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Livingston, NJ, United States

Schiller D.S.,Saint Barnabas Medical Center
Current Fungal Infection Reports | Year: 2010

Pulmonary infections caused by Aspergillus species are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Although the treatment of pulmonary fungal infections requires the use of systemic agents, aerosolized delivery is an attractive option in prevention because the drug can concentrate locally at the site of infection with minimal systemic exposure. Current clinical evidence for the use of aerosolized delivery in preventing fungal infections is limited to amphotericin B products, although itraconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin are under investigation. Based on conflicting results from clinical trials that evaluated various amphotericin B formulations, the routine use of aerosolized delivery cannot be recommended. Further research with well-designed clinical trials is necessary to elucidate the therapeutic role and risks associated with aerosolized delivery of antifungal agents. This article provides an overview of aerosolized delivery systems, the intrapulmonary pharmacokinetic properties of aerosolized antifungal agents, and key findings from clinical studies. © 2010 The Author(s).

Stephenson R.D.,Saint Barnabas Medical Center | Denehy T.R.,Gynecologic Cancer and Pelvic Surgery LLC
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VIN 3)/vulvar carcinoma in situ is currently treated by surgical excision, laser ablation, or topically with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. The rate of progression of untreated VIN 3/vulvar carcinoma in situ to invasive cancer is significant, although difficult to assess, because most patients undergo treatment. The peak incidence of invasive carcinoma of the vulva occurs in the sixth decade, which may indicate that human papillomavirus (HPV)-related preinvasive disease in the younger population has a lower progression rate. However, the risk of invasive disease cannot be disregarded. METHODS: This is a case series of complete spontaneous resolution of untreated VIN 3/vulvar carcinoma in situ in 5 healthy women aged 20 to 36 years from a single community gynecologic oncologist practice from 2006 to 2010. RESULTS: Complete spontaneous regression of acute VIN 3/vulvar carcinoma in situ was reported in 6 healthy young women aged 20 to 36 years. New sexual partners were reported in 2 of the 6 patients preceding the onset of vulvar lesions within 6 months. All patients were nonsmokers, healthy without known immunocompromise, and noted the acute onset of vulvar lesions. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 3/vulvar carcinoma in situ was diagnosed on biopsy and confirmed on independent review. All lesions were multifocal in nature. Time to spontaneous regression was 6, 6, 8, 12, 18, and 20 weeks after initial biopsy. No patient received the HPV vaccine. Recurrence has not been noted in any of the patients within the follow-up period of 6 to 60 months. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term follow-up with conservative management of acute-onset VIN 3/vulvar carcinoma in situ in this young patient population correlates with similar treatment strategies for HPV-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix and may prevent disfigurement, pain, and complications associated with the current recommended therapeutic modalities. The timing of intervention for VIN 3/vulvar carcinoma in situ in the young population needs clarification. Future studies are in order. © 2012 The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology.

Rosenberg H.,Saint Barnabas Medical Center | Pollock N.,Palmerston North Hospital | Schiemann A.,Massey University | Bulger T.,Palmerston North Hospital | Stowell K.,Massey University
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2015

Abstract Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stressors such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:10,000 to 1: 250,000 anesthetics. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 400 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs and horses. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, hyperkalaemia, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. An increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide despite increased minute ventilation provides an early diagnostic clue. In humans the syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs it is autosomal recessive. Uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation leads to the pathophysiologic changes. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 400 variants have been identified in the RYR1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 34 are causal for MH. Less than 1 % of variants have been found in CACNA1S but not all of these are causal. Diagnostic testing involves the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and in some centres ryanodine and 4-chloro-m-cresol. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction of DNA testing for susceptibility to MH. Dantrolene sodium is a specific antagonist and should be available wherever general anesthesia is administered. Increased understanding of the clinical manifestation and pathophysiology of the syndrome, has lead to the mortality decreasing from 80 % thirty years ago to <5 % in 2006. © 2015 Rosenberg et al.

Sakpal S.V.,Saint Barnabas Medical Center | Bindra S.S.,Rutgers University | Chamberlain R.S.,St. Georges University
Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons | Year: 2011

Background and Objectives: Now nearly 2 decades into the laparoscopic era, nationwide laparoscopic cholecystectomy conversion rates remain around 5% to 10%. We analyzed patient- and surgeon-specific factors that may impact the decision to convert to open. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 2205 LCs performed at a large tertiary community hospital over a 52- month period (May 2004 through October 2008). Results: The overall conversion rate was 4.9%. The most common reason for conversion was adhesions, and the majority of these patients had prior abdominal surgery. Males and patients >50 years old had a significantly higher likelihood of open conversion. The conversion rate of high-volume surgeons (≥100 total cases) in comparison to low-volume surgeons (40 to 99 total cases) was significantly lower. Conversion rates were lower among surgeons with fellowship training and those who completed residency training after 1990. Interestingly, the percentage of conversions due to technical difficulty was lower among those with fellowship training but higher among those who completed training after 1990. Conclusion: Conversion occurred in ~5% of all laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Males, patients >50 years old, and cases performed by low-volume surgeons had a higher likelihood of conversion. Other surgeon-specific factors did not have a significant impact on conversion rate. © 2010 by JSLS, Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons.

Dexter F.,University of Iowa | Epstein R.H.,Jefferson Medical College | Wachtel R.E.,University of Iowa | Rosenberg H.,Saint Barnabas Medical Center
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND:: Facilities with volatile anesthetic agents stock dantrolene for the treatment of malignant hyperthermia (MH). The availability of dantrolene at these facilities satisfies cost-utility norms even for sites with as few as 1 anesthetic per workday, based on the overall incidence of MH per anesthetic. We considered the stocking of dantrolene at facilities with succinylcholine alone (i.e., where volatile anesthetics are not available), by using registry data and estimates of the frequency of administration of succinylcholine during anesthesia. We determine the magnitude of the relative risk of the administration of succinylcholine for triggering MH. METHODS:: The relative risk of triggering MH by succinylcholine versus volatile agents was calculated using data from 2 sources. The ratio of the number of cases of MH among patients receiving succinylcholine to number among patients not receiving succinylcholine was estimated from the previously published cohort of 284 cases of MH from the North American MH Registry of the MH Association of the United States (MHAUS). The percentage of anesthetics with succinylcholine was estimated using anesthesia information management system data from a typical North American hospital comprising tertiary operating rooms, obstetrics unit, ambulatory surgical center, and endoscopy and radiological suites. RESULTS:: The relative risk of MH with versus without succinylcholine was 19.6 (lower 95% confidence limit > 16.1). Limiting to cases with volatile anesthetics, the relative risk was 9.1 (>7.5). Both relative risks exceed 1.0 (P < 0.0001). Because more than half of the reported cases of MH included the use of succinylcholine, the relative risk exceeded 1.0 provided fewer than half of anesthetics in North America included the use of succinylcholine. The incidences of succinylcholine use at the hospital were 5.8% and 11.6% for all anesthetics and for anesthetics with volatile agents, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:: Our results provide no insight into the triggering mechanism for MH (i.e., succinylcholine could in isolation have an extremely low incidence of inducing MH, yet markedly increase the risk when administered in combination with volatile anesthetics). Until more epidemiologic data are collected and analyzed, having dantrolene available, where succinylcholine may be used, is reasonable, and this practice should be maintained. Copyright © 2012 International Anesthesia Research Society.

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