Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig

Lengefeld, Germany

Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig

Lengefeld, Germany

Time filter

Source Type

Heinicke J.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Italiano F.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Koch U.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Martinelli G.,ARPA Emilia Romagna | Telesca L.,CNR Institute of Methodologies for Environmental analysis
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2010

The Miano borehole, 1047 m deep, is located close to the river Parma in the Northern Apennines, Italy. A measuring station has been installed to observe the discharge of fluids continuously since November 2004. The upwelling fluid of this artesian well is a mixture of thermal water and CH4 as main components. In non-seismogenic areas, a relatively constant fluid emission would be expected, perhaps overlaid with long term variations from that kind of deep reservoir over time. However, the continuous record of the fluid emission, in particular the water discharge, the gas flow rate and the water temperature, show periods of stable values interrupted by anomalous periods of fluctuations in the recorded parameters. The anomalous variations of these parameters are of low amplitude in comparison to the total values but significant in their long-term trend. Meteorological effects due to rain and barometric pressure were not detected in recorded data probably due to reservoir depth and relatively high reservoir overpressure. Influences due to the ambient temperature after the discharge were evaluated by statistical analysis. Our results suggest that recorded changes in fluid emission parameters can be interpreted as a mixing process of different fluid components at depth by variations in pore pressure as a result of seismogenic stress variation. Local seismicity was analyzed in comparison to the fluid physico-chemical data. The analysis supports the idea that an influence on fluid transport conditions due to geodynamic processes exists. Water temperature data show frequent anomalies probably connected with possible precursory phenomena of local seismic events. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Theiss J.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Rother M.,TU Dresden | Roske K.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig
Archives of Microbiology | Year: 2016

Various methods are available for DNA isolation from environmental samples. Because the chemical and biological composition of samples such as soil, sludge, or plant material is different, the effectiveness of DNA isolation can vary depending on the method applied and thus, have a substantial effect on the results of downstream analysis of the microbial community. Although the process of biogas formation is being intensely investigated, a systematic evaluation of kits for DNA isolation from material of biogas plants is still lacking. Since no DNA isolation kit specifically tailored for DNA isolation from sludge of biogas plants is available, this study compares five commercially available kits regarding their influence on downstream analyses such denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results show that not all kits are equally suited for the DNA isolation from samples of different biogas plants, but highly reproducible DGGE fingerprints as well as qPCR results across the tested samples from biogas reactors using different substrate compositions could be produced using selected kits. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Horn H.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Paul L.,TU Dresden | Horn W.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Petzoldt T.,TU Dresden
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2011

1.Long-term data on the meteorology, hydrology, physicochemistry and plankton of a reservoir and its tributaries in SE Germany run from 1976 until now. This dimictic reservoir changed from mesotrophic to eutrophic in the 1970s, remained eutrophic in the 1980s and returned to the mesotrophic state after a sharp reduction in P loading in 1990. 2.Phytoplankton biomass reaches an annual maximum in spring and consists almost entirely of diatoms. While Asterionella formosa was dominant until 1990, Aulacoseira subarctica became more frequent at the end of the 1990s and was particularly abundant in years with short winters. 3.Statistical analyses suggested that these changes were triggered primarily by the mild winters that were frequent after 1988. Climate-related hydrophysical variables and the initial biomass of the diatoms at the beginning of the year, considered as an 'inoculum', were identified as most important. These variables explained 39% of the total variance of the relative abundance, whereas the change in trophic conditions was responsible for about 20%. 4.The absolute and relative abundance of A. subarctica was positively related to short ice cover, early ice-out and a long-lasting spring circulation. Owing to its physiological traits, and particularly its ability to survive under low-light conditions, A. subarctica benefitted from short, mild winters. Under such conditions, it could sustain or establish a high initial biomass, whereas the concentrations of the other diatoms decreased over winter. However, this advantage may be lost if further warming causes an early onset of summer stratification. Because of its low population growth rate and requirement for high turbulence, A. subarctica needs long, cold springs to exploit the improved starting conditions and to become abundant. 5.In contrast to A. subarctica, A. formosa required a substantial soluble reactive phosphorus supply to compete successfully. The eutrophic conditions until 1990 were the prerequisite for its mass growth under low-light and low-temperature conditions during the spring. After reduction in P concentration from 1990, A. formosa declined and other diatom species became more abundant. 6.These other diatoms may be viewed as 'stopgaps' when conditions were not favourable for A. subarctica or A. formosa. Diatoma elongatum exploited brief circulation periods in years with low P loading. Synedra acus and Fragilaria crotonensis, because of their poor competitive ability at low light intensity, reached high density in the upper water column in the transitional period between spring circulation and summer stratification. 7.Our study suggests that climate-related variables have crucial impacts on the spring phytoplankton dynamics of deep stratified waterbodies. They can mask the consequences of changes in the trophic conditions and, corresponding to the functional traits of the different phytoplankton species, also decisively control their relative abundances. In this reservoir, the warmer winters and prolonged spring circulations did not only lead to high phytoplankton biomass (despite considerably reduced nutrient loads) but also cause a marked shift in the diatom assemblage during the spring bloom. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Kastner I.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Kachlik D.,Ustav Anatomie 3. LF UK
Ceska Gynekologie | Year: 2010

Christian Gerhard Leopold was one of the most important gynecologists and obstetricians at the end of the 19th century. He is mainly remembered for the eponymous "Leopold's grips" (Leopold-Handgriffe) which are used to determine the position of the fetus within the uterus. He was a student of Carl Siegmund Franz Credé, taught midwifery at the Frauenklinik in Leipzig, and was appointed as an associate professor at Leipzig University in 1883. Afterwards, he succeeded Franz von Winckel as the director of the Royal Gynecological Infirmary in Dresden. In the journal "Archiv für Gynäkologie" he published the four classic "Leopold's grips". A third grip or maneuver known as "Pawlik's grip" is still used by obstetricians today, though some, especially abroad, favored and recommended the two-handed approach. Leopold himself oriented strictly on the external investigation of the pregnant to reduce the danger of infection. His main domain was the prevention of the puerperal fever.


Kern T.,TU Dresden | Theiss J.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Roske K.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Rother M.,TU Dresden
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Degradation of biomass in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors via anaerobic digestion involves a syntrophic association of a plethora of anaerobic microorganisms. The commercial application of this process is the large-scale production of biogas from renewable feedstock as an alternative to fossil fuels. After hydrolysis of polymers, monomers are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and alcohols, which are further oxidized to acetate. Carbon dioxide, molecular hydrogen (H2), and acetate generated during the process are converted to methane by methanogenic archaea. Since many of the metabolic pathways as well as the syntrophic interactions and dependencies during anaerobic digestion involve formation, utilization, or transfer of H2, its metabolism and the methanogenic population were assessed in various samples from three commercial biogas plants. Addition of H2 significantly increased the rate of methane formation, which suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is not a rate-limiting step during biogas formation. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina appeared to numerically dominate the archaeal population of the three digesters, but their proportion and the Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio did not correlate with the methane productivity. Instead, hydrogenase activity in cell-free extracts from digester sludge correlated with methane productivity in a positive fashion. Since most microorganisms involved in biogas formation contain this activity, it approximates the overall anaerobic metabolic activity and may, thus, be suitable for monitoring biogas reactor performance. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Horn H.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Paul L.,TU Dresden | Horn W.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Uhlmann D.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Roske I.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig
International Review of Hydrobiology | Year: 2015

Regular ecological investigations usually on a fortnightly basis have been carried out at the Saidenbach Reservoir (SE Germany) and its tributaries since 1975. The data show a sudden decrease in the phosphorus import of over 60% in 1990, resulting in the abrupt change of the trophic state from eutrophic to weakly mesotrophic. Contrary to expectations, the average annual phytoplankton abundance did not decrease but almost doubled on average over the years after 1990. This was primarily due to mostly warmer winters after 1990 causing longer spring overturns, which minimized sedimentation losses, enabled better utilization of the phosphorus reserves, and resulted in higher yields of the diatom-dominated phytoplankton spring mass development. In the summers after 1990, the mass growth of the diatom Fragilaria crotonensis, which in the past used to dominate in this season and effectively transported phosphorus to the sediment by settling, was considerably reduced because of lower P supply and stronger stratification. However, the decrease in the biomass of Fragilaria was overcompensated by the increased abundance of cyanobacteria. They benefitted not only from declining phosphorus competition by Fragilaria but also from higher thermal stability and temperature in the epilimnion. Hence, even higher summer biomasses were observed despite considerably lowered phosphorus import. The analysis of the long-term dataset clearly illustrates the deciding impact of hydrophysical factors on the phytoplankton growth, also under nutrient deficient conditions. The altered mixing and stratification pattern caused by climate change did not only prevent the re-oligotrophication of the reservoir but even enhanced the phytoplankton production. It seems that global warming modifies the interplay between physical and nutrient limitation mechanisms and the limits and models used in the past to classify trophic-state levels have to be verified. The study shows the enormous significance and indispensability of uninterrupted ecological long-term datasets, including reliable data of the ecosystem's organismic structure, for research about the consequences of climate change. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Koch U.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Heinicke J.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig
Journal of Geodynamics | Year: 2011

For more than 20 years, seismohydrological investigations have been undertaken at the mineral aquifer system of Bad Brambach (Vogtland, Germany). Two strong swarm earthquake series in 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 at the Nový Kostel epicentre (Czech Republic, 10 km E of BB) have enabled for the first time a comparison of seismological and groundwater hydraulic features in a semi-quantitative way. In spite of their similar spatial distribution in 2001 and 2008, the earthquake foci of each swarm migrated differently through time, horizontally as well as in depth. The seismic energy of the 2008-2009 events was released predominantly within 1 month, in contrast to 2000-2001 when it occurred over 3 months. The main distinctive features of each are seen in the hydraulic pressure anomalies which accompanied the earthquake swarms: number, shape, and progression (duration) of the anomalies. The comprehensive hydraulic data, with high temporal resolution, suggest that fluid triggering dominated not only the earthquake initiating phases. In particular, the long-lasting seismicity of the 2008-2009 swarm can be attributed to a continued triggering of weak earthquakes by over-pressured deep fluids. Here, the remaining static strain was obviously not sufficient to generate strong earthquakes as at the beginning of the earthquake swarm periods. Furthermore, the enduring high fluid pressure in 2009 could also indicate a continuation of the long-term gas flow increase observed at several gas outlets in the Vogtland/NW Bohemia region between 1998 and 2008. However, it is not possible at present to derive a systematic relationship between anomaly occurrence and seismic activity, as generally proposed in the context of earthquake prediction discussion. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Deutsch M.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig
Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung | Year: 2010

Motivated by the enactment of the first gauging instructions in Prussia 200 years ago, this article gives a short review on the history of the Prussian gauging system in the 19th century. It was implemented in the Kingdom of Prussia on February 13th, 1810 and used as the most important basis for all public hydrological engineering administrations. These instructions were practiced until a new regulation was adopted in September 1871. Even though gauging observations had been carried out before 1810 in many places, the date February 13th, 1810 may be described as the starting date of hydrological work in Prussia.


PubMed | TU Dresden and Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2016

Degradation of biomass in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors via anaerobic digestion involves a syntrophic association of a plethora of anaerobic microorganisms. The commercial application of this process is the large-scale production of biogas from renewable feedstock as an alternative to fossil fuels. After hydrolysis of polymers, monomers are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and alcohols, which are further oxidized to acetate. Carbon dioxide, molecular hydrogen (H2), and acetate generated during the process are converted to methane by methanogenic archaea. Since many of the metabolic pathways as well as the syntrophic interactions and dependencies during anaerobic digestion involve formation, utilization, or transfer of H2, its metabolism and the methanogenic population were assessed in various samples from three commercial biogas plants. Addition of H2 significantly increased the rate of methane formation, which suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is not a rate-limiting step during biogas formation. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina appeared to numerically dominate the archaeal population of the three digesters, but their proportion and the Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio did not correlate with the methane productivity. Instead, hydrogenase activity in cell-free extracts from digester sludge correlated with methane productivity in a positive fashion. Since most microorganisms involved in biogas formation contain this activity, it approximates the overall anaerobic metabolic activity and may, thus, be suitable for monitoring biogas reactor performance.


PubMed | TU Dresden and Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Archives of microbiology | Year: 2016

Various methods are available for DNA isolation from environmental samples. Because the chemical and biological composition of samples such as soil, sludge, or plant material is different, the effectiveness of DNA isolation can vary depending on the method applied and thus, have a substantial effect on the results of downstream analysis of the microbial community. Although the process of biogas formation is being intensely investigated, a systematic evaluation of kits for DNA isolation from material of biogas plants is still lacking. Since no DNA isolation kit specifically tailored for DNA isolation from sludge of biogas plants is available, this study compares five commercially available kits regarding their influence on downstream analyses such denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results show that not all kits are equally suited for the DNA isolation from samples of different biogas plants, but highly reproducible DGGE fingerprints as well as qPCR results across the tested samples from biogas reactors using different substrate compositions could be produced using selected kits.

Loading Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig collaborators
Loading Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig collaborators