs and sns. By contrast, in a single IOC that normally transcribes rst, a gene coding for an adhesion molecule of the Neph1 group that binds Hbs and Sns, activation of Notch led to a loss of rst transcription. In addition, in a Notch mutant where two emerging PPCs failed to enwrap cone cells, expression of hbs in PPC precursors restored the ability of these cells to surround cone cells. Further, expression of hbs or rst in a single rst- or hbs-expressing cell, respectively, led to removal of the counterpart from the membrane within the same cell through cis-interaction and forced expression of Rst in all hbs-expressing PPCs strongly disrupted the remodeling process. Finally, a loss of both hbs and sns in single PPC precursors led to constriction of the apical surface that compromised the 'kidney' shape of PPCs. Taken together, these results indicate that cone cells utilize Notch signaling to instruct neighboring PPC precursors to surround them and Notch controls the remodeling process by differentially regulating four adhesion genes. © 2014 Sujin Bao. Source

Babokhov P.,University of Massachusetts Boston | Sanyaolu A.O.,Saint James School of Medicine | Oyibo W.A.,University of Lagos | Fagbenro-Beyioku A.F.,University of Lagos | Iriemenam N.C.,University of Lagos
Pathogens and Global Health | Year: 2013

Despite the recent advances in drug research, finding a safe, effective, and easy to use chemotherapy for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) remains a challenging task. The four current anti-trypanosomiasis drugs have major disadvantages that limit more widespread use of these drugs in the endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Pentamidine and suramin are limited by their effectiveness against the only first stage of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, respectively. In addition, melarsoprol and eflornithine (two second stage drugs) each have disadvantages of their own. The former is toxic and has increasing treatment failures while the latter is expensive, laborious to administer, and lacks efficacy against T. b. rhodesiense. Furthermore, melarsoprol's toxicity and decreasing efficacy are glaring problems and phasing out the drug as a frontline treatment against T. b. gambiense is now possible with the emergence of competent, safe combination chemotherapies such as nifurtimox-eflornithine combination treatment (NECT). The future of eflornithine, on the other hand, is more promising. The drug is useful in the context of combination chemotherapy and potential orally administered analogues. Due to the limits of monotherapies, greater emphasis should be placed on the research and development of combination chemotherapies, based on the successful clinical tests with NECT and its current use as a frontline anti-trypanosomiasis treatment. This review discussed the current and future chemotherapy strategies for the treatment of HAT. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2013. Source

Sharma S.,Saint James School of Medicine | Ebadi M.,University of North Dakota
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2014

Aging is an inevitable biological process, associated with gradual and spontaneous biochemical and physiological changes, and increased susceptibility to diseases. Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are hallmarks of aging. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, zinc-binding, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant proteins that provide neuroprotection in the aging brain through zinc-mediated transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition to Zn 2+ homeostasis, antioxidant role of MTs is routed through -SH moieties on cysteine residues. MTs are induced in aging brain as a defensive mechanism to attenuate oxidative and nitrative stress implicated in broadly classified neurodegenerative α-synucleinopathies. In addition, MTs as free radical scavengers inhibit Charnoly body (CB) formation to provide mitochondrial neuroprotection in the aging brain. In general, MT-1 and MT-2 induce cell growth and differentiation, whereas MT-3 is a growth inhibitory factor, which is reduced in Alzheimer's disease. MTs are down-regulated in homozygous weaver (wv/wv) mice exhibiting progressive neurodegeneration, early aging, morbidity, and mortality. These neurodegenerative changes are attenuated in MTs over-expressing wv/wv mice, suggesting the neuroprotective role of MTs in aging. This report provides recent knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of MTs in neurodegenerative disorders of aging such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Asumda F.Z.,Saint James School of Medicine
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

Adult stem cells are critical for organ-specific regeneration and self-renewal with advancing age. The prospect of being able to reverse tissue-specific post-injury sequelae by harvesting, culturing and transplanting a patient's own stem and progenitor cells is exciting. Mesenchymal stem cells have emerged as a reliable stem cell source for this treatment modality and are currently being tested in numerous ongoing clinical trials. Unfortunately, the fervor over mesenchymal stem cells is mitigated by several lines of evidence suggesting that their efficacy is limited by natural aging. This article discusses the mechanisms and manifestations of age-associated deficiencies in mesenchymal stem cell efficacy. A consideration of recent experimental findings suggests that the ecological niche might be responsible for mesenchymal stem cell aging. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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