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Aono A.,Kagoshima University | Nagatomo H.,Kagoshima University | Nagatomo H.,Hokkaido University | Takuma T.,Saga Prefectural Livestock Experiment Station | And 11 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2013

The objective was to determine if immature bovine oocytes with cumulus cells at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage could be vitrified by aluminum sheets (AS; pieces of sheet-like aluminum foil). Cleavage rates in fertilized oocytes previously vitrified by the AS procedure were higher than those vitrified by a nylon-mesh holder (NM) procedure (89.3 ± 2.1% vs. 65.0 ± 3.7%). Cleaved embryos derived from the AS but not from the NM procedures developed to blastocysts. Furthermore, to investigate the effects of vitrifying GV oocytes on cytoplasmic structure and on the ability to undergo cytoplasmic changes, the intracellular phospholipid membrane (IM) was stained with the lipophilic fluorescent dye, 3,3'-dioctadecyloxa-carbocyanine perchlorate. After vitrification by AS, the IM remained intact relative to that of oocytes vitrified by NM. During in vitro maturation, reorganization of the IM was also undamaged in oocytes vitrified by AS before oocyte maturation, and the IM within oocytes vitrified by the NM procedure was evidently impaired. Finally, vitrification (AS) was used for GV oocytes collected using the ovum pick-up method. A bull calf was born after in vitro production and subsequent embryo transfer. The vitrification techniques described herein should facilitate generation of viable in vitro production bovine blastocysts using oocytes recovered using the ovum pick-up method. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Yamagishi T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Takeuchi M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Wakiya Y.,Saga Prefectural Livestock Experiment Station | Waki M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a novel biological nitrogen removal process that oxidizes NH4 + to N2 with NO2 - as an electron acceptor. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential activity and characteristics of anammox in a conventional swine wastewater treatment facility, which uses an activated sludge system consisting of three cascade aeration tanks equipped with ceramic support material. Anammox activity was estimated by a 15N tracer assay method and was detected in all the sludge and biofilm samples in each aeration tank. Biofilm taken from the third aeration tank, in which the dissolved oxygen concentration was 7.5 mg/L and the wastewater included a high concentration of NO3 -, showed by far the highest anammox activity. A clone library analysis showed the existence of anammox bacteria closely related to 'Candidatus Jettenia asiatica' and 'Ca. Brocadia caroliniensis'. The optimum conditions for anammox activity were a pH of 6.7-7.2, a temperature of 35°C, a NO2 - concentration of 10 mmol/L or less, and an NH 4 + concentration of 32 mmol/L or less. © IWA Publishing 2013.

Nagatomo H.,Hokkaido University | Akizawa H.,Hokkaido University | Sada A.,Hokkaido University | Kishi Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | And 9 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2015

There has been no work on spatiotemporal transcriptomic differences of blastocysts using in vivo- and in vitro-derived, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Here, effirst compared the lineage-differentially transcriptomic profiles of in vivo- and in vitroderived embryos by microarray analysis using divided into inner cell mass (ICM)-and trophectoderm (TE)-side samples, as well as those derived from SCNT in order to explore lineage-differentially expressed genes that are associated with preimplantation development in cattle. The transcriptomic profiles of the ICM-specific and TE-specific genes were similar between in vitro-derived embryos and in vivo-derived embryos, whereas SCNT embryos exhibited unusual lineage-differentially gene expression regulation at the blastocyst stage. The genes expressed in a spatiotemporal manner between developmentally normal in-vivo derived blastocysts and developmentally abnormal SCNT blastocysts might play critical roles for preimplantation development. Comparing spatial expression dynamics of bovine blastocyst under three different procedures revealed that CIITA was expressed in ICM-side samples of all the embryo types. CIITA is known as the master regulator of major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) class II genes that express in antigen-presenting cells but its biological function in preimplantation embryo is still unknown in mammals. Knockdown of CIITA expression in in vitro-derived embryos did not affect cleavage, but disrupted development of embryos into the blastocyst stage. These findings provide the novel transcriptomic information on blastocyst formation, raising the possibility that immune function-related gene directly plays important roles in bovine preimplantation development. © 2015, Hokkaido University. All rights reserved.

Yamashita T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Yamamoto-Ikemoto R.,Kanazawa University | Yokoyama H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Kawahara H.,Saga Prefectural Livestock Experiment Station | And 2 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2015

Mitigation of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from swine wastewater treatment was demonstrated in an aerobic bioreactor packed with carbon fibers (CF reactor). The CF reactor had a demonstrated advantage in mitigating N2O emission and avoiding NOx (NO3+NO2) accumulation. The N2O emission factor was 0.0003g N2O-N/gTN-load in the CF bioreactor compared to 0.03gN2O-N/gTN-load in an activated sludge reactor (AS reactor). N2O and CH4 emissions from the CF reactor were 42g-CO2 eq/m3/day, while those from the AS reactor were 725g-CO2 eq/m3/day. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the CF reactor removed an average of 156mg/L of the NH4-N, and accumulated an average of 14mg/L of the NO3-N. In contrast, the DIN in the AS reactor removed an average 144mg/L of the NH4-N and accumulated an average 183mg/L of the NO3-N. NO2-N was almost undetectable in both reactors. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Suzuki K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Waki M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Yasuda T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Fukumoto Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 5 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Changes in swine wastewater chemical features during an activated sludge treatment process were surveyed on 11 farms, and analyzed with non-biodegradable elements, i.e., phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). In piggery wastewater, they were linearly correlated with suspended solid (SS) concentrations and the major portion was in solid fractions. After the pretreatment step, they were removed, with 80% for total P, 85% for total Cu, and 84% for total Zn. After the activated sludge process, total P, Cu, and Zn were then removed at 83%, 96%, and 95%, respectively. Removing SS thoroughly at each step was shown to be the most important factor in preventing outflow of these elements, since there are linear correlations or a positive relationship between the removal of SS concentrations and their removal in solid form. Most of the P, Cu, and Zn in activated sludge effluent was in soluble form, and the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the effluent were low enough, while further P removal might be required. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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