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El Sadat City, Egypt

El-Fadaly E.,El Sadat City University | Ibrahim D.M.,National Research Center of Egypt
InterCeram: International Ceramic Review | Year: 2014

Calcium phosphate in the range of 3 to 10 mass-% partially substituted soda feldspar in five recipes in an attempt to produce white porcelain stoneware tiles. The added phosphate had a double effect on the behavior of the ceramic body during firing. The penta-valent phosphorous accommodated into the tetrahedron co-ordination of the glass melt and lowered its viscosity, leading to the early dissolution of the primary mullite and the crystallization of acicular secondary mullite, as well as fine grained nano-anorthite grains. The calcium ion played its role in increasing the degree of whiteness of the body. The addition of 3 to 5 mass-% calcium phosphate was found to improve the degree of whiteness (L*) without compromising the MOR. The addition of 3 mass-% phosphate improved the degree of resistance to abrasion of the tile-body. Source


Morgan A.M.,Cairo University | El-Ballal S.S.,El Sadat City University | El-Bialy B.E.,El Sadat City University | El-Borai N.B.,El Sadat City University
Toxicology Reports | Year: 2014

Among the numerous chemicals discharged into the surrounding environment, bisphenol A (BPA) and octylphenol (OP) have been shown to increase oxidative stress in body by disturbing the prooxidant/antioxidant balance of cells. Cinnamon aqueous extract (CAE) is a natural product rich in polyphenolic compounds that have antioxidant activity. This study was designed to investigate the protective efficacy of CAE against oxidative disorders induced by BPA and OP in male albino rats. Animals were divided into 6 groups (10 rats each) and treated orally, 3 times weekly for 50 days. Group 1: control vehicle (olive oil); group 2 (25. mg BPA/kg b.wt./day); group 3 (25. mg OP/kg b.wt./day); group 4 (200. mg CAE/kg b.wt./day); group 5 (CAE 2. h before BPA administration); and group 6 (CAE 2. h before OP administration). BPA- and OP-exposed groups showed insignificant elevation in the final body weight; weight gains and significant reduction only in the relative kidneys weight. Also, BPA and OP exposure resulted in significant increase in serum urea, creatinine and kidney, brain, testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Significant reduction in tissues reduced glutathione (GSH) contents; catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were also recorded in BPA and OP exposed animals compared to the control vehicle group. Pretreatment with CAE 2. h either before BPA or OP administration ameliorated the BPA- and OP-induced body weight; weight gains and relative organs weight changes and biochemical adverse effects. CAE pretreatment also protected against the recorded pathological changes in kidney, brain and testis. In conclusion, CAE could ameliorate the oxidative toxic effects of BPA and OP indicating its protective antioxidant effect. © 2014 The Authors. Source

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