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Siraj F.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Ansari M.K.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Sharma K.C.,Safdarjung Hospital Campus | Singh A.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Chordoid meningioma (CM), classified as Grade II/atypical meningioma according to the World Health Organization classification, is a rare subtype, which represents only 0.5% of all meningiomas. Morphologically, it can mimic other chondroid and myxoid tumors within the brain and its vicinity thus posing a diagnostic challenge. Accurate diagnosis, therefore, assumes importance as these tumors have an aggressive clinical course and propensity to recur compared to classical meningiomas. Furthermore, the prognosis and treatment strategies vary when compared to tumors with morphological overlap. We present a case of CM in a 14-year-old girl and discuss its clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features.

Agarwal A.,Institute of Pathology | Agrawal U.,Institute of Pathology | Verma S.,Institute of Pathology | Mohanty N.K.,Safdarjung Hospital Campus | Saxena S.,Institute of Pathology
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology | Year: 2010

Combination therapy with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) plus interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) for superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) seems to be immune-dependent and activation of Th1 immune response is required for clinical efficacy. The present study evaluates circulating serum cytokine profiles (Th1/Th2 cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2 TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) in 41 bladder cancer patients prior to transurethral resection of tumor (TURBT) (pre-therapy), and following intravesical combination immunotherapy (post-therapy) and their association with recurrence. Mean levels of IL-2 and TNF-α were significantly reduced while IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly enhanced in pre-therapy samples as compared to controls. Mean levels of IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α were significantly increased while IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly reduced in patients after instillation of combination immunotherapy. These findings suggest that bladder cancer patients develop Th2 dominant status with deficient type 1 immune response that shows tendency to reversal following therapy. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Jain S.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Saxena S.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Kumar A.,Safdarjung Hospital Campus
Meta Gene | Year: 2014

Data from national cancer registries shows that incidence of certain cancers are on rise in India. The cancers which are showing significant increase in incidence rates include prostate, mouth and kidney among male population, corpus uteri, breast and thyroid among female population and lung cancer in both male and female populations. In the present review article we have focused on epidemiology of prostate cancer in Indian subcontinent in terms of incidence, survival, and mortality etc. The article presents the incidence rates, mortality and trends over time for prostate cancer as the data collected from national population based cancer registries. Prostate is the second leading site of cancer among males in large Indian cities like Delhi, Kolkatta, Pune and Thiruvananthapuram, third leading site of cancer in cities like Bangalore and Mumbai and it is among the top ten leading sites of cancers in the rest of the population based cancer registries (PBCRs) of India. The PBCRs at Bangalore (Annual Percentage Change: 3.4%), Chennai (4.2%), Delhi (3.3%), Mumbai (0.9%) and Kamrup Urban District (11.6%) recorded a statistically significant increasing trend in incidence rates over time. © 2014.

Saini C.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Ramesh V.,Safdarjung Hospital Campus | Nath I.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Patients with localized tuberculoid and generalized lepromatous leprosy show respectively Th1 and Th2 cytokine profile. Additionally, other patients in both types of leprosy also show a non discriminating Th0 cytokine profile with both interferon-γ and IL-4. The present study investigated the role of Th17 cells which appear to be a distinct subtype of Th subtypes in 19 tuberculoid and 18 lepromatous leprosy patients. Five healthy subjects with long term exposure to infection and 4 skin biopsies from healthy subjects undergoing cosmetic surgery were used as controls. Methodology/Principle Findings: An array of Th17 related primers for cytokines, chemokines and transcription factors was used in real time reverse transcribed PCR to evaluate gene expression, ELISA for cytokine secretion in the supernatants of antigen stimulated PBMC cultures and flow cytometry for establishing the phenotype of the IL-17, IL-21 producing cells. Conclusions/Significance: IL-17 isoforms showed significantly higher expression and release in supernatants of antigen stimulated PBMC cultures and dermal lesions of healthy contacts and tuberculoid leprosy as compared to lepromatous leprosy (p<0.003). This was further confirmed by Th17 associated transcription factor RORC, cytokines IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23, chemokines MMP13, CCL20, CCL22. Of interest was the association of IL-23R and not IL-6R with IL-17+ cells. The Th17 cells were CD4+ CCR6+ confirming their effector cell lineage. Polarized Th1 cytokines were seen in 3/7 tuberculoid and Th2 cytokines in 5/10 lepromatous leprosy patients. Of importance was the higher association of Th17 pathway factors with the non-polarized Th0 types as compared to the polarized Th1 and Th2 (p<0.01). Our study draws attention to a third type of effector Th cell that may play a role in leprosy. © 2013 Saini et al.

Pandrangi S.L.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Raju Bagadi S.A.,National Institute of Pathology ICMR | Sinha N.K.,Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Center | Kumar M.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Cell International | Year: 2014

Two novel triple negative breast cancer cell lines, NIPBC-1 and NIPBC-2 were successfully established from primary tumors of two young breast cancer patients aged 39 and 38 years respectively, diagnosed as infiltrating duct carcinoma of breast. Characterization of these cell lines showed luminal origin with expression of epithelial specific antigen and cytokeratin 18 and presence of microfilaments and secretary vesicles, microvilli, tight junctions and desmosomes on ultra-structural analysis. Both the cell lines showed anchorage independent growth and invasion of matrigel coated membranes. Karyotype analysis showed aneuploidy, deletions and multiple rearrangements in chromosomes 7, 9, X and 11 and isochromosomes 17q in both the cell lines. P53 mutational analysis revealed no mutation in the coding region in both the cell lines; however NIPBC-2 cell line showed presence of heterozygous C/G polymorphism, g.417 C > G (NM_000546.5) resulting in Arg/Pro allele at codon 72 of exon 4. Screening for mutations in BRCA1&2 genes revealed presence of three heterozygous polymorphisms in exon 11 of BRCA1 and 2 polymorphisms in exons 11, and14 of BRCA2 gene in both the cell lines. Both the cell lines showed presence of CD 44+/24-breast cancer stem cells and capability of producing mammosphere on culture. The two triple negative breast cancer cell lines established from early onset breast tumors can serve as novel invitro models to study mechanisms underlying breast tumorigenesis in younger age group patients and also identification of new therapeutic modalities targeting cancer stem cells. © 2014 Pandrangi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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