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Gothenburg, Sweden

Taskinen M.-R.,University of Helsinki | Boren J.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2015

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes, despite recent significant advances in management strategies to lessen CVD risk factors. A major cause is the atherogenic dyslipidemia, which consists of elevated plasma concentrations of both fasting and postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The different components of diabetic dyslipidemia are not isolated abnormalities but closely linked to each other metabolically. The underlying disturbances are hepatic overproduction and delayed clearance of TRLs. Recent results have unequivocally shown that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants are atherogenic. To develop novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of dyslipidaemia, it is essential to understand the pathophysiology of dyslipoproteinaemia in humans. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetic dyslipidemia. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Ben-Menachem E.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital
Epilepsia | Year: 2014

The ultimate treatment goal in epilepsy therapy is always freedom from seizures with as few treatment adverse effects as possible. If seizures persist with the first monotherapy, alternative monotherapy with another antiepileptic drug (AED) should be considered. Continuing seizures should lead to a reevaluation of differential diagnosis and adherence. Epilepsy surgery as an alternative therapy may be suitable in selected cases. If the diagnosis of epilepsy is established and epilepsy surgery is not appropriate, AED treatment should be optimized. Evidence for how to proceed is lacking. Concepts such as rational polytherapy have been advocated but remain speculative concerning better efficacy based on the use of AEDs with differing modes of action. A variety of new AEDs including rufinamide, lacosamide, vigabatrin, perampanel, and retigabine have been recently introduced in the United States. They are briefly characterized in this update review. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy. Source

Tsikandylakis G.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital
Clinical orthopaedics and related research | Year: 2014

Osseointegrated percutaneous implants provide direct anchorage of the limb prosthesis to the residual limb. These implants have been used for the rehabilitation of transhumeral amputees in Sweden since 1995 using a two-stage surgical approach with a 6-month interval between the stages, but results on implant survival, adverse events, and radiologic signs of osseointegration and adaptive bone remodeling in transhumeral amputees treated with this method are still lacking. This study reports on 2- and 5-year implant survival, adverse events, and radiologic signs of osseointegration and bone remodeling in transhumeral amputees treated with osseointegrated prostheses. Between 1995 and 2010, we performed 18 primary osseointegrated percutaneous implants and two implant revisions in 18 transhumeral amputees; of those, 16 patients were available for followup at a minimum of 2 years (median, 8 years; range, 2-19 years). These include all transhumeral amputees who have received osseointegrated prostheses and represented approximately 20% of the all transhumeral amputees we evaluated for potential osseointegration during that time; general indications for this approach included transhumeral amputation resulting from trauma or tumor, inability to wear or severe problems wearing a conventional socket prosthesis, eg, very short residual limb, and compliant patients. Medical charts and plain radiographs were retrospectively evaluated. The 2- and 5-year implant survival rates were 83% and 80%, respectively. Two primary and one revised implant failed and were removed because of early loosening. A fourth implant was partially removed because of ipsilateral shoulder osteoarthritis and subsequent arthrodesis. The most common adverse event was superficial infection of the skin penetration site (15 infections in five patients) followed by skin reactions of the skin penetration site (eight), incomplete fracture at the first surgery (eight), defective bony canal at the second surgery (three), avascular skin flap necrosis (three), and one deep implant infection. The most common radiologic finding was proximal trabecular buttressing (10 of 20 implants) followed by endosteal bone resorption and cancellization (seven of 20), cortical thinning (five of 20), and distal bone resorption (three of 20). The implant system presented a survivorship of 83% at 5 years and a 38% 5-year incidence of infectious complications related to the skin penetration site that were easily managed with nonoperative treatment, which make it a potentially attractive alternative to conventional socket arm prostheses. Osseointegrated arm prostheses have so far only been used in transhumeral amputations resulting from either trauma or tumor. Their use has not been tested and is therefore not recommended in transhumeral amputations resulting from vascular disease. This method could theoretically be superior to socket prostheses, especially in transhumeral amputees with very short residual humerus in which the suspension of a conventional prosthesis is difficult. Comparative studies are needed to support its potential superiority. Moreover, the radiological findings in this study need to be followed over time because some of them are of uncertain long-term clinical relevance. Source

The Nordic Myeloma Study Group conducted an open randomized trial to compare bortezomib as consolidation therapy given after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with no consolidation in bortezomib-naive patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Overall, 370 patients were centrally randomly assigned 3 months after ASCT to receive 20 doses of bortezomib given during 21 weeks or no consolidation. The hypothesis was that consolidation therapy would prolong progression-free survival (PFS). The PFS after randomization was 27 months for the bortezomib group compared with 20 months for the control group (P = .05). Fifty-one of 90 patients in the treatment group compared with 32 of 90 controls improved their response after randomization (P = .007). No difference in overall survival was seen. Fatigue was reported more commonly by the bortezomib-treated patients in self-reported quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaires, whereas no other major differences in QOL were recorded between the groups. Consolidation therapy seemed to be beneficial for patients not achieving at least a very good partial response (VGPR) but not for patients in the ≥ VGPR category at randomization. Consolidation with bortezomib after ASCT in bortezomib-naive patients improves PFS without interfering with QOL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00417911. Source

Andersson J.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital
The British journal of surgery | Year: 2013

Previous studies comparing laparoscopic and open surgical techniques have reported improved health-related quality of life (HRQL). This analysis compared HRQL 12 months after laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer in a subset of a randomized trial. The setting was a multicentre randomized trial (COLOR II) comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer. Involvement in the HRQL study of COLOR II was optional. Patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38, and EuroQol - 5D (EQ-5D™) before surgery, and 4 weeks, 6, 12 and 24 months after operation. Analysis was done according to the manual for each instrument. Of 617 patients in hospitals participating in the HRQL study of COLOR II, 385 were included. The HRQL deteriorated to moderate/severe degrees after surgery, gradually returning to preoperative values over time. Changes in EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38, and EQ-5D™ were not significantly different between the groups regarding global health score or any of the dimensions or symptoms at 4 weeks, 6 or 12 months after surgery. In contrast to previous studies in patients with colonic cancer, HRQL after rectal cancer surgery was not affected by surgical approach. Registration number: NCT0029779 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). © 2013 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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