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Tremmel-Bede K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Miko P.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Megyeri M.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Kovacs G.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2016

Six cropping populations, three variety mixtures and one diversity population were developed from winter wheat varieties and studied for physical, compositional and end-use quality traits for three years (2011-2013) under different European climatic and management conditions in order to study the stability of these traits resulted by the genetic diversity. The beneficial compositional and nutritional properties of the populations were assessed, while variation and stability of the traits were analysed statistically. No significant differences were found among the populations in low-input and organic management farming systems in the physical, compositional and processing properties, but there was a difference in the stability of these traits. Most of the populations showed higher stability than the control wheat variety, and populations developed earlier had higher stability than those developed later. Furthermore, some populations were found to be especially unstable for some traits at certain sites (mostly at Austrian, Swiss and UK organic sites). Protein content of the populations was high (13.0-14.7%) without significant difference among them, but there was significant variation in their gluten content (28-36%) and arabinoxylan content (14.6-20.3 mg/g). The most outstanding population for both protein and arabinoxylan content was a Hungarian cropping population named ELIT-CCP. It was concluded that the diversity found in the mixtures and CCPs have stabilizing effect on the quality parameters, but a higher stability was observed under low-input than under organic conditions. These results could be beneficial not only for breeders but also for the consumers in the long run. © 2016 The Authors.

Muellner A.E.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Muellner A.E.,Saatzucht Donau GmbH and Co KG | Mascher F.,Institute for Plant Production science | Schneider D.,Institute for Plant Production science | And 4 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2014

An increasing interest in sustainable forms of agriculture exists worldwide and the demand for varieties specifically adapted to organic and low-input agriculture is rising. As a consequence, breeding methods need to be refined accordingly. In order to get better insight into needs and possibilities with this regard, a comprehensive ring test was performed from 2006 to 2008 with 14 winter wheat varieties in 36 environments in major cropping regions of Austria, France, Romania and Switzerland. Environments were grouped into 9 different subsets according to input systems, years, and countries. Input system N0 consisted of 13 organic and 6 no-input trials; 17 trials in input system N received various levels of synthetic nitrogen. For grain yield (YLD) and protein yield (PYLD), significant G × E was detected. Countries had a stronger effect on both traits than systems. Overall, it was more efficient to select YLD and PYLD in N, for targeting both systems N and N0. For PYLD, direct testing within a given country was always more efficient than indirect selection. Many traits could be scored equally well in both systems, N and N0, but for some traits particularly important for organic agriculture, such as soil coverage, better differentiation was observed under organic conditions. Therefore, we agree with other authors that a commercially sustainable breeding program for organic and low-input agriculture should combine information from high and low-input levels and from diverse regions. Local testing of varieties, however, remains indispensable. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Rakszegi M.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Miko P.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Loschenberger F.,Saatzucht Donau GmbH and Co KG | Hiltbrunner J.,Institute For Pflanzenbauwissenschaften Ipb | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2016

The processing quality of 37 wheat varieties grown in Hungary and Austria (2011-2013) were assessed under organic and conventional low input management. The varieties studied were developed using three breeding strategies (conventional, organic and their combination: BFOA). The aim was to evaluate the effect of the field management and to assess the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods, based on their quality traits under different managements. Furthermore, properties were identified that could characterize wheat quality and be used effectively for selection under both types of growing conditions.Strong year and genotype effects were found for all the quality traits (protein, starch, gluten, GI, Zeleny, Farinograph water absorption, development time, stability and quality number, falling number, flour yield, hardness index) of the studied varieties, while the effect of the management was significant for the physical properties (test weight, thousand-kernel weight, hardness) and gluten quality characters (gluten spread, GI, dough stability) of the grain. The standard deviation of the gluten quality traits characterized the differences between the breeding strategies. It proved possible to pre select organic varieties for quality traits with high broad-sense heritability under conventional growing conditions, but direct selection in organic fields is suggested for gluten quality characters. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Miko P.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Loschenberger F.,Saatzucht Donau GmbH and Co KG | Hiltbrunner J.,Institute For Pflanzenbauwissenschaften Ipb | Aebi R.,Institute For Pflanzenbauwissenschaften Ipb | And 5 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2014

In recent years needs have increased to investigate the necessity of breeding cereals for organic agriculture. The aims of this study were (1) to compare 37 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties with different breeding origin under low input conventional and certified organic farming conditions in Austria and Hungary for 3 years, (2) to identify traits highly sensitive to management systems that could be separated according to their suggested selecting environments and (3) to find evidence for the distinctness of organic wheat breeding. According to the results, seven out of the 15 traits assessed during this study showed significant management × genotype interaction meaning that these traits could be the basis of selection for different management systems. Heading date, sensitivity to leaf rust and powdery mildew had high repeatabilities. For economic reasons, it is therefore reasonable to select for these traits in conventional fields even if the selection target is organic agriculture. However, the present study suggests that selection for the other four traits (grain yield, test weight, leaf-inclination and vigorous growth during booting) should be done later in the target environment. The study compared groups of varieties developed by different breeding strategies (organic, conventional and combined strategies). The results of multivariate analyses showed that the organic breeding was distinct from the other two breeding strategies, but the combined and conventional breeding resulted in similar groupings. It is concluded that the selecting environment has measurable effects on the performance of bread wheat varieties under organic and low input growing conditions. © 2014 The Author(s).

Salameh A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Salameh A.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Buerstmayr M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Steiner B.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2011

Breeding for fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of wheat is a continuous challenge for plant breeders. Resistance to FHB is a quantitative trait, governed by several to many genes and modulated by environmental conditions. The presented study was undertaken to assess the effect on improving FHB resistance and on possible unwanted side effects ('linkage drag') of two resistance QTL, namely Fhb1 and Qfhs. ifa-5A, from the spring wheat line CM-82036 when transferred by marker-assisted backcrossing into several European winter wheat lines. To achieve these goals, we developed and evaluated fifteen backcross-two-derived families based on nine European winter wheat varieties as recipients and the FHB resistant variety CM-82036 as resistance donor. The QTL Qfhs. ifa-5A had a relatively small impact on increasing FHB resistance. On average lines with Fhb1 plus Qfhs. ifa-5A combined were only slightly more resistant compared to lines with Fhb1 alone. The obtained results suggest that the effect of the spring wheat-derived QTL on improving FHB resistance increases in the order Qfhs. ifa-5A < Fhb1 ≤ Qfhs. ifa-5A plus Fhb1 combined. The genetic background of the recipient line had a large impact on the resistance level of the obtained lines. No systematic negative effect of the spring wheat-derived QTL on grain yield, thousand grain weight, hectoliter weight and protein content was found. The use of spring wheat-derived FHB resistance QTL for breeding high yielding cultivars with improved FHB resistance appears therefore highly promising. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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