Sachtleben Pigments Oy

Pori, Finland

Sachtleben Pigments Oy

Pori, Finland
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Pohjalainen E.,Aalto University | Rasanen S.,Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius | Jokinen M.,Aalto University | Yliniemi K.,Aalto University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

Less expensive and greener aqueous electrode preparation processes are essential for the market penetration of lithium ion batteries to mid-scale applications. So far only carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) binder has been adopted for industrial use to fabricate carbon electrodes without harmful organic solvents but this process is prone to bacterial growth. In this study a new binder candidate, Acryl S020, is introduced for an aqueous preparation process that has been used for preparing Li4Ti5O 12 electrodes for lithium ion batteries. It is shown that with our water based process electrodes with capacities comparable to those electrodes fabricated with the conventional organic solvent based process with the PVDF binder are obtained. Moreover, our lithium titanate electrodes with the Acryl S020 binder show high capacity retention and they can be operated at sub-zero temperatures. Electrodes were also fabricated with pilot-scale gravure printing and slot-die coating methods and they showed stable cycles lives of 500 cycles. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bjorninen T.,Tampere University of Technology | Babar A.A.,Tampere University of Technology | Ukkonen L.,Tampere University of Technology | Sydanheimo L.,Tampere University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C | Year: 2012

The development of a compact metal mountable Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag antenna on a ceramic substrate based on Barium Titanate is presented. The performance limitations and design trade-offs of metal mountable RFID tag antennas are reviewed and the favorable features of a high-permittivity antenna substrate for the development of antennas for metal mountable RFID tags are discussed. The simulation-based tag antenna design process is outlined and the measured read range of the developed metal mountable tag on conductive platforms of various sizes is presented.

Pohjalainen E.,Aalto University | Rauhala T.,Aalto University | Valkeapaa M.,Aalto University | Kallioinen J.,Sachtleben Pigments Oy | Kallio T.,Aalto University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2015

Two different Li4Ti5O12 materials were investigated: smaller primary particle size forming large secondary particle aggregates (LTO-SP, surface area 22 m2/g) and larger primary particle size with less secondary particle aggregates (LTO-LP, surface area 7 m2/g). Both samples were synthesized using the same high temperature solid state synthesis but different end processing, resulting in the same crystalline structure but different particle morphology. At 0.1C measured discharge capacities were close to the theoretical capacity of Li4Ti5O12 (175 mAh/g), and similar capacities were obtained at low C-rates and room temperature for both LTO-SP and LTO-LP. However, higher capacities were obtained with LTO-SP at high C-rates and -20 °C indicating beneficial effect of small particle size and large surface area. Shapes of the charge/discharge curves were different for LTO-SP and LTO-LP, and this is attributed to the large surface area of LTO-SP which affects the electrochemical performance because of different reaction potentials at surface sites versus bulk. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Pohjalainen E.,Aalto University | Kallioinen J.,Sachtleben Pigments Oy | Kallio T.,Aalto University
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2015

Traditionally electrodes for lithium ion batteries are manufactured using carbon additives to increase the conductivity. However, in case of lithium titanate, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO), carbon free electrodes have gathered some interest lately. Therefore two LTO materials synthesized using the same synthesis but different end milling process resulting in materials with different particle size and surface area are compared here using electrodes manufactured with and without carbon additives. Both LTO samples (LTO-SP with small primary particle size and high surface area, and LTO-LP with larger primary particle size and small surface area) produce similar capacities and voltages with or without carbon additives at low C-rates at the room temperature. However, at high C-rates and/or sub-zero temperatures electrodes with carbon additives produce higher capacities and smaller ohmic losses and this behavior is more pronounced for the LTO electrodes with smaller primary particle size and larger surface area. These results show that the feasibility of carbon free LTO electrodes depends on the properties of LTO affecting the morphology of the electrode and consequently, the transport properties. This is most pronounced under conditions where electron and Li+ ion transfer become limiting (high C-rates and low temperature). © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Uusitalo R.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Ekholm P.,Finnish Environment Institute | Lehtoranta J.,Finnish Environment Institute | Klimeski A.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | And 3 more authors.
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2012

Phosphate barriers may mitigate dissolved P losses from critical source areas. We studied P retention of industrially produced Ca-Fe oxide as potential P barrier material. In batch tests with 1 mg l-1 P solution, P retention was 85% efficient in 5 min. In a flow-through system, the granules' phpsphate-retention capacity was 6-7 mg g-1, being largely unaffected by pre-leaching. Phosphate release from P-saturated granules was pH-dependant and suggested P association with Fe oxides, and as Ca-phosphate precipitates. In a sequential extraction of P-saturated granules, about 25% of retained P was released, whereas a separate anaerobic incubation resulted in negligible release of P. Immersion of unleached, P-saturated granules for 16 days in a low-P-concentration lake resulted in more than 80% Ca loss, but no loss of metals, and about 25% loss of P accumulated earlier in granules. These granules are promising for P retention and merit a field-scale study.

Auvinen S.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | Alatalo M.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | Haario H.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | Vartiainen E.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2013

Wavelength-dependent refractive index functions (RIFs) of (TiO 2)n nanoparticles (n = 2, 8, 18, 28, or 38) have been calculated by using the data from our previous density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory photoabsorption calculations. The results show significant blueshifts and increased anisotropy in the RIFs of the nanoparticles, when compared to experimental bulk values. On the basis of the results, we conclude that, in the case of these ultrasmall particles, the RIFs may depend notably on the shape and structure of the cluster and on the other hand the fundamental absorption characteristics do not depend much on the rather limited cluster size range. The results also support the proposition that, in light-scattering measurements, one should not use the bulk RIF to model nanosize particles, at least in the case of TiO2 particles. Our results shed some light into this computationally and experimentally very challenging area of nanoparticle properties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Auvinen S.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | Alatalo M.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | Haario H.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | Jalava J.-P.,Sachtleben Pigments Oy | Lamminmaki R.-J.,Sachtleben Pigments Oy
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

Electronic and spectral properties of small TiO2 particles have been studied in order to gain more knowledge on their dependence on the crystal- and particle-size distributions. Our goal is to extend the recently developed light scattering based method for determining submicrometer size particles to nanoparticles. For that, we need to know how the refractive index function depends on the cluster size. As a first step, we have used time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations having a focus on the shape changes of the calculated spectra, which can be related to changes in the refractive index function. Starting from the structure of TiO2 molecule for the two smallest particles and truncated bulk anatase structure for larger particles, the structures for (TiO2)n clusters, n = {1, 2, 8, 18, 28, 38}, have been modeled. After the structure optimization using standard density functional theory (DFT) approach, the photoabsorption spectra for the optimized particle structures have been calculated by using TDDFT calculations. The results show slight evidence of the band gap broadening in the case of three out of the smallest particles and strong structural dependence of electronic and spectral properties, which can partly be related to the transformation of the electron structure, and breaking of the crystal symmetry as the size of the particle becomes smaller. These findings indicate that in the case of small particles their refractive index function can differ from the bulk values, and this has to be taken into account in the interpretation of light-scattering measurements. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

The invention relates to a method of controlling the solubility of granular material by treating a precipitate comprising iron(II)sulphate monohydrate originating from titanium dioxide production, in which method the reaction temperature is allowed to increase at the most to a temperature of 120C, to a plant for treating a precipitate comprising iron(II)sulphate monohydrate, to a product and its uses. A typical method according to the invention comprises the steps of mixing water to the reaction mixture in the said mixing apparatus, and keeping the amount of neutralising agent sufficient to give a pH value from 1.5 to 4, preferably from 1.5 to 3, to the end product in order to obtain a granular material having a high soluble iron(II) content or keeping the amount of neutralising agent sufficient to give a pH value 9 to the end product in order to obtain a granular material having a low solubility.

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