SAC Consulting Veterinary Services

Inverness, United Kingdom

SAC Consulting Veterinary Services

Inverness, United Kingdom
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PubMed | Justus Liebig University, Institute For Lebensmittelqualitat Und Sicherheit, SAC Consulting Veterinary Services, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency and RIPAC LABOR GmbH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2014

In the present study 13 Arcanobacterium pluranimalium strains isolated from various animal origin could successfully be identified phenotypically by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and genotypically by sequencing 16S rDNA and the pluranimaliumlysin encoding gene pla. The detection of mass spectra by MALDI-TOF MS and the novel genotypic approach using gene pla might help to identify A. pluranimalium in future and might elucidate the role this species plays in infections of animals.


PubMed | UK Institute of Zoology, CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, SAC Consulting Veterinary Services and Marine Environmental Monitoring
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2015

A suite of twenty organophosphorus flame retardant compounds have been determined in blubber and liver tissue of twenty harbour porpoises stranded or bycaught in the UK during 2012 in order to establish current levels of contamination. Fourteen of the twenty compounds were below the limits of quantification in all samples. Six could be quantified at maximum concentrations (in blubber) between 6.7 and 246gkg(-1) wet weight. These levels do not suggest a high level of concern regarding potential impacts and do not indicate that routine monitoring in UK porpoises is warranted at this time.


PubMed | University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Justus Liebig University, SAC Consulting Veterinary Services and Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular and cellular probes | Year: 2015

In the present study 28 Arcanobacterium pluranimalium strains isolated from various origins could successfully be identified with a newly designed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on gene pla encoding pluranimaliumlysin. No comparable reaction could be observed with control strains representing five species of genus Arcanobacterium and five species of genus Trueperella. The presented pla LAMP assay might allow a reliable and low cost identification of this bacterial pathogen also in laboratories with less specified equipment.


PubMed | SAC Consulting Veterinary Services, Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh and Northumbria University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Equine veterinary journal | Year: 2015

Equine grass sickness (EGS) is of unknown aetiology. Despite some evidence suggesting that it represents a toxico-infection with Clostridium botulinum types C and/or D, the effect of EGS on the functional targets of botulinum neurotoxins, namely the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins, is unknown. Further, while it is commonly stated that, unlike EGS, equine botulism is not associated with autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration, this has not been definitively assessed.To determine: 1) whether botulism causes autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration; and 2) the effect of EGS on the expression of SNARE proteins within cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) and enteric neuronal perikarya.Descriptive study.Light microscopy was used to compare the morphology of neurons in haematoxylin-eosin stained sections of CCG and ileum from 6 EGS horses, 5 botulism horses and 6 control horses. Immunohistochemistry was used to compare the expression of synaptosomal-associated protein-25, synaptobrevin (Syb) and syntaxin within CCG neurons, and of Syb in enteric neurons, from horses with EGS, horses with botulism and control horses. The concentrations of these SNARE proteins in extracts of CCG from EGS and control horses were compared using quantitative fluorescent western blotting.EGS, but not botulism, was associated with autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration and with increased immunoreactivity for SNARE proteins within neuronal perikarya. Quantitative fluorescent western blotting confirmed increased concentrations of synaptosomal-associated protein-25, Syb and syntaxin within CCG extracts from EGS vs. control horses, with the increases in the latter 2 proteins being statistically significant.The occurrence of autonomic and enteric neurodegeneration, and increased expression of SNARE proteins within neuronal perikarya, in EGS but not botulism, suggests that EGS may not be caused by botulinum neurotoxins. Further investigation of the aetiology of EGS is therefore warranted.


Jones A.L.,SAC Consulting Veterinary Services | Dagleish M.P.,Moredun Research Institute | Caldow G.L.,SAC Consulting Veterinary Services
The Veterinary record | Year: 2015

The aims of this study were to describe 42 cases of Clostridium perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in cattle seen between 2003 and 2014 and to determine the diagnostic value of detecting epsilon toxin in bovine intestinal content. All cases in the series had histological brain changes considered pathognomonic for C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in sheep and goats and the epsilon toxin of C. perfringens was concurrently detected in the intestinal contents of 15 (36 per cent) cases. The data from the case series indicate that intestinal epsilon toxin has a sensitivity of 56 per cent compared with histology of the brain for diagnosis of bovine C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia. The diagnostic specificity of detecting epsilon toxin in bovine intestinal content was investigated by screening intestinal contents of 60 bovine carcases submitted for postmortem examination. Epsilon toxin was detected in 11 (18 per cent) carcases but no pathognomonic histological brain change was found in any. The specificity of intestinal epsilon toxin was estimated to be 80.4 per cent. These studies demonstrate that for a definitive diagnosis of C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in cattle histological examination of the brain is essential as the presence of epsilon toxin in the intestinal contents alone is neither sensitive nor specific enough. British Veterinary Association.


PubMed | Moredun Research Institute and SAC Consulting Veterinary Services
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Veterinary record | Year: 2015

The aims of this study were to describe 42 cases of Clostridium perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in cattle seen between 2003 and 2014 and to determine the diagnostic value of detecting epsilon toxin in bovine intestinal content. All cases in the series had histological brain changes considered pathognomonic for C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in sheep and goats and the epsilon toxin of C. perfringens was concurrently detected in the intestinal contents of 15 (36 per cent) cases. The data from the case series indicate that intestinal epsilon toxin has a sensitivity of 56 per cent compared with histology of the brain for diagnosis of bovine C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia. The diagnostic specificity of detecting epsilon toxin in bovine intestinal content was investigated by screening intestinal contents of 60 bovine carcases submitted for postmortem examination. Epsilon toxin was detected in 11 (18 per cent) carcases but no pathognomonic histological brain change was found in any. The specificity of intestinal epsilon toxin was estimated to be 80.4 per cent. These studies demonstrate that for a definitive diagnosis of C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in cattle histological examination of the brain is essential as the presence of epsilon toxin in the intestinal contents alone is neither sensitive nor specific enough.


Crawshaw W.M.,Zoetis UK Ltd | Crawshaw W.M.,MBM Veterinary Group | Caldow G.L.,SAC Consulting Veterinary Services
Veterinary Record | Year: 2015

This field study used data on the vaccine courses against bovine respiratory disease sold by one pharmaceutical company in conjunction with pharmacovigilance data to explore reported suspected lack of expected efficacy and the reasons for this. The study ran from May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2010, and covered vaccines sold in Scotland and part of Northumberland. In total, 83 groups of cattle reported suspected lack of expected efficacy, representing 1.6 per cent of the 804,618 vaccine courses sold. It was possible to investigate 45 of these outbreaks in depth using a standard questionnaire and diagnostic protocol. Vaccine usage outwith the specific product characteristics (SPC) occurred in 47 per cent of cases (21/45). The proportion of vaccination courses used where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected in the diseased cattle and vaccine use was consistent with the SPC was estimated at 0.12 per cent of the courses sold. Pasteurella multocida was the most common pathogen detected and was found in 21 of the outbreaks. For outbreaks where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected, P. multocida was found at a significantly greater frequency (P=0.03) where vaccine use was compliant with the SPC (five of six outbreaks) compared with outbreaks where vaccine use had not been compliant with the SPC (one of seven outbreaks). The limitations of the study, including the diagnostic tests employed and definition of vaccination outwith the SPC, are discussed.


Foster G.,SAC Consulting Veterinary Services | Higgins R.,University of Montréal | Leclair D.,Makivik Corporation | Korczak B.M.,University of Bern | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2011

Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on eight Gram-negative-staining, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from seals. Biochemical and physiological studies showed identical profiles for all of the isolates and indicated that they were related to the family Pasteurellaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the organism represented a distinct cluster with two sublines within the family Pasteurellaceae with,<96% sequence similarity to any recognized species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) including rpoB, infB and recN genes further confirmed these findings with the eight isolates forming a genus-like cluster with two branches. Genome relatedness as deduced from recN gene sequences suggested that the isolates represented a new genus with two species. On the basis of the results of the phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic criteria, it is proposed that these bacteria from seals are classified as Bisgaardia hudsonensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (the type species) and Bisgaardia genomospecies 1. The G+C content of the DNA was 39.5 mol%. The type strain of Bisgaardia hudsonensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is M327/99/2 T (=CCUG 43067 T=NCTC 13475 T598-D-690B T) and the reference strain of Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 is M1765/96/5 (5CCUG 595515NCTC 13474). © 2011 IUMS.


Tinsley M.,West Virginia University | Lewis F.I.,University of Zürich | Brulisauer F.,SAC Consulting Veterinary Services
Veterinary Research | Year: 2012

Endemic diseases of cattle, such as bovine viral diarrhea, have significant impact on production efficiency of food of animal origin with consequences for animal welfare and climate change reduction targets. Many modeling studies focus on the local scale, examining the on-farm dynamics of this infectious disease. However, insight into prevalence and control across a network of farms ultimately requires a network level approach. Here, we implement understanding of infection dynamics, gained through these detailed on-farm modeling studies, to produce a national scale model of bovine viral diarrhea virus transmission. The complex disease epidemiology and on-farm dynamics are approximated using SIS dynamics with each farm treated as a single unit. Using a top down approach, we estimate on-farm parameters associated with contraction and subsequent clearance from infection at herd level. We examine possible control strategies associated with animal movements between farms and find measures targeted at a small number of high-movement farms efficient for rapid and sustained prevalence reduction. © 2012 Tinsley et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Pfizer and SAC Consulting Veterinary Services
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Veterinary record | Year: 2015

This field study used data on the vaccine courses against bovine respiratory disease sold by one pharmaceutical company in conjunction with pharmacovigilance data to explore reported suspected lack of expected efficacy and the reasons for this. The study ran from May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2010, and covered vaccines sold in Scotland and part of Northumberland. In total, 83 groups of cattle reported suspected lack of expected efficacy, representing 1.6 per cent of the 804,618 vaccine courses sold. It was possible to investigate 45 of these outbreaks in depth using a standard questionnaire and diagnostic protocol. Vaccine usage outwith the specific product characteristics (SPC) occurred in 47 per cent of cases (21/45). The proportion of vaccination courses used where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected in the diseased cattle and vaccine use was consistent with the SPC was estimated at 0.12 per cent of the courses sold. Pasteurella multocida was the most common pathogen detected and was found in 21 of the outbreaks. For outbreaks where a pathogen contained in the vaccine was detected, P. multocida was found at a significantly greater frequency (P=0.03) where vaccine use was compliant with the SPC (five of six outbreaks) compared with outbreaks where vaccine use had not been compliant with the SPC (one of seven outbreaks). The limitations of the study, including the diagnostic tests employed and definition of vaccination outwith the SPC, are discussed.

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