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Chermahini S.A.,Shahid Chamran University | Moallemi N.,Shahid Chamran University | Nabati D.A.,Shahid Chamran University | Shafieizargar A.R.,Safiabad Agricultural Research Center
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2011

Fruit production and yield enhancement in Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) is highly dependent on the number and intensity of flower buds per inflorescence on each individual tree. Research work has elucidated that exogenous application of fertilizer, in particular urea, can have a great impact on growth of these characters. This research was conducted to examine the effect of winter foliar application of urea on flowering and fruit-set of 30-year-old 'Valencia' orange on sour orange rootstock in 2006-2007 at the Safiabad Agricultural Research Center of Dezful, Iran. Treatments included foliar sprays in 3 rates, 0, 0.5% and 1%, which confirm none, 7.6 and 15.2 kg N/ha from urea, respectively, and 2 application periods, 6 and 9 weeks before full bloom. Nitrogen percentage in leaf, flower number, ovary diameter and percentage of fruit set were altered positively due to urea treatments when compared to the control trees. Results showed that foliar spray of urea increased concentration of nitrogen within the leaves temporarily for a short period, when the site is confronted with low temperature in winter. The findings also indicated that urea is capable to increase the number of flowers, ovary diameter and fruit set. Spray of urea at 1% made significant effect on plant characters performance. Timing of applications altered plants growth with desirable influences on different plant characters. Spray of urea just 9 weeks before full bloom promoted more flowering formation, while 6 weeks before full bloom resulted in thicker ovary with higher percentage of fruit set compared to the control trees.

Shafieizargar A.,University Putra Malaysia | Shafieizargar A.,Safiabad Agricultural Research Center | Awang Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Juraimi A.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Othman R.,University Putra Malaysia
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2012

The 'Queen' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] is highly adaptable to the climatic conditions of the Southwest of Iran. However, the success of its production is highly dependent on its compatibility with rootstocks. This paper describes fruit production and quality of 10-year-old 'Queen' orange grafted on six commercial rootstocks in a five year period. 'Queen' orange trees grafted on 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. and Pasq.) (VL) produced the highest cumulative fruit yields, whereas trees on "Swingle" citromelo [(Citrus paradisi (L.) × Ponicrus trifoliate (L.) Raf.] (SC) and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. Ex Tan.) (Cleo) produced the least yield. The response of grafted trees in term of fruit production was intermediate on "Carrizo" citrange [(Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.× Ponicrus trifoliate (L.) Raf.] (CC), 'Troyer' citrange [(Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.× Ponicrus trifoliate (L.) Raf.] (TC), and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) (SO). Trees grafted on VL produced larger canopy volume than trees on the other rootstocks (32.48 m3), while Cleo had the lowest tree canopy volume (18.87 m3). Trees grafted on VL and CC produced the largest fruits, whereas the smallest fruits were obtained from trees grafted on Cleo and TC. Fruit rind thickness and acid content were not significantly affected by rootstocks. Fruit from trees grafted on VL had the highest juice content (43.52%), whereas fruits from trees on Cleo produced the lowest juice content (40.70%). Fruit from trees on SO had the highest soluble solids (13.50%), while those from trees on VL were the lowest (12.08%).The study revealed that the rootstocks have significant effects on most of the measured parameters, indicating that tree size, yield, and fruit quality of 'Queen' orange can be controlled by proper selection of rootstock. This study showed that VL is a good rootstock for 'Queen' orange grafting.

Awang Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Awang Y.,Safiabad Agricultural Research Center | Shafieizargar A.,Safiabad Agricultural Research Center | Juraimi A.S.,Safiabad Agricultural Research Center | Othman R.,Safiabad Agricultural Research Center
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

Due to salt-sensitivity nature of citrus, it is imperative to provide rootstocks and cultivars that are tolerant to saline conditions. In this study, responses of tetraploid (4X) and its corresponding diploid (2X) Dez orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) cultivar to different concentrations of NaCl (0, 20, 40 and 60 mM) were investigated using a randomized complete block design with four replications. Plant mineral concentrations, proline accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were measured. Results indicated that increasing NaCl concentration significantly reduced leaf N and P contents in both diploid and tetraploid plants but reduction of these nutrients were lower in tetraploids (2.15 to 1.51%, 2.35 to 1.78% in diploid and tetraploid plants respectively, at P=0.05). Results also showed that the accumulation of Na and Cl was lower in tetraploids. Reduction of K in tetraploid was lower as opposed to diploid plants (1.18 and 0.98% in leaves and, 0.50 and 0.48 in roots at 60 mM NaCl, respectively). Free proline content in the leaves of both plants increased with increasing NaCl level with a more marked increase was observed in tetraploid plants than those in diploids (62.3 and 54.8 mmol/g FW at 60 mM NaCl, respectively). Tetraploid plants contained lower concentration of MDA (37.1 and 44.3 nmol/g FW at 60 mM NaCl, respectively) and H2O2 (58.8 and 62.5 mmol/g FW at 60 mM NaCl, respectively). Results obtained in this study suggested that tetraploid Dez orange exhibited a better adaptation to salinity stress than its corresponding diploid in its seedling stage.

Ghaffary S.M.T.,Plant Research International | Ghaffary S.M.T.,Wageningen University | Ghaffary S.M.T.,Safiabad Agricultural Research Center | Faris J.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of wheat. We screened five synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHs), 13 wheat varieties that represent the differential set of cultivars and two susceptible checks with a global set of 20 isolates and discovered exceptionally broad STB resistance in SHs. Subsequent development and analyses of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between the SH M3 and the highly susceptible bread wheat cv. Kulm revealed two novel resistance loci on chromosomes 3D and 5A. The 3D resistance was expressed in the seedling and adult plant stages, and it controlled necrosis (N) and pycnidia (P) development as well as the latency periods of these parameters. This locus, which is closely linked to the microsatellite marker Xgwm494, was tentatively designated Stb16q and explained from 41 to 71% of the phenotypic variation at seedling stage and 28-31% in mature plants. The resistance locus on chromosome 5A was specifically expressed in the adult plant stage, associated with SSR marker Xhbg247, explained 12-32% of the variation in disease, was designated Stb17, and is the first unambiguously identified and named QTL for adult plant resistance to M. graminicola. Our results confirm that common wheat progenitors might be a rich source of new Stb resistance genes/QTLs that can be deployed in commercial breeding programs. © 2011 The Author(s).

Shafieizargar A.,Safiabad Agricultural Research Center | Awang Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Ajamgard F.,Safiabad Agricultural Research Center | Juraimi A.S.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2015

Changes in concentrations of Na, Cl and K, proline and Relative Water Contet (RWC) of five citrus species (Cleopatra mandarin, Carrizo citrange, Tiwanica, Bacraii and Shaker) grown in four NaCl salinity levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 mM NaCl) for the purpose of assessing their magnitude of susceptibility to salinity and estimating the salt tolerance degree were studied. The Na and Cl concentrations increased whilst K concentration in leaves decreased with increasing NaCl concentration in the rootzone. Shaker and Cleopatra mandarin accumulated optimal concentration of the ions in their tissues. Increasing NaCl concentration reduced RWC and increased proline content in plant tissues. Shaker and Cleopatra mandarin rootstocks maintained relatively higher leaf RWC and proline in comparison to other rootstocks. Cleopatra mandarin and Shaker showed to be markedly less affected by salinity up to 50 mM NaCl and could bear the highest salinity levels (75 mM) imposed in this study. © 2015 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

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