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Jafari-Koshki T.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Jafari-Koshki T.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Mansourian M.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Mokarian F.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Breast cancer is a fatal disease and the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women with an increasing pattern worldwide. The burden is mostly attributed to metastatic cancers that occur in one-third of patients and the treatments are palliative. It is of great interest to determine factors affecting time from cancer diagnosis to secondary metastasis. Materials and Methods: Cure rate models assume a Poisson distribution for the number of unobservable metastatic-component cells that are completely deleted from the non-metastasis patient body but some may remain and result in metastasis. Time to metastasis is defined as a function of the number of these cells and the time for each cell to develop a detectable sign of metastasis. Covariates are introduced to the model via the rate of metastatic-component cells. We used non-mixture cure rate models with Weibull and log-logistic distributions in a Bayesian setting to assess the relationship between metastasis free survival and covariates. Results: The median of metastasis free survival was 76.9 months. Various models showed that from covariates in the study, lymph node involvement ratio and being progesterone receptor positive were significant, with an adverse and a beneficial effect on metastasis free survival, respectively. The estimated fraction of patients cured from metastasis was almost 48%. The Weibull model had a slightly better performance than log-logistic. Conclusions: Cure rate models are popular in survival studies and outperform other models under certain conditions. We explored the prognostic factors of metastatic breast cancer from a different viewpoint. In this study, metastasis sites were analyzed all together. Conducting similar studies in a larger sample of cancer patients as well as evaluating the prognostic value of covariates in metastasis to each site separately are recommended.

Gholami O.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Jeddi-Tehrani M.,Avicenna Research Institute | Iranshahi M.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Zarnani A.H.,Avicenna Research Institute | Ziai S.A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2013

Umbelliprenin is a prenylated compound, which belongs to the class of sesquiterpene coumarins. It is extracted from dried roots of Ferula szwitsiana collected from the mountains of Golestan forest (Golestan Province, north of Iran). Induction of apoptosis in Jurkat T-CLL cells has been previously shown. In this study, effect of umbelliprenin on proapoptotic caspases (caspase-8 and -9) and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein was studied. Jurkat cells were incubated with umbelliprenin. Cells were then lysed and activation of proteins was studied by Western blot analysis. In this study, we showed that umbelliprenin activates intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis by the activation of caspase-8 and -9 respectively. Inhibition of Bcl-2 was also shown. In conclusion, umbelliprenin induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells through caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway. © 2013 by School of Pharmacy.

Foji S.,Sabzevar University of Medical science | Tadayonfar M.A.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Mohsenpour M.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences | Rakhshani M.H.,Sabzevar University of Medical science
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice | Year: 2015

One of the most frequently used methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases is cardiac catheterization which increases the anxiety level in patients before surgery. In this random clinical study, 62 people undergoing coronary angiography were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The necessary data were collected through a hemodynamic variable sheet, the STAI anxiety questionnaire and a pain scale. The experimental group subjects were asked to listen to a Guided Imagery CD for 18min. The mean level of anxiety for the Guided Imagery group after the intervention decreased significantly. The comparison of the means of hemodynamic parameters before and after the intervention showed a small decrease after the intervention, but this reduction was not statistically significant. Moreover, the means of pain as measured by pain scale showed that the control group had slower level of pain but, again, this difference was not statistically significant. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Jafari-Koshki T.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Arsang-Jang S.,Qom University of Medical Sciences | Raei M.,Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2015

Setting: Assessing tuberculosis (TB) distribution in regions over time is essential for health officials to have a proper understanding of current status, determine highrisk areas, and improve case management and resource allocation. Objective: To evaluate spatial distribution and trends in the risk of smear-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Iran during 2001-2012 using spatiotemporal models. Design: Overall and province-specific trends in TB risk were estimated using a Bayesian spatiotemporal model. We obtained Bayesian posterior probabilities to test the hypothesis of the relative risk (RR) being equal to 1 and the significance of TB trends in each province. Results: Estimated countrywide trends declined at a rate of almost 3% per decade. The RR was the highest in the provinces of Sistan and Baluchestan, followed by Golestan, Khorasan-Razavi, Hormozgan, Qom, Guilan and South Khorasan. Upward temporal trends were observed in nine provinces. Conclusion: TB risk was generally high in provinces bordering high TB burden countries; population movements from high-risk provinces and adjacent countries appear to be the main challenge to TB control. Nevertheless, the declining risk pattern in these provinces indicates good, but inadequate, progress with TB control. Different health policies according to TB risk and trend are required for each province. © 2015 The Union.

Amin B.,Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences | Hosseinzadeh H.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Planta Medica | Year: 2015

For many centuries, seeds of Nigella sativa (black cumin), a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been used as a seasoning spice and food additive in the Middle East and Mediterranean areas. Traditionally, the plant is used for asthma, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, cough, bronchitis, headache, eczema, fever, dizziness, and gastrointestinal disturbances. The literature regarding the biological activities of seeds of this plant is extensive, citing bronchodilative, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. The active ingredients of N. sativa are mainly concentrated in the fixed or essential oil of seeds, which are responsible for most health benefits. This review will provide all updated reported activities of this plant with an emphasis on the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results of various studies have demonstrated that the oil, extracts, and their active ingredients, in particular, thymoquinone, possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, supporting the common folk perception of N. Sativa as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Many protective properties are attributed to reproducible radical scavenging activity as well as an interaction with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation, including proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. However, there is a need for further investigations to find out the precise mechanisms responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant and its active constituents. Copyright © 2015, Georg Thieme Verlag KG. All rights reserved.

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