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Hara M.,Saga University | Fukuoka M.,Saga Ken Medical Center Koseikan | Tashiro K.,Saga University | Ozaki I.,Saga University | And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Recent studies worldwide have reported increasing numbers of adults diagnosed with Bordetella pertussis despite receiving childhood vaccinations. This study describes a pertussis outbreak at a university medical faculty campus and examines the effectiveness of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccination completed during infancy in Japan. Methods: After the outbreak, self-administered questionnaires and serum samples were collected from students on campus to determine the incidence of pertussis and underlying diseases. Pertussis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical criteria and serum anti-pertussis toxin antibody levels. Using data collected from 248 first and second grade students who had submitted copies of their vaccination records, we evaluated the effectiveness of DTaP vaccination in infancy against adult pertussis. Results: Questionnaire responses were obtained from 636 students (of 671 registered students; 95% response rate). Of 245 students who reported a continuous cough during the outbreak period, 84 (attack rate: 13.2%) were considered "probable" pertussis cases that met clinical criteria. The outbreak occurred mainly in first and second grade students in the Faculty of Medicine. Of 248 students who provided vaccination records, 225 had received 4 DTaP doses (coverage: 90.7%); the relative risk of the complete vaccination series compared to those with fewer than 4 doses or no doses for probable cases was 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.24-0.97). Conclusions: Waning protection was suspected due to over time. Booster vaccination for teenagers and development of highly efficacious pertussis vaccines are needed. © 2015 Hara et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Tanaka N.,Kyushu University | Tanaka N.,Health Science University | Morishita J.,Kyushu University | Tsuda N.,Kyushu University | And 2 more authors.
Radiological Physics and Technology | Year: 2013

We investigated the effect of the readout direction of the edge profile obtained by the edge method on the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) in various computed radiographic (CR) systems. There were no differences in the MTFs derived from two edge profiles in the sub-scanning direction of four CR systems used in this study. On the other hand, the MTFs measured at a readout direction from the low (edge) to the high (direct exposure) exposure region were higher than those measured at a readout direction from the high to the low exposure region in the laser-beam scanning direction for three of the four CR systems. Although this phenomenon depends on the CR system, it is important to understand and indicate both MTFs at the two edge profiles in the laser-beam scanning direction for accurate assessment of the resolution property. © 2013 Japanese Society of Radiological Technology and Japan Society of Medical Physics. Source


Irie F.,Kyushu University | Kamouchi M.,Kyushu University | Hata J.,Kyushu University | Matsuo R.,Kyushu University | And 23 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - : Variable sex differences in clinical outcomes after stroke have been reported worldwide. This study aimed to elucidate whether sex is an independent risk factor of poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke. METHODS - : Using the database of patients with acute stroke registered in the Fukuoka Stroke Registry in Japan from 1999 to 2013, 6236 previously independent patients with first-ever ischemic stroke who were admitted within 24 hours of onset were included in this study. Baseline characteristics were assessed on admission. Study outcomes included neurological improvement, neurological deterioration, and poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, 3-6 at discharge). Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between sex and clinical outcomes. RESULTS - : Overall, 2398 patients (38.5%) were women. Severe stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, ≥8) on admission was more prevalent in women than in men. The frequency of neurological improvement or deterioration during hospitalization was not different between the sexes. After adjusting for possible confounders, including age, stroke subtype and severity, risk factors, and poststroke treatments, it was found that female sex was independently associated with poor functional outcome at discharge (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.57). There was heterogeneity of the association between sex and poor outcome according to age: women had higher risk of poor outcome than men among patients aged ≥70 years, but no clear sex difference was found in patients aged <70 years. CONCLUSIONS - : Female sex was associated with the risk of poor functional outcome at discharge after acute ischemic stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Noguchi N.,Saga University | Inoue S.,Saga University | Shimanoe C.,Saga University | Shibayama K.,Saga Ken Medical Center Koseikan | Shinchi K.,Saga University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background Although nurses play an important role in humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HA/DR), little is known about the nursing activities that are performed in HA/DR. We aimed to clarify the nursing activities performed by Japanese nurses in HA/DR and to examine the factors associated with the frequency of nursing activities. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by 147 nurses with HA/DR experience. The survey extracted information on demographic characteristics, past experience (e.g., disaster medical training experience, HA/DR experience), circumstances surrounding their dispatched to HA/DR (e.g., team size, disaster type, post-disaster phase, mission term), and the frequency of nursing activities performed under HA/DR. The frequency of nursing activities was rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Evaluation of nursing activities was conducted based on the "nursing activity score", which represents the frequency of each nursing activity. Factors related to the nursing activity score were evaluated bymultiple logistic regression analysis. Results Nurses were involved in 27 nursing activities in HA/DR, 10 of which were performed frequently. On analysis, factors significantly associated with nursing activity score were nursing license as a registered nurse (OR 7.79, 95% CI 2.95-20.57), two or more experiences with disaster medical training (OR 2.90 95%, CI 1.12-7.49) and a post-disaster phase of three weeks or longer (OR 8.77, 95% CI 2.59-29.67). Conclusions These results will contribute to the design of evidence-based disaster medical training that improves the quality of nursing activities. © 2016 Noguchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Fukuda M.,Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute | Fukuda M.,Chiba University | Takatori A.,Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute | Nakamura Y.,Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2016

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) are involved in neuronal survival, maintenance, differentiation and synaptic plasticity. Deficiency of BDNF was reported to be associated with psychological disorders such as depression. Hence we examined proliferative effect of 11 candidate TrkB agonistic compounds in TrkB-expressing SH-SY5Y cells, via a hypothesis that some candidate compounds identified in our previous in silico screening for a small molecule targeting the BDNF binding domain of TrkB should activate TrkB signaling. In the present study, two promising compounds, 48 and 56, were identified and subsequently assessed for their ability to induce TrkB phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Likewise those seen in BDNF, the compounds mediated TrkB phosphorylation was blocked by the Trk inhibitor, K252a. Since BDNF-TrkB signaling deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of depression and reactivation of this signaling by antidepressants is a cause of the pathogenic state recovery, the compounds were subjected to the assessment for forced swim test, which is a mouse model of depression. We found that compound 48 significantly reduced mouse immobility time compared with the control vehicle injection, suggesting the confirmation of hypothetical antidepressant-like efficacy of 48 compound in vivo. Thus, our present study demonstrated that compound 48, selected through in silico screening, is a novel activator of TrkB signaling and a potential antidepressant molecule. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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