Saint Bonaventure University

Saint Bonaventure, NY, United States

Saint Bonaventure University

Saint Bonaventure, NY, United States
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Privitera G.J.,Saint Bonaventure University | Agnello J.E.,Saint Bonaventure University | Walters S.A.,Saint Bonaventure University | Bender S.L.,University of Rochester
Journal of Attention Disorders | Year: 2015

Objective: An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that feedback about an ADHD diagnosis influences how a nonclinical sample scores on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) screener. Method: A total of 54 participants who scored below clinical significance on the ASRS in a pretest, that is, marked fewer than 4 of 6 items found to be most predictive of symptoms consistent with clinical diagnosis of adult ADHD, completed the assessment again 1 week later in a posttest with “negative,” “positive,” or no feedback written on the posttest to indicate how participants scored on the pretest. Results: In all, 8 of 10 participants who scored in the clinical significance range for ADHD in the posttest were those who received positive feedback. Scores for the positive feedback group increased most from pretest to posttest for inattentive domain items (R2 =.19). Conclusion: Patient beliefs prior to a diagnostic screening can influence ASRS self-report ratings. © 2012 SAGE Publications


PubMed | Saint Bonaventure University and University of Rochester
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of attention disorders | Year: 2015

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that feedback about an ADHD diagnosis influences how a nonclinical sample scores on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) screener.A total of 54 participants who scored below clinical significance on the ASRS in a pretest, that is, marked fewer than 4 of 6 items found to be most predictive of symptoms consistent with clinical diagnosis of adult ADHD, completed the assessment again 1 week later in a posttest with negative, positive, or no feedback written on the posttest to indicate how participants scored on the pretest.In all, 8 of 10 participants who scored in the clinical significance range for ADHD in the posttest were those who received positive feedback. Scores for the positive feedback group increased most from pretest to posttest for inattentive domain items (R(2) = .19).Patient beliefs prior to a diagnostic screening can influence ASRS self-report ratings.


Chadwick W.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Zhou Y.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Park S.-S.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Wang L.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Oxidative exposure of cells occurs naturally and may be associated with cellular damage and dysfunction. Protracted low level oxidative exposure can induce accumulated cell disruption, affecting multiple cellular functions. Accumulated oxidative exposure has also been proposed as one of the potential hallmarks of the physiological/pathophysiological aging process. We investigated the multifactorial effects of long-term minimal peroxide exposure upon SH-SY5Y neural cells to understand how they respond to the continued presence of oxidative stressors. We show that minimal protracted oxidative stresses induce complex molecular and physiological alterations in cell functionality. Upon chronic exposure to minimal doses of hydrogen peroxide, SH-SY5Y cells displayed a multifactorial response to the stressor. To fully appreciate the peroxide-mediated cellular effects, we assessed these adaptive effects at the genomic, proteomic and cellular signal processing level. Combined analyses of these multiple levels of investigation revealed a complex cellular adaptive response to the protracted peroxide exposure. This adaptive response involved changes in cytoskeletal structure, energy metabolic shifts towards glycolysis and selective alterations in transmembrane receptor activity. Our analyses of the global responses to chronic stressor exposure, at multiple biological levels, revealed a viable neural phenotype in-part reminiscent of aged or damaged neural tissue. Our paradigm indicates how cellular physiology can subtly change in different contexts and potentially aid the appreciation of stress response adaptations.


Zhang X.-N.,Saint Bonaventure University | Mo C.,Saint Bonaventure University | Garrett W.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Cooper B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2014

RNA splicing is crucial to the production of mature mRNAs (mRNA). In Arabidopsis thaliana, the protein Arginine/Serine-rich 45 (SR45) acts as an RNA splicing activator and initiates the spliceosome assembly. SR45 is alternatively spliced into 2 isoforms. Isoform 1 (SR45.1) plays an important role in the flower petal development whereas isoform 2 (SR45.2) is important for root growth. In this study, we used immunoprecipitation to isolate an SR45.1-GFP fusion protein from transgenic plants complementing a null mutant, sr45-1. Mass spectrometry suggested a single phosphorylation event in a peptide from the alternatively spliced region unique to SR45.1. Substituting alanine for threonine 218, a candidate site for phosphorylation, did not complement the sr45-1 mutant with narrow flower petals whereas substituting aspartic acid or glutamic acid for threonine 218 did complement the sr45-1 mutant. Mass spectrometry also revealed that other proteins involved in the spliceosome co-precipitated with SR45.1, and RT-qPCR revealed that phosphorylation of threonine 218 promotes the function of SR45.1 in promoting the constitutive splicing of SR30 mRNA. This is the first demonstration of a specific phosphorylation site that differentially regulates the function of a plant splicing activator in physiologically and morphologically distinct plant tissues. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.


Privitera G.J.,Saint Bonaventure University | Zavala A.R.,California State University, Long Beach | Sanabria F.,Arizona State University | Sotak K.L.,Saint Bonaventure University
Behavioral and Brain Functions | Year: 2011

Background: Brain regions that mediate learning of a conditioned place preference (CPP) undergo significant development in pre and periadolescence. Consuming a high fat (HF) diet during this developmental period and into adulthood can lead to learning impairments in rodents. The present study tested whether HF diet intake, consumed only in pre and periadolescence, would be sufficient to cause impairments using a CPP procedure.Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to consume a HF or a low fat (LF) diet during postnatal days (PD) 21-40 and were then placed back on a standard lab chow diet. A 20-day CPP procedure, using HF Cheetos®as the unconditioned stimulus (US), began either the next day (PD 41) or 40 days later (PD 81). A separate group of adult rats were given the HF diet for 20 days beginning on PD 61, and then immediately underwent the 20-day CPP procedure beginning on PD 81.Results: Pre and periadolescent exposure to a LF diet or adult exposure to a HF diet did not interfere with the development of a HF food-induced CPP, as these groups exhibited robust preferences for the HF Cheetos®food-paired compartment. However, pre and periadolescent exposure to the HF diet impaired the development of a HF food-induced CPP regardless of whether it was assessed immediately or 40 days after the exposure to the HF diet, and despite showing increased consumption of the HF Cheetos®in conditioning.Conclusions: Intake of a HF diet, consumed only in pre and periadolescence, has long-lasting effects on learning that persist into adulthood. © 2011 Privitera et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


McCannon B.C.,Saint Bonaventure University
International Game Theory Review | Year: 2011

The interaction between a sophisticated player and a fictitious player is analyzed and applied to the problem of optimal enforcement. An adaptive potential offender myopically responds to the history of past enforcement. How can a sophisticated enforcement official take advantage of this behavior? Will compliance with the law be attained? Conditions under which full compliance arises is derived and the optimal cycle of enforcing and not enforcing the law is presented. Welfare is shown to be greater than if the offender was sophisticated as well. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 594.29K | Year: 2014

The need to increase the number and quality of STEM graduates in the workforce both nationally and in New York State is well-documented. A 2010 state-level analysis study by the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce (http://cew.georgetown.edu/jobs2018/states) projects that by 2018 there will be a need to fill 359,000 STEM jobs in New York State. The Alliance for Science and Technology Research (ASTRA) projects that 68% of these STEM positions will require a bachelors degree or higher.
The Discovery Within Community (DWC) Program is St. Bonaventure University (SBU)s proposal to enhance the quality of STEM education and increase the number of STEM graduates either entering the workforce or STEM graduate programs. The DWC Steering Committee conducts a thorough applicant-review process to select 25 talented students (Fellows) with financial need in Biology, Chemistry, Computer Sciences, Mathematics and Physics programs. Effective recruitment processes and outreach are used to increase public awareness about STEM and encourage high school students to further their STEM education by applying to the university.

Built on SBUs already strong community structure, the elements of the DWC Program improve student learning in STEM by reinforcing classroom education via symposia involving interaction with STEM faculty and STEM business professionals and tutoring sessions (both receiving and giving) that foster retention of knowledge and research opportunities. STEM student support services are enhanced through the formation of an interdisciplinary cohort sharing a common residency and taking core courses together to improve academic performance and increase retention rates. To ensure that 90% of S-STEM fellows graduate in four years DWC promotes collaboration among STEM faculty and students. Interdisciplinary exploration which is fully supported by faculty mentors allows S-STEM fellows to engage in internships and professional conferences throughout all four years and have opportunities to present research results. Partnerships with STEM businesses are consolidated and extend beyond the grant period to continue to address the need for a highly qualified regional STEM workforce.

Evaluation metrics include appropriate increases in inquiries, applications, acceptances, and matriculations, with a goal of a 15% overall growth in enrollment in all STEM majors. Program-specific measures are used to gain objective feedback from fellows, their teachers and tutors and from employers on the number and quality of internships and jobs obtained. Feedback from mentors and fellows are used to evaluate and improve these relationships during the grant period. The completion of research projects, the number of conferences attended, presentations given, and articles published, along with feedback from business professionals are used to assess the quality of these components, with a goal that 90% of S-STEM fellows who graduate immediately secure employment with a STEM employer or enter a STEM graduate program.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: ADVANCES IN BIO INFORMATICS | Award Amount: 180.81K | Year: 2012

Collaborative grants have been awarded to the University of Maryland, the University of Iowa and St. Bonaventure University to develop a methodology that exploits the wealth of annotation knowledge, notably Gene Ontology (GO) and Plant Ontology (PO) annotations of Arabidopsis genes. Motivated by the availability of rich and as yet insufficiently tapped collections of gene annotations, the project aims to facilitate the discovery of hidden knowledge that could be the basis of further scientific research. The methodology will extract patterns of interest from annotation graphs (pattern discovery). Literature-based methods will extract sentences that validate the biological meaning underlying these patterns (pattern validation). To demonstrate the methodology, the PattArAn tool (Patterns in Arabidopsis Annotations) will be customized for Arabidopsis. PattArAn will provide the user with a graphical presentation of patterns of Arabidopsis genes and associated GO and PO CV terms. Graph data mining techniques and efficient algorithmic solutions to identify dense subgraphs (DSG) and to perform graph summarization (GS) will be developed. Algorithms to mine the literature for relevant sentences for an extracted pattern (referred to as the imprint) will be developed. PattArAn will enable iterative exploration and will incorporate allied steps such as consulting gene function prediction. The project will involve collaboration with biologists for building and refining annotation graphs, and validating patterns to ensure relevance to their research.

The project makes broad contributions to the Arabidopsis thaliana community. PattArAn may assist Arabidopsis curators to manage GO-PO annotations and complement existing tools such as Textpresso and AraNet. It can also be used to bootstrap an annotation database for other plant species given that their genome sequence information is available. The project offers significant research and educational experiences for graduate students (University of Maryland and Iowa) and undergraduate students (St. Bonaventure University). Team members will continue to mentor women and students from under-represented communities, participate in outreach activities, lead a Journal Club, etc. The outcomes from this research project will be disseminated via biology and bioinformatics venues. More information may be obtained at the project website: https://wiki.umiacs.umd.edu/clip/pattaran/.


PubMed | Saint Bonaventure University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2015

RNA splicing is crucial to the production of mature mRNAs (mRNA). In Arabidopsis thaliana, the protein Arginine/Serine-rich 45 (SR45) acts as an RNA splicing activator and initiates the spliceosome assembly. SR45 is alternatively spliced into 2 isoforms. Isoform 1 (SR45.1) plays an important role in the flower petal development whereas isoform 2 (SR45.2) is important for root growth. In this study, we used immunoprecipitation to isolate an SR45.1-GFP fusion protein from transgenic plants complementing a null mutant, sr45-1. Mass spectrometry suggested a single phosphorylation event in a peptide from the alternatively spliced region unique to SR45.1. Substituting alanine for threonine 218, a candidate site for phosphorylation, did not complement the sr45-1 mutant with narrow flower petals whereas substituting aspartic acid or glutamic acid for threonine 218 did complement the sr45-1 mutant. Mass spectrometry also revealed that other proteins involved in the spliceosome co-precipitated with SR45.1, and RT-qPCR revealed that phosphorylation of threonine 218 promotes the function of SR45.1 in promoting the constitutive splicing of SR30 mRNA. This is the first demonstration of a specific phosphorylation site that differentially regulates the function of a plant splicing activator in physiologically and morphologically distinct plant tissues.


PubMed | Pennsylvania State University and Saint Bonaventure University
Type: | Journal: Appetite | Year: 2016

In an environment with large portion sizes, allowing consumers more control over their portion selection could moderate the effects on energy intake. We tested whether having subjects choose a portion from several options influenced the amount selected or consumed when all portion sizes were systematically increased. In a crossover design, 24 women and 26 men ate lunch in the lab once a week for 3 weeks. At each meal, subjects chose a portion of macaroni and cheese from a set of 3 portion options and consumed it ad libitum. Across 3 conditions, portion sizes in the set were increased; the order of the conditions was counterbalanced across subjects. For women the portion sets by weight (g) were 300/375/450, 375/450/525, and 450/525/600; for men the portions were 33% larger. The results showed that increasing the size of available portions did not significantly affect the relative size selected; across all portion sets, subjects chose the smallest available portion at 59% of meals, the medium at 27%, and the largest at 15%. The size of portions offered did, however, influence meal intake (P<0.0001). Mean intake (SEM) was 16% greater when the largest set was offered (66134kcal) than when the medium and smallest sets were offered (both 56818kcal). These results suggest that portions are selected in relation to the other available options, and confirm the robust effect of portion size on intake. Although presenting a choice of portions can allow selection of smaller amounts, the sizes offered are a critical determinant of energy intake. Thus, the availability of choices could help to moderate intake if the portions offered are within an appropriate range for energy needs.

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