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Chuang T.-W.,University of Michigan | Chuang T.-W.,South Dakota State University | Knepper R.G.,Saginaw County Mosquito Abatement Commission | Stanuszek W.W.,Saginaw County Mosquito Abatement Commission | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2011

The dynamics of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) infection in mosquitoes, sentinel pheasants, and wild dead birds were evaluated during 20032006 in Saginaw Co., MI. Mosquitoes were collected by New Jersey Light Traps at 22 sites during MaySeptember, pooled by species and sample location, and tested for presence of WNV RNA by using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Oral swabs from wild dead birds submitted by the public were tested by Vec-Test assay. Sentinel pheasants were bled weekly, and serum was tested for antibodies with an inhibition enzyme immunoassay. In total, 37,225 mosquitoes [Aedes vexans (Meigen), Culex pipiens L., and Culex restuans Theobald] were tested in 5,429 pools, of which 59 (1.1%) were positive. Ae. vexans was most abundant but had a comparatively low infection rate (0.06-2.11) compared with Cx. pipiens (1.75-4.59) and Cx. restuans (1.22-15.67). Mosquito abundances were temporally related to variations in 2-wk average weather variables. Infected dead crows appeared earlier each transmission season than blue jays, but infection prevalence for both peaked approximately mid-August. Space-time clusters were found in different locations each year. Sentinel pheasant seroprevalence was 19.3% (16/83), 12.7% (10/79), and 7.7% (5/65) during 20032005, respectively. We demonstrated temporal patterns of WNV activity in corvid birds and Culex spp. mosquitoes during the study period, suggesting virus transmission within an enzootic cycle. Despite the absence of human case reports nearby, this surveillance system demonstrated WNV transmission and possible human risk. Maintained surveillance using more appropriate gravid traps and CDC CO 2 light traps could improve sensitivity of vector collection and virus detection. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.


Chuang T.-W.,University of Michigan | Chuang T.-W.,South Dakota State University | Ionides E.L.,University of Michigan | Ionides E.L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2012

Weather is important determinant of mosquito abundance that, in turn, influences vectorborne disease dynamics. In temperate regions, transmission generally is seasonal as mosquito abundance and behavior varies with temperature, precipitation, and other meteorological factors. We investigated how such factors affected species-specific mosquito abundance patterns in Saginaw County, MI, during a 17-yr period. Systematic sampling was undertaken at 22 trapping sites from May to September, during 1989-2005, for 19,228 trap-nights and 300,770 mosquitoes in total. Aedes vexans (Meigen), Culex pipiens L. and Culex restuans Theobald, the most abundant species, were analyzed. Weather data included local daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, total precipitation, and average relative humidity. In addition to standard statistical methods, cross-correlation mapping was used to evaluate temporal associations with various lag periods between weather variables and species-specific mosquito abundances. Overall, the average number of mosquitoes was 4.90 per trap-night for Ae. vexans, 2.12 for Cx. pipiens, and 1.23 for Cx. restuans. Statistical analysis of the considerable temporal variability in species-specific abundances indicated that precipitation and relative humidity 1 wk prior were significantly positively associated with Ae. vexans, whereas elevated maximum temperature had a negative effect during summer. Cx. pipiens abundance was positively influenced by the preceding minimum temperature in the early season but negatively associated with precipitation during summer and with maximum temperature in July and August. Cx. restuans showed the least weather association, with only relative humidity 2-24 d prior being linked positively during late springearly summer. The recently developed analytical method applied in this study could enhance our understanding of the influences of weather variability on mosquito population dynamics. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.


Kaufman M.G.,Michigan State University | Stanuszek W.W.,Saginaw County Mosquito Abatement Commission | Brouhard E.A.,Michigan State University | Knepper R.G.,Saginaw County Mosquito Abatement Commission | Walker E.D.,Michigan State University
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2012

Oviposition dynamics and colonization of container habitats by the invasive species, Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) were examined through the use of ovistrips placed in buckets, and larval surveys of tree holes and tires at sites in central Michigan. In general, oviposition and colonization increased during the study periods, with several sites showing large increases from <10% Ae. j. japonicus initially to over 60% in the following years. Seasonally, higher proportions of Ae. j. japonicus were found in spring and fall collection periods. Ae. j. japonicus larvae co-occurred in the artificial containers with Ae. triseriatus, Ae. hendersoni, several Culex spp., and Anopheles spp. Recent surveys of tire and tree hole habitats at our study areas in mid-Michigan revealed that Ae. j. japonicus had colonized most of these habitats, but maintained relatively low populations in tree holes occupied by Ae. triseriatus. Trends seen in tires from 2008 to 2011, and from gravid trap and New Jersey light traps in 2005-2011, suggest that Ae. j. japonicus populations are stabilizing as they integrate into native Michigan mosquito communities. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

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