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The increasing pollution of waters in the catchments of the rivers Elbe and Rhine posed a tremendous challenge on the edge of the 20th century. Institutions of municipalities, states and the Reich became the dominant protagonists in proposing and performing water- quality investigations. The development from early individual investigations to multidisciplinary and supra-regional surveys and further to the establishment of (long-term) monitoring networks can be illustrated by examples. Milestones of the temporal, spatial, and thematic expansion of these investigations are presented, like the systematic investigation of the River Rhine between 1904 and1908 from Basel to Koblenz, an example of cooperation of several federal states and agencies of the Reich. The knowledge of the approach and results from historical investigations of water quality can be beneficial for today's monitoring programmes in several aspects, even as a source of data.

Deutsch M.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Glaser R.,Institute For Physische Geographie Ipg | Portge K.-H.,University of Gottingen | Drescher A.,Institute F Physische Geog Ipg | And 3 more authors.
Geographische Rundschau | Year: 2010

The recently accumulated number of floods has led to intense scientific discussions. Continued recording of gauge levels started at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century. Accordingly the data base on historic discharges is limited. Apart from records on gauge levels other written documents or further objects (e.g. as high water marks) may be used to collect information on discharge performances. Furthermore holocene sediments (e.g. alluvial clay) serve as indicators for past flood waters. Interdisciplinary researches have enabled to construct 'flood water chronics for multiple rivers for the last 500 years. A comparison of these chronics shows that they do not always run parallel. Following today's state of knowledge of past drain processing, it becomes clear that climatic variations influence the frequency and intensity of flood water incidents.

Heinicke J.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Italiano F.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Koch U.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Martinelli G.,ARPA Emilia Romagna | Telesca L.,CNR Institute of Methodologies for Environmental analysis
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2010

The Miano borehole, 1047 m deep, is located close to the river Parma in the Northern Apennines, Italy. A measuring station has been installed to observe the discharge of fluids continuously since November 2004. The upwelling fluid of this artesian well is a mixture of thermal water and CH4 as main components. In non-seismogenic areas, a relatively constant fluid emission would be expected, perhaps overlaid with long term variations from that kind of deep reservoir over time. However, the continuous record of the fluid emission, in particular the water discharge, the gas flow rate and the water temperature, show periods of stable values interrupted by anomalous periods of fluctuations in the recorded parameters. The anomalous variations of these parameters are of low amplitude in comparison to the total values but significant in their long-term trend. Meteorological effects due to rain and barometric pressure were not detected in recorded data probably due to reservoir depth and relatively high reservoir overpressure. Influences due to the ambient temperature after the discharge were evaluated by statistical analysis. Our results suggest that recorded changes in fluid emission parameters can be interpreted as a mixing process of different fluid components at depth by variations in pore pressure as a result of seismogenic stress variation. Local seismicity was analyzed in comparison to the fluid physico-chemical data. The analysis supports the idea that an influence on fluid transport conditions due to geodynamic processes exists. Water temperature data show frequent anomalies probably connected with possible precursory phenomena of local seismic events. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Deutsch M.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig
Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung | Year: 2010

Motivated by the enactment of the first gauging instructions in Prussia 200 years ago, this article gives a short review on the history of the Prussian gauging system in the 19th century. It was implemented in the Kingdom of Prussia on February 13th, 1810 and used as the most important basis for all public hydrological engineering administrations. These instructions were practiced until a new regulation was adopted in September 1871. Even though gauging observations had been carried out before 1810 in many places, the date February 13th, 1810 may be described as the starting date of hydrological work in Prussia.

Theiss J.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig | Rother M.,TU Dresden | Roske K.,Sachsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig
Archives of Microbiology | Year: 2016

Various methods are available for DNA isolation from environmental samples. Because the chemical and biological composition of samples such as soil, sludge, or plant material is different, the effectiveness of DNA isolation can vary depending on the method applied and thus, have a substantial effect on the results of downstream analysis of the microbial community. Although the process of biogas formation is being intensely investigated, a systematic evaluation of kits for DNA isolation from material of biogas plants is still lacking. Since no DNA isolation kit specifically tailored for DNA isolation from sludge of biogas plants is available, this study compares five commercially available kits regarding their influence on downstream analyses such denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results show that not all kits are equally suited for the DNA isolation from samples of different biogas plants, but highly reproducible DGGE fingerprints as well as qPCR results across the tested samples from biogas reactors using different substrate compositions could be produced using selected kits. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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