Grand Junction, CO, United States
Grand Junction, CO, United States

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Amos C.I.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Pinney S.M.,University of Cincinnati | Li Y.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Kupert E.,University of Cincinnati | And 15 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Cigarette smoking is the major cause for lung cancer, but genetic factors also affect susceptibility. We studied families that included multiple relatives affected by lung cancer. Results from linkage analysis showed strong evidence that a region of chromosome 6q affects lung cancer risk. To characterize the effects that this region of chromosome 6q region has on lung cancer risk, we identified a haplotype that segregated with lung cancer. We then performed Cox regression analysis to estimate the differential effects that smoking behaviors have on lung cancer risk according to whether each individual carried a risk-associated haplotype or could not be classified and was assigned unknown haplotypic status. We divided smoking exposures into never smokers, light smokers (<20 pack-years), moderate smokers (20 to <40 pack-years), and heavy smokers (≥40 pack-years). Comparing results according to smoking behavior stratified by carrier status, compared with never smokers, there was weakly increasing risk for increasing smoking behaviors, with the hazards ratios being 3.44, 4.91, and 5.18, respectively, for light, moderate, or heavy smokers, whereas among the individuals from families without the risk haplotype, the risks associated with smoking increased strongly with exposure, the hazards ratios being, respectively, 4.25, 9.17, and 11.89 for light, moderate, and heavy smokers. The never smoking carriers had a 4.71-fold higher risk than the never smoking individuals without known risk haplotypes. These results identify a region of chromosome 6q that increases risk for lung cancer and that confers particularly higher risks to never and light smokers. ©2010 AACR.


Leng S.,Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute | Thomas C.L.,Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute | Snider A.M.,Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute | Picchi M.A.,Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2016

Background: High radon exposure is a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma, a major lung cancer histology observed in former uranium miners. Radon exposure can cause oxidative stress, leading to pulmonary inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-carcinogenic inflammatory cytokine that plays a pivotal role in lung cancer development. Objectives: We assessed whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL6 promoter are associated with lung cancer in former uranium miners with high occupational exposure to radon gas. Methods: Genetic associations were assessed in a case–control study of former uranium miners (242 cases and 336 controls). A replication study was performed using data from the Gene Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of Lung Cancer and Smoking. Functional relevance of the SNPs was characterized using in vitro approaches. Results: We found that rs1800797 was associated with squamous cell carcinoma in miners and with a shorter time between the midpoint of the period of substantial exposure and diagnosis among the cases. Furthermore, rs1800797 was also associated with lung cancer among never smokers in the GENEVA dataset. Functional studies identified that the risk allele was associated with increased basal IL-6 mRNA level and greater promoter activity. Furthermore, fibroblasts with the risk allele showed greater induction of IL-6 secretion by hydrogen peroxide or benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide treatments. Conclusions: An IL6 promoter variant was associated with lung cancer in uranium miners and never smokers in two external study populations. The associations are strongly supported by the functional relevance that the IL6 promoter SNP affects basal expression and carcinogen-induced IL-6 secretion. © 2016, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All Rights Reserved.

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