Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2015
Autochthonous human Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in industrialized countries (due to genotypes 3 and 4) are increasingly reported and are linked to zoonotic transmission, mainly through consumption of contaminated meat from pigs, Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) and deer. Wild boar is deemed as the main HEV wildlife reservoir in these countries, but apart from Japan, the role deer play in HEV epidemiology is largely unknown. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on HEV infection and disease in wild ungulates, the risk they pose for humans and the likely routes of zoonotic HEV transmission. The compiled information should serve for proposing future research, surveillance, prevention and control. Scientific evidence suggests it is likely that wild boar infect deer with HEV when they share the habitat. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) may need a source of infection, acting as spillover host more than as a true reservoir. However, both wild ungulates can serve as an HEV source for humans. In addition, few background data on wildlife population ecology is available from the reviewed literature, which hampers the identification of HEV risk factors in wild ungulates. There is also a lack of studies that connect HEV infection in wildlife and humans. Worldwide, several human cases of HEV infections are described, but knowledge on whether the consumption of infected animals leads to clinical disease in humans is largely lacking. To meet all these challenges, cross-collaborative studies involving medics and wildlife researchers are needed. This should be a global effort to allow research to make a step forward. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Gonzalez-Barrio D.,Spanish Wildlife Research Institute IREC CSIC UCLM |
Avila A.L.V.,Spanish Wildlife Research Institute IREC CSIC UCLM |
Boadella M.,SABIOtec |
Beltran-Beck B.,Spanish Wildlife Research Institute IREC CSIC UCLM |
And 8 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2015
The control of multihost pathogens, such as Coxiella burnetii, should rely on accurate information about the roles played by the main hosts. We aimed to determine the involvement of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the ecology of C. burnetii.We predicted that red deer populations from broad geographic areas within a European context would be exposed to C. burnetii, and therefore, we hypothesized that a series of factors would modulate the exposure of red deer to C. burnetii. To test this hypothesis, we designed a retrospective survey of 47 Iberian red deer populations from which 1,751 serum samples and 489 spleen samples were collected. Sera were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in order to estimate exposure to C. burnetii, and spleen samples were analyzed by PCR in order to estimate the prevalence of systemic infections. Thereafter, we gathered 23 variables- within environmental, host, and management factors-potentially modulating the risk of exposure of deer to C. burnetii, and we performed multivariate statistical analyses to identify the main risk factors. Twenty-three populations were seropositive (48.9%), and C. burnetii DNA in the spleen was detected in 50% of the populations analyzed. The statistical analyses reflect the complexity of C. burnetii ecology and suggest that although red deer may maintain the circulation of C. burnetii without third species, the most frequent scenario probably includes other wild and domestic host species. These findings, taken together with previous evidence of C. burnetii shedding by naturally infected red deer, point at this wild ungulate as a true reservoir for C. burnetii and an important node in the life cycle of C. burnetii, at least in the Iberian Peninsula. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.
Che' Amat A.,University of Castilla - La Mancha |
Che' Amat A.,University Putra Malaysia |
Gonzalez-Barrio D.,University of Castilla - La Mancha |
Ortiz J.A.,L.E.S.S. |
And 10 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015
Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), is often reported in the Eurasian wild boar (. Sus scrofa). Tests detecting antibodies against MTC antigens are valuable tools for TB monitoring and control in suids. However, only limited knowledge exists on serology test performance in 2-6 month-old piglets. In this age-class, recent infections might cause lower antibody levels and lower test sensitivity. We examined 126 wild boar piglets from a TB-endemic site using 6 antibody detection tests in order to assess test performance. Bacterial culture (. n=. 53) yielded a M. bovis infection prevalence of 33.9%, while serum antibody prevalence estimated by different tests ranged from 19% to 38%, reaching sensitivities between 15.4% and 46.2% for plate ELISAs and between 61.5% and 69.2% for rapid immunochromatographic tests based on dual path platform (DPP) technology. The Cohen kappa coefficient of agreement between DPP WTB (Wildlife TB) assay and culture results was moderate (0.45) and all other serological tests used had poor to fair agreements. This survey revealed the ability of several tests for detecting serum antibodies against the MTC antigens in 2-6 month-old naturally infected wild boar piglets. The best performance was demonstrated for DPP tests. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis of a lower sensitivity of serology for detecting M. bovis-infected piglets, as compared to older wild boar. Certain tests, notably the rapid animal-side tests, can contribute to TB control strategies by enabling the setup of test and cull schemes or improving pre-movement testing. However, sub-optimal test performance in piglets as compared to that in older wild boar should be taken into account. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..