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Tinsley M.,West Virginia University | Lewis F.I.,University of Zurich | Brulisauer F.,SAC Consulting Veterinary Services
Veterinary Research | Year: 2012

Endemic diseases of cattle, such as bovine viral diarrhea, have significant impact on production efficiency of food of animal origin with consequences for animal welfare and climate change reduction targets. Many modeling studies focus on the local scale, examining the on-farm dynamics of this infectious disease. However, insight into prevalence and control across a network of farms ultimately requires a network level approach. Here, we implement understanding of infection dynamics, gained through these detailed on-farm modeling studies, to produce a national scale model of bovine viral diarrhea virus transmission. The complex disease epidemiology and on-farm dynamics are approximated using SIS dynamics with each farm treated as a single unit. Using a top down approach, we estimate on-farm parameters associated with contraction and subsequent clearance from infection at herd level. We examine possible control strategies associated with animal movements between farms and find measures targeted at a small number of high-movement farms efficient for rapid and sustained prevalence reduction. © 2012 Tinsley et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Crawshaw W.M.,Zoetis UK Ltd | Crawshaw W.M.,MBM Veterinary Group | Caldow G.L.,SAC Consulting Veterinary Services
Veterinary Record | Year: 2015

This field study used data on the vaccine courses against bovine respiratory disease sold by one pharmaceutical company in conjunction with pharmacovigilance data to explore reported suspected lack of expected efficacy and the reasons for this. The study ran from May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2010, and covered vaccines sold in Scotland and part of Northumberland. In total, 83 groups of cattle reported suspected lack of expected efficacy, representing 1.6 per cent of the 804,618 vaccine courses sold. It was possible to investigate 45 of these outbreaks in depth using a standard questionnaire and diagnostic protocol. Vaccine usage outwith the specific product characteristics (SPC) occurred in 47 per cent of cases (21/45). The proportion of vaccination courses used where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected in the diseased cattle and vaccine use was consistent with the SPC was estimated at 0.12 per cent of the courses sold. Pasteurella multocida was the most common pathogen detected and was found in 21 of the outbreaks. For outbreaks where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected, P. multocida was found at a significantly greater frequency (P=0.03) where vaccine use was compliant with the SPC (five of six outbreaks) compared with outbreaks where vaccine use had not been compliant with the SPC (one of seven outbreaks). The limitations of the study, including the diagnostic tests employed and definition of vaccination outwith the SPC, are discussed.

Millins C.,University of Glasgow | Howie F.,SAC Consulting Veterinary Services | Everitt C.,National Wildlife Crime Unit | Shand M.,University of Glasgow | Lamm C.,IDEXX Laboratories
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology | Year: 2014

This study describes the occurrence of suspected wildlife crimes submitted for forensic examination in Scotland in 2010. The study aims were to determine which types of crimes were committed, which species were targeted, and the outcome of investigations, in order to assess the contribution of forensic examinations in the prosecution of wildlife crimes. Information on suspected wildlife crimes submitted between January 1 and December 31, 2010 to the SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services Disease Surveillance Centers, Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture, and to the University of Glasgow, was used. The location of suspected crimes, the species targeted, cause of death, and types of the 188 submitted wildlife crimes were summarized. More information regarding cases involving birds were submitted than cases involving mammals, and included 114 raptors, 14 waterfowl, and 22 "other bird species." Mammal cases (n = 38) included 12 badgers, 8 foxes, 7 deer, 4 hares, and 7 "other mammals." The cause of death was determined in 124 suspected crimes; malicious or accidental trauma was the most likely cause of death in 72, and 33 were poisoned. Forensic evidence supporting criminal activity was found in 53 cases, and poisoning was the most frequent crime recorded. At least five individuals were successfully prosecuted, representing 2.7 % of submissions. It was challenging to track cases from submission through to prosecution and laboratories conducting forensic investigations were often not informed of the outcome of prosecutions or court decisions. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Haase J.K.,University College Cork | Brown D.J.,Shigella and Clostridium Difficile Reference Laboratory | Weill F.-X.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Mather H.,Shigella and Clostridium Difficile Reference Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

According to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, 4,12:a:- Salmonella enterica isolates from harbor porpoises are highly diverse. However, porpoise isolates belong to only two multilocus sequence types within the eBurst group 18 (eBG18) genetic cluster, which also includes S. enterica serovars Bispebjerg and Abortusequi. Isolates of other, serologically similar serovars belong to unrelated eBGs. These assignments to eBGs were supported by eBG-specific sequences of the flagellar gene fliC. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Foster G.,SAC Consulting Veterinary Services | Higgins R.,University of Montreal | Leclair D.,Makivik Corporation | Korczak B.M.,University of Bern | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2011

Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on eight Gram-negative-staining, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from seals. Biochemical and physiological studies showed identical profiles for all of the isolates and indicated that they were related to the family Pasteurellaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the organism represented a distinct cluster with two sublines within the family Pasteurellaceae with,<96% sequence similarity to any recognized species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) including rpoB, infB and recN genes further confirmed these findings with the eight isolates forming a genus-like cluster with two branches. Genome relatedness as deduced from recN gene sequences suggested that the isolates represented a new genus with two species. On the basis of the results of the phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic criteria, it is proposed that these bacteria from seals are classified as Bisgaardia hudsonensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (the type species) and Bisgaardia genomospecies 1. The G+C content of the DNA was 39.5 mol%. The type strain of Bisgaardia hudsonensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is M327/99/2 T (=CCUG 43067 T=NCTC 13475 T598-D-690B T) and the reference strain of Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 is M1765/96/5 (5CCUG 595515NCTC 13474). © 2011 IUMS.

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