Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences

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Sabzevar, Iran
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Rad M.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Karimi Moonaghi H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
BMJ Open | Year: 2017

IntroductionManaging incivility in academic settings is among the basic concerns and challenges of most educational systems, including nursing education. Incivility management cannot be considered devoid of disruptive behaviors. However, incivility management is a complexphenomenon upon which few studies are conducted.ObjectivesThe present study aims at discovering teachers and students' experiences regarding incivility and developing an approach to manage nursing students' incivility.DesignThe present study was conducted based on the qualitative research design of the grounded theory methodology.SettingsThis study was conducted at schools of nursing in academic settings in Iran.Participants Study participants in the present study include nurse teachers (N=20) and nursing students (N=9).Method In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted using theoretical and purposive sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. Results The results include four main categories; (1) deterioration of learning; (2) dominant individual and organisational culture; (3) guided democracy; and (4) movement toward professionalism. Guided democracy is recognised as the main basic psychosocial process for incivility management. Conclusions Incivility management is pursued to help learners develop professional performance. As indicated by the results of the present study, guided democracy is an effective strategy for incivility management in nursing education. © Article author(s).


Amin B.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Hajhashemi V.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Hosseinzadeh H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Glutamate neurotoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokines have an important role in the central sensitization of neuropathic pain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate anti-hyperalgesic effect of repeated administration of ceftriaxone, which selectively activates and increases the expression of glutamate transporter, as well as minocycline, a selective inhibitor of microglia activation, either alone or together in Wistar rats subjected to the chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. Ceftriaxone (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) and minocycline (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally from the day of surgery for seven consecutive days. Thermal hyperalgesia was assessed by focal radiant heat source on the hind paw of animals one day before surgery and on 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days following that. Ceftriaxone dose dependently, attenuated thermal hyperalgesia in animals. None of the administered doses of minocycline affected the CCI induced-thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic animals. A fixed dose of minocycline (50 mg/kg) combined with three different doses of ceftriaxone administered for 7 consecutive days yielded a potentiating effect in the enhancing latency time to noxious thermal stimulus remaining until the14th day post-surgery. The results suggest that modulation of microglia activity could have a supportive role in the improvement of CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia and combination of such classes of drugs which have no antibiotic effects could be a new and promising therapeutic strategy for treatment.


Rad M.,Sabzevar University of Medical science | Rad M.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis | Year: 2017

Effective chest compression is an important factor playing a key role in the cardiac arrest patient survival. An understanding of the factors causing an early physical fatigue can help to improve the quality of CPR operations in hospitals. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the factors relevant to the onset time of physical fatigue and resuscitation quality during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provision by Iranian nurses. The present cross-sectional study was performed on 194 subjects selected based on a stratified random sampling procedure from different hospital wards. The participants were required to perform CPR operations on a manikin. As they were performing CPR, the time and the quality of compressions were measured by a chronometer and visual analogue fatigue scale, respectively. The rescuers themselves reported the onset time of physical fatigue. Statistical analyses run on the collected data revealed that the majority of participants experienced extreme physical fatigue after a two-minute CPR operation. Moreover, about 71.2% of the participants managed to provide compressions over five centimeters deep. Finally, the physical fatigue experienced by the participants was meaningfully correlated with the body weight, sex, university degree, and work place of the participants (p < 0.05). Since the findings of the present study showed that various factors including the sex, weight, height, university degree, and the work place of the rescuer were significantly correlated with the onset time of physical fatigue experienced during CPR operation, it is recommended that male nurses with greater height and weight be employed in the rescue teams in ICU wards. Moreover, it seems mandatory for the nurses currently working in such teams in hospitals to improve their physical fitness through doing aerobics on a regular basis so that they may experience less fatigue during their CPR operations in future.


Kafami M.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Nasimi A.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences
Brain Research Bulletin | Year: 2016

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is part of the limbic system located in the rostral forebrain. BST is involved in behavioral, neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including cardiovascular regulation. The amygdala, plays an important role in mediating the behavioral and physiological responses associated with fear and anxiety, including cardiovascular responses. In a previous study, we showed that microinjection of AngII into the BST produced a pressor and two types of single-unit responses in the BST, short excitatory and long inhibitory. This study was performed to find possible involvement of amygdala in cardiovascular responses elicited by microinjection of AngII into the BST, using blockade of the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) and single unit recording from the CeA, while injecting AngII into the BST in anesthetized rat. Blockade of CeA attenuated the pressor response to microinjection of AngII into the BST. Eighty-six AngII microinjections were given into the BST and 198 single unit responses were recorded from CeA simultaneously, from which 89 showed a short duration excitatory response and 109 showed no responses. In conclusion, microinjection of AngII into the BST produces a short excitatory single unit response in the CeA, resulting in contribution of amygdala to the resulted pressor response. Taken together, our study and previous studies suggest a plausible hypothesis that these two nuclei perform their cardiovascular functions in cooperation with each other. © 2016


Foji S.,Sabzevar University of Medical science | Tadayonfar M.A.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Mohsenpour M.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences | Rakhshani M.H.,Sabzevar University of Medical science
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice | Year: 2015

One of the most frequently used methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases is cardiac catheterization which increases the anxiety level in patients before surgery. In this random clinical study, 62 people undergoing coronary angiography were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The necessary data were collected through a hemodynamic variable sheet, the STAI anxiety questionnaire and a pain scale. The experimental group subjects were asked to listen to a Guided Imagery CD for 18min. The mean level of anxiety for the Guided Imagery group after the intervention decreased significantly. The comparison of the means of hemodynamic parameters before and after the intervention showed a small decrease after the intervention, but this reduction was not statistically significant. Moreover, the means of pain as measured by pain scale showed that the control group had slower level of pain but, again, this difference was not statistically significant. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Jafari-Koshki T.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Arsang-Jang S.,Qom University of Medical Sciences | Raei M.,Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2015

Setting: Assessing tuberculosis (TB) distribution in regions over time is essential for health officials to have a proper understanding of current status, determine highrisk areas, and improve case management and resource allocation. Objective: To evaluate spatial distribution and trends in the risk of smear-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Iran during 2001-2012 using spatiotemporal models. Design: Overall and province-specific trends in TB risk were estimated using a Bayesian spatiotemporal model. We obtained Bayesian posterior probabilities to test the hypothesis of the relative risk (RR) being equal to 1 and the significance of TB trends in each province. Results: Estimated countrywide trends declined at a rate of almost 3% per decade. The RR was the highest in the provinces of Sistan and Baluchestan, followed by Golestan, Khorasan-Razavi, Hormozgan, Qom, Guilan and South Khorasan. Upward temporal trends were observed in nine provinces. Conclusion: TB risk was generally high in provinces bordering high TB burden countries; population movements from high-risk provinces and adjacent countries appear to be the main challenge to TB control. Nevertheless, the declining risk pattern in these provinces indicates good, but inadequate, progress with TB control. Different health policies according to TB risk and trend are required for each province. © 2015 The Union.


Amin B.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Hosseinzadeh H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Planta Medica | Year: 2015

For many centuries, seeds of Nigella sativa (black cumin), a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been used as a seasoning spice and food additive in the Middle East and Mediterranean areas. Traditionally, the plant is used for asthma, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, cough, bronchitis, headache, eczema, fever, dizziness, and gastrointestinal disturbances. The literature regarding the biological activities of seeds of this plant is extensive, citing bronchodilative, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. The active ingredients of N. sativa are mainly concentrated in the fixed or essential oil of seeds, which are responsible for most health benefits. This review will provide all updated reported activities of this plant with an emphasis on the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results of various studies have demonstrated that the oil, extracts, and their active ingredients, in particular, thymoquinone, possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, supporting the common folk perception of N. Sativa as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Many protective properties are attributed to reproducible radical scavenging activity as well as an interaction with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation, including proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. However, there is a need for further investigations to find out the precise mechanisms responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant and its active constituents. Copyright © 2015, Georg Thieme Verlag KG. All rights reserved.


Amin B.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Abnous K.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Motamedshariaty V.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Hosseinzadeh H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias | Year: 2014

In our previous study, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Crocus sativus elicited antinociceptive effects in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. In this study, we explored anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of such extracts in CCI animals. A total of 72 animals were divided as vehicle-treated CCI rats, sham group, CCI animals treated with the effective dose of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (200 mg/kg, i.p.). The lumbar spinal cord levels of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), were evaluated at days 3 and 7 after CCI (n=3, for each group). The apoptotic protein changes were evaluated at days 3 and 7 by western blotting. Oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione reduced (GSH), were measured on day 7 after CCI. Inflammatory cytokines levels increased in CCI animals on days 3 and 7, which were suppressed by both extracts. The ratio of Bax/ Bcl2 was elevated on day 3 but not on day 7, in CCI animals as compared to sham operated animals and decreased following treatment with both extracts at this time. Both extracts attenuated MDA and increased GSH levels in CCI animals. It may be concluded that saffron alleviates neuropathic pain, at least in part, through attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines, antioxidant activity and apoptotic pathways. © 2014 Academia Brasileira de Ciencias. All Rights reserved.


Golmohammadi R.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Pejhan A.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2012

Objective: To investigate and compare the prognostic value of P53 and Ki67 markers in patients with breast cancer in Sabzevar, north east of Iran. Methods: A descriptive analytical study was conducted on 80 patients with breast cancer who were admitted to the hospitals in Sabzevar in 2006 and they were followed up to 2010. The expression of ki67 and stability of p53 genes were determined by immunohistochemistry. To assess the disease prognosis, patients were followed up to 48 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, Kaplan- Miere and Log Rank tests were used for statistical purposes. Results: Eighty cancerous tissue samples were examined. The Ki67 marker was present in 37 (46.3%) cases and the P53 protein stability in 39 (48.8%) cases were observed. There was a significant relationship between ki67 gene expression and tumour stage (p = 0.001) or tumour type (P = 0.02). There was also a significant relationship between the survival rate and the tumor stage (P = 0.008). The Ki67 marker had significant relationship with the survival rate (P = 0.031), but over expression of P53 protein did not show such significance (P = 0.385). Conclusion: The results showed that the Ki67 marker was more important than P53 protein in prognosis of the breast cancer patients.


Zadeh H.G.,Hakim Sabzevari University | Haddadnia J.,Hakim Sabzevari University | Hashemian M.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Hassanpour K.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Medical Physics | Year: 2012

Introduction: This study is an effort to diagnose breast cancer by processing the quantitative and qualitative information obtained from medical infrared imaging. The medical infrared imaging is free from any harmful radiation and it is one of the best advantages of the proposed method. By analyzing this information, the best diagnostic parameters among the available parameters are selected and its sensitivity and precision in cancer diagnosis is improved by utilizing genetic algorithm and artificial neural network. Materials and Methods: In this research, the necessary information is obtained from thermal imaging of 200 people, and 8 diagnostic parameters are extracted from these images by the research team. Then these 8 parameters are used as input of our proposed combinatorial model which is formed using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm. Results: Our results have revealed that comparison of the breast areas; thermal pattern and kurtosis are the most important parameters in breast cancer diagnosis from proposed medical infrared imaging. The proposed combinatorial model with a 50% sensitivity, 75% specificity and, 70% accuracy shows good precision in cancer diagnosis. Conclusion: The main goal of this article is to describe the capability of infrared imaging in preliminary diagnosis of breast cancer. This method is beneficial to patients with and without symptoms. The results indicate that the proposed combinatorial model produces optimum and efficacious parameters in comparison to other parameters and can improve the capability and power of globalizing the artificial neural network. This will help physicians in more accurate diagnosis of this type of cancer.

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