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Muri, Switzerland

Schuppers M.E.,SAFOSO | Rosenberg G.,University of Bern | Graf R.,University of Bern | Eidam V.,University of Bern | And 4 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2010

Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonotic disease caused by the nematode Trichinella spp. Many omnivorous and carnivorous animal species can act as host for this parasite, including domestic pigs. To protect public health, it should be ensured that pork should not contain infective Trichinella larvae. Surveillance for Trichinella spp. can be done using direct (larval detection) and indirect (antibody detection) diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the absence of infection in Swiss domestic pigs. An ELISA was used as the initial screening test, and sera reacting in ELISA were further investigated using both a Western blot for serology and an artificial digestion test with 20 g of diaphragm tissue for larval detection. A total of 7412 adult pigs, 9973 finishing pigs and 2779 free-ranging pigs were tested. Samples from 17 (0.23%) adult pigs, 16 (0.16%) finishing pigs and nine (0.32%) free-ranging pigs were ELISA-positive, but all of these sera were subsequently negative by Western blot and by the artificial digestion method. Based on these findings, an absence of Trichinella infections in adult pigs (target prevalence 0.04%) and finishing pigs (target prevalence 0.03%) can be concluded. The results also demonstrated that the prevalence of Trichinella infections does not exceed 0.11% in free-ranging pigs, the group with the highest risk of exposure. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Wieland B.,Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation | Batsukh B.,Veterinary and Animal Breeding Agency | Enktuvshin S.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Odontsetseg N.,Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation | Schuppers M.,SAFOSO
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

To address weaknesses in the current foot and mouth disease (FMD) control system and to inform the formulation of a national control strategy, Mongolia conducted two separate risk assessments, one for the Eastern region which in the past has seen re-current introductions of infection, and one for the Western region, where freedom from disease had been demonstrated over several years until FMD was re-introduced in 2013. The risk assessment was conducted in three stages: first local experts developed entry, exposure and consequence pathways during separate workshops in both regions, then data was collected, compiled and analysed, and finally, during a second workshop local experts provided risk estimations for both regions and identified recommendations for risk management. Risk estimates for each pathway were individually recorded, which ensured that views of all experts were equally represented in the risk estimation and which allowed assessing possible impact of different factors related to the background of participating local experts on risk estimates. Entry risk pathways with highest risk estimates were related to livestock movements and in the consequence assessment due to direct contacts. Uncertainty, for which disagreement between participants acted as a proxy, was high in entry pathways and in the assessment of effectiveness of control measures.The risk assessment was conducted with local experts who had no previous risk assessment experience. Through their involvement in the whole process however, they assumed a high level of ownership and despite lively discussions for some risk pathways, a high level of agreement was achieved and credible results were communicated to decision makers. Especially valuable were the derived recommendations. Through the risk assessment the local experts gained a thorough understanding of the FMD risk which resulted in sensible and realistic recommendations, which, if implemented, can lead to a sustainable strengthening of the Mongolian capacities to prevent, control and eradicate FMD. The process was underlined by extensive field data collection, which helped to address important data gaps and therefore to improve quality and reliability of findings. The Mongolian veterinary authority was very committed to the risk assessment and several recommendations have already been integrated in the revision of the national FMD strategy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Postma M.,Ghent University | Sjolund M.,National Veterinary Institute | Sjolund M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Collineau L.,SAFOSO Inc. | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

Objectives: To establish a consensus defined daily dose animal (DDDA) for each active substance (AS) and administration route for porcine veterinary antimicrobial products authorized in four European countries, thus allowing cross-country quantification and comparison of antimicrobial usage data. Methods: All veterinary antimicrobial products authorized for porcine use in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden were listed for each administration route. First, separate DDDAs for each product were defined based on the recommended dosing for the main indication. Second, a consensus DDDA was established by taking the mean of the DDDAs for each product within a certain category of AS plus administration route. Results: One-hundred-and-fifty-nine, 240, 281 and 50 antimicrobial products were licensed in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden, respectively, in February 2013. Large variations were observed for dosage and treatment duration recommendations between products and between countries for the same ASs. Only 6.8% of feed/water and 29.4% of parenteral AS groups had the same recommended dosage in the four countries. Conclusions: This study presents a consensus DDDA list for use in the quantification and comparison of antimicrobial consumption. Four major recommendations have been formulated: (i) urgent need for harmonization of authorization and recommended summary of product characteristics (SPC) dosages; (ii) expand the developed preliminary DDDA list to include all authorized veterinary medicinal products in all EU member states and for all (food-producing) animal species; (iii) improved accessibility of country-specific SPC data would be preferable; and (iv) statement of the 'long-acting' duration of a product in the SPC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source

Schuppers M.E.,SAFOSO | Stegeman J.A.,University Utrecht | Kramps J.A.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR | Stark K.D.C.,SAFOSO | Stark K.D.C.,Royal Veterinary College
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

International trade of livestock and livestock products poses a significant potential threat for spread of diseases, and importing countries therefore often require that imported animals and products are free from certain pathogens. However, absolute freedom from infection cannot be documented, since all test protocols are imperfect and can lead to false-negative results. It is possible instead to estimate the " probability of freedom from infection" and its opposite, the probability of infection despite having a negative test result. These probabilities can be estimated based on a pre-defined target prevalence, known surveillance efforts in the target population and known test characteristics of any pre-export test. Here, calculations are demonstrated using the example of bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1). In a population that recently became free of BoHV-1 without using vaccination, the probability of being infected of an animal randomly selected for trade is 800 per 1 million and this probability is reduced to 64 (95% probability interval PI 6-161) per 1 million when this animal is tested negatively prior to export with a gB-ELISA. In a population that recently became free of BoHV-1 using vaccination, the probability of being infected of an animal randomly selected for trade is 200 per 1 million, and this probability can be reduced to 63 (95% PI 42-87) when this animal is tested negatively prior to export with a gE-ELISA. Similar estimations can be made on a herd level when assumptions are made about the herd size and the intensity of the surveillance efforts. Subsequently, the overall probability for an importing country of importing at least 1 infected animal can be assessed by taking into account the trade volume.Definition of the acceptable level of risk, including the probability of false-negative results to occur, is part of risk management. Internationally harmonized target prevalence levels for the declaration of freedom from infection from selected pathogens provide a significant contribution to the facilitation of international trade of livestock and livestock products by allowing exporting countries to design tailor-made output-based surveillance programs, while providing equivalent guarantees regarding the probability of freedom from infection of the population. Combining this with an approach to assess the overall probability of introducing at least 1 infected animal into an importing country during a defined time interval will help importing countries to achieve their desired level of acceptable risk and will help to assess the equivalence of animal health and food safety standards between trading partners. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Schuppers M.E.,SAFOSO | Frey C.F.,University of Bern | Gottstein B.,University of Bern | Stark K.D.C.,Royal Veterinary College | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

Traditionally, the routine artificial digestion test is applied to assess the presence of Trichinella larvae in pigs. However, this diagnostic method has a low sensitivity compared to serological tests. The results from artificial digestion tests in Switzerland were evaluated over a time period of 15 years to determine by when freedom from infection based on these data could be confirmed. Freedom was defined as a 95% probability that the prevalence of infection was below 00001%. Freedom was demonstrated after 12 years at the latest. A new risk-based surveillance approach was then developed based on serology. Risk-based surveillance was also assessed over 15 years, starting in 2010. It was shown that by using this design, the sample size could be reduced by at least a factor of 4 when compared with the traditional testing regimen, without lowering the level of confidence in the Trichinella-free status of the pig population. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

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