Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program

Washington State, Washington, United States

Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program

Washington State, Washington, United States
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Xu X.,North Carolina State University | Lin J.-H.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | McGorry R.W.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2017

Optimization combined with a musculoskeletal shoulder model has been used to estimate mechanical loading of musculoskeletal elements around the shoulder. Traditionally, the objective function is to minimize the summation of the total activities of the muscles with forces, moments, and stability constraints. Such an objective function, however, tends to neglect the antagonist muscle co-contraction. In this study, an objective function including an entropy term is proposed to address muscle co-contractions. A musculoskeletal shoulder model is developed to apply the proposed objective function. To find the optimal weight for the entropy term, an experiment was conducted. In the experiment, participants generated various 3-D shoulder moments in six shoulder postures. The surface EMG of 8 shoulder muscles was measured and compared with the predicted muscle activities based on the proposed objective function using Bhattacharyya distance and concordance ratio under different weight of the entropy term. The results show that a small weight of the entropy term can improve the predictability of the model in terms of muscle activities. Such a result suggests that the concept of entropy could be helpful for further understanding the mechanism of muscle co-contractions as well as developing a shoulder biomechanical model with greater validity. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Xu X.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety | McGorry R.W.,Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety | Chou L.-S.,University of Oregon | Lin J.-H.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Chang C.-C.,National Tsing Hua University
Gait and Posture | Year: 2015

The measurement of gait parameters normally requires motion tracking systems combined with force plates, which limits the measurement to laboratory settings. In some recent studies, the possibility of using the portable, low cost, and marker-less Microsoft Kinect™ sensor to measure gait parameters on over-ground walking has been examined. The current study further examined the accuracy level of the Kinect sensor for assessment of various gait parameters during treadmill walking under different walking speeds. Twenty healthy participants walked on the treadmill and their full body kinematics data were measured by a Kinect sensor and a motion tracking system, concurrently. Spatiotemporal gait parameters and knee and hip joint angles were extracted from the two devices and were compared. The results showed that the accuracy levels when using the Kinect sensor varied across the gait parameters. Average heel strike frame errors were 0.18 and 0.30 frames for the right and left foot, respectively, while average toe off frame errors were -2.25 and -2.61 frames, respectively, across all participants and all walking speeds. The temporal gait parameters based purely on heel strike have less error than the temporal gait parameters based on toe off. The Kinect sensor can follow the trend of the joint trajectories for the knee and hip joints, though there was substantial error in magnitudes. The walking speed was also found to significantly affect the identified timing of toe off. The results of the study suggest that the Kinect sensor may be used as an alternative device to measure some gait parameters for treadmill walking, depending on the desired accuracy level. © 2015 The Authors.


Spector J.T.,University of Washington | Adams D.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Silverstein B.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To describe the burden of knee work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). METHODS: Knee WMSDs were identified using Washington State Fund workers' compensation data from 1999 to 2007 and analyzed by cost, industry, occupation, and claims incidence rates. RESULTS: Knee WMSDs accounted for 7% of WMSD claims and 10% of WMSD costs. The rate of decline in claims incidence rates for knee WMSDs was similar to the rate of decline for all other WMSDs. Industries at highest risk for knee WMSDs included construction and building contractors. Occupations of concern included carpenters and truck drivers in men and nursing aides and housekeepers in women. CONCLUSIONS: Between 1999 and 2007, Washington State Fund knee WMSDs were widespread and associated with a large cost. Identification of specific occupational knee WMSD risk factors in high-risk industries is needed to guide prevention efforts. © 2011 by American College of Occupational and Environmental.


Reeb-Whitaker C.K.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Schoonover T.M.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2016

Isocyanate exposure is known to be hazardous when polyurethane paints are applied with a spray gun, but less is known of exposure when paint is applied with a paint brush and roller. Concentrations of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and three HDI polymers were assessed when two moisture-cure polyurethane paints containing 31-35% isocyanates were applied with a paint roller and brush. Short-term 15-min samples were taken during paint application in an indoor test environment with no ventilation (n = 12); in an outdoor test environment (n = 11); and in an outdoor in situ assessment (n = 22). The outdoor in situ assessment involved the painting of a bus shelter and light poles at a public transit station over two night shifts. All isocyanate samples were below analytical detection. The analytical limits of detection for HDI monomer, HDI biuret, HDI isocyanurate, and HDI uretdione were 0.005, 0.84, 0.87, and 0.88 μg, respectively. The finding that isocyanate concentrations were below detection is attributed to the use of paint roller and brush which minimize paint aerosolization and the paint formulation itself which contained <1% of volatile HDI monomer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.


Anderson N.J.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Bonauto D.K.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Adams D.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
American Journal of Industrial Medicine | Year: 2010

Background Work-related amputations are infrequent but devastating injuries. Attempts to more accurately estimate the burden of amputations and industries at risk have led the Washington State occupational surveillance program to explore new methods for case identification in Washington State workers' compensation data. Methods Two methods were utilized for case identification of work-related amputations. The first method used the ANSI Z16 nature code for amputation. An alternative method utilized medical, hospital, and claim administration coding of medical bills and bill payment systems. After identifying suspected amputation claims, a sample of the medical records associated with different case identification methods were reviewed to verify that an amputation likely occurred. Results From 1997 to 2005, 2,528 amputations were identified using the ANSI Z16 code for amputation (Nature=100) and an additional 3,912 amputations were identified using the alternative method. There was an increasing trend of amputation injuries over the time period using the ANSI amputation definition; however, the trend in amputation injuries captured by the alternative method was decreasing. This may indicate a bias in estimating a trend due to misclassification of amputation injuries. The sectors with the highest amputation claims rates were Manufacturing; Construction; Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting; Accommodation and Food Services; and Wholesale and Retail Trade. Conclusions Current methods to identify work-related amputations in the workers' compensation data system underestimate the burden of amputations in Washington State. By utilizing alternative case identification methods, we estimate that there were about 150% more amputations in Washington State over the time period. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Reeb-Whitaker C.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Anderson N.J.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Bonauto D.K.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene | Year: 2013

Data from Washington State's work-related asthma surveillance system were used to characterize isocyanate-induced asthma cases occurring from 1999 through 2010. Injured worker interviews and medical records were used to describe the industry, job title, work process, workers compensation cost, and exposure trends associated with 27 cases of isocyanate-induced asthma. The majority (81%) of cases were classified within the surveillance system as new-onset asthma while 19% were classified as work-aggravated asthma. The workers compensation cost for isocyanate-induced asthma cases was $1.7 million; this was 14% of the total claims cost for all claims in the asthma surveillance system. The majority of cases (48%) occurred from paint processes, followed by foam application or foam manufacturing (22%). Nine of the asthma cases associated with spray application occurred during application to large or awkward-shaped objects. Six workers who did not directly handle isocyanates (indirect exposure) developed new-onset asthma. Two cases suggest that skin contact and processes secondary to the isocyanate spray application, such as cleanup, contributed to immune sensitization. Surveillance data provide insight for the prevention of isocyanate-induced respiratory disease. Key observations are made regarding the development of work-related asthma in association with a) paint application on large objects difficult to ventilate, b) indirect exposure to isocyanates, c) exposure during secondary or cleanup processes, and d) reports of dermal exposure. Copyright © 2013 JOEH, LLC.


Anderson N.J.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Bonauto D.K.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Adams D.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology | Year: 2014

Background: The Services Sector, as defined by the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA), is comprised of a diverse industry mix and its workers face a variety of occupational exposures and hazards. The objective of this study was to identify high-risk industry groups within the Services Sector for prevention targeting. Methods: Compensable Washington State workers' compensation claims from the Services Sector from 2002 through 2010 were analyzed. A "prevention index" (PI), the average of the rank orders of claim count and claim incidence rate, was used to rank 87 Services Sector industry groups by seven injury types: Work- Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs), Fall to Lower Level, Fall on Same Level, Struck By/Against, Caught In/Under/Between, Motor Vehicle, and Overexertion. In the PI rankings, industry groups with high injury burdens appear higher ranked than industry groups with low counts or low rates of injury, indicating a need for prioritizing injury prevention efforts in these groups. Results: In the Services Sector, these 7 injury types account for 84% of compensable claims in WA. The industry groups highest ranked by PI across the injury types included: Services to Buildings and Dwellings; Executive, Legislative, and Other General Government Support; and Waste Collection. WMSDs had the highest compensable claims rates. Conclusions: Services is a large sector of the economy, and the substantial number, rate, and cost of occupational injuries within this sector should be addressed. Several Services Sector industry groups are at high risk for a variety of occupational injuries. Using a PI to rank industry groups based on their injury risk provides information with which to guide prevention efforts.


Smith C.K.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Williams J.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2014

Background The trucking industry continues to have some of the highest work-related injury and illness rates and costs of any industry in the United States. Until recently, little focus has been placed on addressing non-motor vehicle collision related injuries within the trucking industry. Drivers are exposed to multiple physical risk factors that contribute to occupational injuries in order to complete their job duties, such as loading/unloading freight, decoupling trailers, strapping down loads and ingress and egress from the cab and trailer. About one-fourth of all truck driver injuries in the United States are related to slips, trips, and falls near the truck. Purpose The purpose of this descriptive study is to report on recent injuries in the trucking industry in Washington State. Data are presented by occupation and industry sector, in order to better understand the magnitude of specific injuries in terms of time-loss days and workers' compensation costs. Methods All accepted, compensable (time-loss) claims from 2005 to 2010 within the trucking industry in Washington State were reviewed. Counts, rates, median and quartile data are presented. Logistic regression models are presented to identify factors associated with more severe claims. Results Non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, back and upper extremities are the most frequent injuries across all industry sectors and occupations in the trucking industry. Vehicle related claims had the highest median costs and time loss days and Courier and Messenger claims had the highest risk for higher time loss claims. Injuries varied substantially by sector and within sectors by occupation. Conclusion It is important to review work-related injuries within the trucking industry by sector and occupation in order to maximize limited resources for injury prevention within this important sector. © 2014 The Authors.


Foley M.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Rauser E.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
Work | Year: 2012

Objectives: This study reports trends in the pattern of injuries related to workplace violence over the period 1997-2007. It tracks occupations and industries at elevated risk of workplace violence with a special focus on the persistently high claims rates among healthcare and social assistance workers. Methods: Industry and occupational incidence rates were calculated using workers' compensation and employment security data from Washington State. Results: Violence-related claims rates among certain Healthcare and Social Assistance industries remained particularly high. Incidents where workers were injured by clients or patients predominated. By contrast, claims rates in retail trade have fallen substantially. Conclusions: Progress to reduce violence has been made in most of the highest hazard industries within the Healthcare and Social Assistance sector with the notable exception of psychiatric hospitals and facilities caring for the developmentally disabled. State legislation requiring healthcare workplaces to address hazards for workplace violence has had mixed results. Insufficient staffing, inadequate violence prevention training and sporadic management attention are seen as the key barriers to violence prevention in healthcare/social assistance workplaces. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Foley M.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Fan Z.J.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Rauser E.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program | Silverstein B.,Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention SHARP Program
American Journal of Industrial Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Studies of regulatory effectiveness have shown mixed evidence of impact of inspections on injury rates. We examine changes in workers compensation claims rates and costs for Washington employers having either an inspection, with or without citation, or a voluntary consultation activity. Method: We merge 10 years of enforcement and consultation activity with workers compensation records at the individual workplace level for stable firms with a single business location and at least 10 full-time employees. The change in claims incidence rates (CIRs) was estimated, controlling for workplace claims rate history, size, and industry. Separate analyses were performed for non-musculoskeletal and musculoskeletal (MSD) CIRs, claims costs and for enforcement activities with citation and without citation. Results: Enforcement activities are associated with a significant reduction in CIRs and costs. Similar results may also be attributable to consultations. Inspections were associated with a 4% decline in time-loss claims rates relative to uninspected workplaces. The effect strengthens when MSD claims are excluded. Citations for non-compliance are associated with a 20% decline in non-MSD CIRs relative to uninspected workplaces. There is also some evidence for a reduction in MSD claims rates beginning in the second year following inspection. Enforcement and consultation activity is associated with substantial decreases in claims costs. Conclusions: Enforcement activities make a significant contribution to reducing CIRs and costs. Similar results following consultations may also exist. Inspections with citations are more effective than those without. Claims rates for non-MSD injuries, related to hazards covered by specific standards, are more affected in the year following the visit, while those for MSDs take longer to begin falling. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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