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Lai C.-S.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Wu J.-C.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Yu S.-F.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Badmaev V.,CNRS Laboratory of Biology and Applied Pharmacology | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2011

Scope: Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), a major metabolite of curcumin (CUR), has been demonstrated to be anti-cancerogenic and anti-angiogenic and prevents type II diabetes. In this present study, we investigated the chemopreventive effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of dietary administration of CUR and THC in azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice. Methods and results: All mice were sacrificed at 6 and 23wk, and colonic tissue was collected and examined. We found that dietary administration of both CUR and THC could reduce aberrant crypt foci and polyps formation, while THC showed a better inhibitory effect than CUR. At the molecular level, results from Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry staining showed that dietary CUR and THC exhibited anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing the levels of inducible NOS and COX-2 through downregulation of ERK1/2 activation. In addition, both dietary CUR and THC significantly decreased AOM-induced Wnt-1 and β-catenin protein expression, as well as the phosphorylation of GSK-3β in colonic tissue. Moreover, dietary feeding with CUR and THC markedly reduced the protein level of connexin-43, an important molecule of gap junctions, indicating that both CUR and THC might interfer with the intercellular communication of crypt cells. Conclusion: Taken together, these results demonstrated for the first time the in vivo chemopreventive efficacy and molecular mechanisms of dietary THC against AOM-induced colonic tumorigenesis. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Wu J.-C.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Lai C.-S.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Badmaev V.,CNRS Laboratory of Biology and Applied Pharmacology | Nagabhushanam K.,Sabinsa Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2011

Scope: Autophagy (type II programmed cell death) is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Several autophagy-deficient or knockout studies indicate that autophagy is a tumor suppressor. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), a major metabolite of curcumin, has been demonstrated with anti-colon carcinogenesis and antioxidation in vivo. Methods and results: In the present study, we found that treatment with THC induced autophagic cell death in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells by increasing autophage marker acidic vascular organelle (AVO) formation. Flow cytometry also confirmed that THC treatment did not increase sub-G1 cell population whereas curcumin did with strong apoptosis-inducing activity. At the molecular levels, the results from Western blot analysis showed that THC significantly down-regulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalings including decreasing the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin, glycogen synthase kinase 3β and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase. Further molecular analysis exhibited that the pretreatment of 3-methyladenine (an autophagy inhibitor) also significantly reduced acidic vascular organelle production in THC-treated cells. Conclusion: Taken together, these results demonstrated the anticancer efficacy of THC by inducing autophagy as well as provided a potential application for the prevention of human leukemia. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Epelbaum R.,Rambam Health Care Campus | Epelbaum R.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Schaffer M.,Rambam Health Care Campus | Vizel B.,Rambam Health Care Campus | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2010

Curcumin has a potent antiproliferative activity and can also potentiate the antitumor effect of gemcitabine. This study was undertaken to evaluate the activity and feasibility of gemcitabine in combination with curcumin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Seventeen patients were enrolled in the study and received 8,000 mg of curcumin by mouth daily, concurrently with gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m 2 IV weekly × 3 of 4 wk; 5 patients (29%) discontinued curcumin after a few days to 2 wk due to intractable abdominal fullness or pain, and the dose of curcumin was reduced to 4,000 mg/day because of abdominal complaints in 2 other patients. One of 11 evaluable patients (9%) had partial response, 4 (36%) had stable disease, and 6 (55%) had tumor progression. Time to tumor progression was 1-12 mo (median 21/2), and overall survival was 1-24 mo (median 5). Low compliance for curcumin at a dose of 8,000 mg/day, when taken together with systemic gemcitabine, may prevent the use of high doses of oral curcumin needed to achieve systemic effect. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the ability of other formulations of curcumin to enhance the effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Copyright © 2010, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Chiou Y.-S.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Chiou Y.-S.,National Cheng Kung University | Tsai M.-L.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Nagabhushanam K.,Sabinsa Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Inflammatory bowel diseases have been a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by inflammatory cells create oxidative stress and contribute to neoplastic transformation, proliferation, and even metastasis. Previously, resveratrol (RS) and pterostilbene (PS) had been reported to prevent chemical-induced colon carcinogenesis by anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties. In this study, we investigated whether RS and PS could prevent the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumorigenesis via antioxidant action and to explore possible molecular mechanisms. Male BALB/c mice were injected with AOM (5 mg/kg of body weight) with or without RS or PS, and at the end of the protocol, all of the mice were euthanized and colons were analyzed. Administrations of PS can be more effective than RS in reducing AOM-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), lymphoid nodules (LNs), and tumors. We also find that PS is functioning more effectively than RS to reduce nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of protein kinase C-β2 (PKC-β2) and decreasing downstream target gene expression, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and aldose reductase (AR) in mouse colon stimulated by AOM. Moreover, administration of RS and PS for 6 weeks significantly enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione reductase (GR), via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling. When the above findings are taken together, they suggest that both stilbenes block cellular inflammation and oxidative stress through induction of HO-1 and GR, thereby preventing AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis. In comparison, PS was a more potent chemopreventive agent than RS for the prevention of colon cancer. This is also the first study to demonstrate that PS is a Nrf2 inducer and AR inhibitor in the AOM-treated colon carcinogenesis model. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Sabinsa Corporation | Date: 2016-05-20

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