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Xu X.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety | McGorry R.W.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety | Chou L.-S.,University of Oregon | Lin J.-H.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Chang C.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Gait and Posture | Year: 2015

The measurement of gait parameters normally requires motion tracking systems combined with force plates, which limits the measurement to laboratory settings. In some recent studies, the possibility of using the portable, low cost, and marker-less Microsoft Kinect™ sensor to measure gait parameters on over-ground walking has been examined. The current study further examined the accuracy level of the Kinect sensor for assessment of various gait parameters during treadmill walking under different walking speeds. Twenty healthy participants walked on the treadmill and their full body kinematics data were measured by a Kinect sensor and a motion tracking system, concurrently. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and knee and hip joint angles were extracted from the two devices and were compared. The results showed that the accuracy levels when using the Kinect sensor varied across the gait parameters. Average heel strike frame errors were 0.18 and 0.30 frames for the right and left foot, respectively, while average toe off frame errors were -2.25 and -2.61 frames, respectively, across all participants and all walking speeds. The temporal gait parameters based purely on heel strike have less error than the temporal gait parameters based on toe off. The Kinect sensor can follow the trend of the joint trajectories for the knee and hip joints, though there was substantial error in magnitudes. The walking speed was also found to significantly affect the identified timing of toe off. The results of the study suggest that the Kinect sensor may be used as an alternative device to measure some gait parameters for treadmill walking, depending on the desired accuracy level. © 2015 The Authors.

Reeb-Whitaker C.K.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Schoonover T.M.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2016

Isocyanate exposure is known to be hazardous when polyurethane paints are applied with a spray gun, but less is known of exposure when paint is applied with a paint brush and roller. Concentrations of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and three HDI polymers were assessed when two moisture-cure polyurethane paints containing 31-35% isocyanates were applied with a paint roller and brush. Short-term 15-min samples were taken during paint application in an indoor test environment with no ventilation (n = 12); in an outdoor test environment (n = 11); and in an outdoor in situ assessment (n = 22). The outdoor in situ assessment involved the painting of a bus shelter and light poles at a public transit station over two night shifts. All isocyanate samples were below analytical detection. The analytical limits of detection for HDI monomer, HDI biuret, HDI isocyanurate, and HDI uretdione were 0.005, 0.84, 0.87, and 0.88 μg, respectively. The finding that isocyanate concentrations were below detection is attributed to the use of paint roller and brush which minimize paint aerosolization and the paint formulation itself which contained <1% of volatile HDI monomer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

Smith C.K.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Williams J.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2014

Background The trucking industry continues to have some of the highest work-related injury and illness rates and costs of any industry in the United States. Until recently, little focus has been placed on addressing non-motor vehicle collision related injuries within the trucking industry. Drivers are exposed to multiple physical risk factors that contribute to occupational injuries in order to complete their job duties, such as loading/unloading freight, decoupling trailers, strapping down loads and ingress and egress from the cab and trailer. About one-fourth of all truck driver injuries in the United States are related to slips, trips, and falls near the truck. Purpose The purpose of this descriptive study is to report on recent injuries in the trucking industry in Washington State. Data are presented by occupation and industry sector, in order to better understand the magnitude of specific injuries in terms of time-loss days and workers' compensation costs. Methods All accepted, compensable (time-loss) claims from 2005 to 2010 within the trucking industry in Washington State were reviewed. Counts, rates, median and quartile data are presented. Logistic regression models are presented to identify factors associated with more severe claims. Results Non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, back and upper extremities are the most frequent injuries across all industry sectors and occupations in the trucking industry. Vehicle related claims had the highest median costs and time loss days and Courier and Messenger claims had the highest risk for higher time loss claims. Injuries varied substantially by sector and within sectors by occupation. Conclusion It is important to review work-related injuries within the trucking industry by sector and occupation in order to maximize limited resources for injury prevention within this important sector. © 2014 The Authors.

Foley M.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Rauser E.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
Work | Year: 2012

Objectives: This study reports trends in the pattern of injuries related to workplace violence over the period 1997-2007. It tracks occupations and industries at elevated risk of workplace violence with a special focus on the persistently high claims rates among healthcare and social assistance workers. Methods: Industry and occupational incidence rates were calculated using workers' compensation and employment security data from Washington State. Results: Violence-related claims rates among certain Healthcare and Social Assistance industries remained particularly high. Incidents where workers were injured by clients or patients predominated. By contrast, claims rates in retail trade have fallen substantially. Conclusions: Progress to reduce violence has been made in most of the highest hazard industries within the Healthcare and Social Assistance sector with the notable exception of psychiatric hospitals and facilities caring for the developmentally disabled. State legislation requiring healthcare workplaces to address hazards for workplace violence has had mixed results. Insufficient staffing, inadequate violence prevention training and sporadic management attention are seen as the key barriers to violence prevention in healthcare/social assistance workplaces. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Spector J.T.,University of Washington | Adams D.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Silverstein B.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To describe the burden of knee work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). METHODS: Knee WMSDs were identified using Washington State Fund workers' compensation data from 1999 to 2007 and analyzed by cost, industry, occupation, and claims incidence rates. RESULTS: Knee WMSDs accounted for 7% of WMSD claims and 10% of WMSD costs. The rate of decline in claims incidence rates for knee WMSDs was similar to the rate of decline for all other WMSDs. Industries at highest risk for knee WMSDs included construction and building contractors. Occupations of concern included carpenters and truck drivers in men and nursing aides and housekeepers in women. CONCLUSIONS: Between 1999 and 2007, Washington State Fund knee WMSDs were widespread and associated with a large cost. Identification of specific occupational knee WMSD risk factors in high-risk industries is needed to guide prevention efforts. © 2011 by American College of Occupational and Environmental.

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