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Templer S.E.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Templer S.E.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Templer S.E.,Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing | Ammon A.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2017

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is among the most stress-tolerant crops; however, not much is known about the genetic and environmental control of metabolic adaptation of barley to abiotic stresses. We have subjected a genetically diverse set of 81 barley accessions, consisting of Mediterranean landrace genotypes and German elite breeding lines, to drought and combined heat and drought stress at anthesis. Our aim was to (i) investigate potential differences in morphological, physiological, and metabolic adaptation to the two stress scenarios between the Mediterranean and German barley genotypes and (ii) identify metabolic quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). To this end, we have genotyped the investigated barley lines with an Illumina iSelect 9K array and analyzed a set of 57 metabolites from the primary C and N as well as antioxidant metabolism in flag leaves under control and stress conditions. We found that drought-adapted genotypes attenuate leaf carbon metabolism much more strongly than elite lines during drought stress adaptation. Furthermore, we identified mQTLs for flag leaf ?-tocopherol, glutathione, and succinate content by association genetics that co-localize with genes encoding enzymes of the pathways producing these antioxidant metabolites. Our results provide the molecular basis for breeding barley cultivars with improved abiotic stress tolerance. ©The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.


Lantos C.,Cereal Research Non profit Ltd Company | Weyen J.,Saaten Union Biotec GmbH | Orsini J.M.,Saaten Union Biotec GmbH | Gnad H.,Saaten Union Biotec GmbH | And 7 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2013

The efficiency of our anther culture protocol was tested with high- and low-responding genotypes, 'Svilena' and 'Berengar', and 93 F1 winter wheat crosses in 2010 and 2011. Based on data for these genotypes, the effect of genotype influenced the number of embryo-like structures, regenerated plantlets and green plantlets, while the number of albino plantlets was affected by genotype, year and environmental factors. Although genotype also influenced the production of green plantlets from breeding crosses, with green plantlets per 100 anthers ranging from 0.04 to 28.67, the average regeneration rate over all crosses was 5.3 green plantlets/100 anthers, which resulted in a total of 11 416 well-rooted green plantlets. The survival rate of green plantlets following acclimatization was 97.21% in 2010 and 96.34% in 2011. In this study, the phenomenon of albinism and genotype dependency did not hinder the production of more than five thousand green plantlets each year. In our experiments, anther culture proved to be an efficient method in winter wheat breeding programmes with lower costs than alternative technologies. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Raman H.,Charles Sturt University | Raman R.,Charles Sturt University | Nelson M.N.,University of Western Australia | Nelson M.N.,Canola Breeders Western Australia Pty Ltd | And 10 more authors.
DNA Research | Year: 2012

We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines 'Lynx-037DH' and 'Monty-028DH'. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. © 2011 The Author.


PubMed | John Innes Center, Bioplante Florimond Desprez, University of Saskatchewan, Saaten Union Biotec GmbH and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2016

SNP markers were developed for the OWBM resistance gene Sm1 that will be useful for MAS. The wheat Sm1 region is collinear with an inverted syntenic interval in B. distachyon. Orange wheat blossom midge (OWBM, Sitodiplosis mosellana Ghin) is an important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many growing regions. Sm1 is the only described OWBM resistance gene and is the foundation of managing OWBM through host genetics. Sm1 was previously mapped to wheat chromosome arm 2BS relative to simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the dominant, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker WM1. The objectives of this research were to saturate the Sm1 region with markers, develop improved markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS), and examine the synteny between wheat, Brachypodium distachyon, and rice (Oryza sativa) in the Sm1 region. The present study mapped Sm1 in four populations relative to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), SSRs, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers, single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs), and the SCAR WM1. Numerous high quality SNP assays were designed that mapped near Sm1. BLAST delineated the syntenic intervals in B. distachyon and rice using gene-based SNPs as query sequences. The Sm1 region in wheat was inverted relative to B. distachyon and rice, which suggests a chromosomal rearrangement within the Triticeae lineage. Seven SNPs were tested on a collection of wheat lines known to carry Sm1 and not to carry Sm1. Sm1-flanking SNPs were identified that were useful for predicting the presence or absence of Sm1 based upon haplotype. These SNPs will be a major improvement for MAS of Sm1 in wheat breeding programs.


Klie M.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Klie M.,Kleinwanzlebener Saatzucht AG formerly Rabbethge and Giesecke | Schie S.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Schie S.,Saaten Union Biotec GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2014

Polyploidy is a widespread phenomenon among higher plants and a major factor shaping the structure and evolution of plant genomes. The important ornamental chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum hybrid) possesses a hexaploid genome with 54 chromosomes and was classified based on its evolutionary origin and cytological methods as an allopolyploid. However, it is questionable whether cytological methods are sufficient to determine the type of ploidy, and there are more informative methods available based on molecular marker analyses. Therefore, we collected segregation data for 406 dominant molecular marker alleles [327 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLPs), 65 single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCPs) and 14 microsatellites (EST-SSRs)] in a biparental F1 population of 160 individuals. We analyzed these data for the characteristics that differ between allopolyploids and autopolyploids, including the segregation ratio of each marker, the ratio of single-dose (SD) to multi-dose (MD) markers, the ratio of SD markers in coupling to those in repulsion and the banding patterns of the SSRs. Whereas the analysis of the segregation ratio of each polymorphic marker indicated disomic (13 markers) as well as hexasomic (eight markers) inheritance, the ratio of SD markers in coupling to those in repulsion was 1:0, which is characteristic of autopolyploids. The observed ratio of SD to MD markers was 0.67:0.33 which is significantly different to the expected segregation for auto- and allohexaploids. Furthermore, the three EST-SSR alleles were inherited in all possible combinations and were not independent of each other, as expected for fixed heterozygosity in allopolyploids. Combining our results with published cytological data indicates that cultivated chrysanthemums should be classified as segmental allohexaploids. © 2014 Klie, Schie, Linde and Debener.


Seifert F.,University of Hamburg | Bossow S.,Saaten Union Biotec GmbH | Kumlehn J.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Gnad H.,Saaten Union Biotec GmbH | And 2 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Microspore embryogenesis describes a stress-induced reprogramming of immature male plant gametophytes to develop into embryo-like structures, which can be regenerated into doubled haploid plants after whole genome reduplication. This mechanism is of high interest for both research as well as plant breeding. The objective of this study was to characterize transcriptional changes and regulatory relationships in early stages of cold stress-induced wheat microspore embryogenesis by transcriptome and small RNA sequencing using a highly responsive cultivar. Results: Transcriptome and small RNA sequencing was performed in a staged time-course to analyze wheat microspore embryogenesis induction. The analyzed stages were freshly harvested, untreated uninucleate microspores and the two following stages from in vitro anther culture: directly after induction by cold-stress treatment and microspores undergoing the first nuclear divisions. A de novo transcriptome assembly resulted in 29,388 contigs distributing to 20,224 putative transcripts of which 9,305 are not covered by public wheat cDNAs. Differentially expressed transcripts and small RNAs were identified for the stage transitions highlighting various processes as well as specific genes to be involved in microspore embryogenesis induction. Conclusion: This study establishes a comprehensive functional genomics resource for wheat microspore embryogenesis induction and initial understanding of molecular mechanisms involved. A large set of putative transcripts presumably specific for microspore embryogenesis induction as well as contributing processes and specific genes were identified. The results allow for a first insight in regulatory roles of small RNAs in the reprogramming of microspores towards an embryogenic cell fate. © 2016 Seifert et al.


Matthies I.E.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Weise S.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Forster J.,Saaten Union Biotec GmbH | Korzun V.,KWS LOCHOW GMBH | And 2 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2013

Background: Several studies report about intra-specific trait variation of nitrogen-metabolism related traits, such as N(itrogen)-use efficiency, protein content, N-storage and remobilization in barley and related grass species. The goal of this study was to assess the intra-specific genetic diversity present in primary N-metabolism genes of barley and to investigate the associations of the detected haplotype diversity with malting and kernel quality related traits.Results: Partial sequences of five genes related to N-metabolism in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were obtained, i.e. nitrate reductase 1, glutamine synthetase 2, ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase, aspartate aminotransferase and asparaginase. Two to five haplotypes in each gene were discovered in a set of 190 various varieties. The development of 33 SNP markers allowed the genotyping of all these barley varieties consisting of spring and winter types. Furthermore, these markers could be mapped in several doubled haploid populations. Cluster analysis based on haplotypes revealed a more uniform pattern of the spring barleys as compared to the winter barleys. Based on linear model approaches associations to several malting and kernel quality traits including soluble N and protein were identified.Conclusions: A study was conducted to investigate the presence of sequence variation of several genes related to the primary N-metabolism in barley. The detected diversity could be related to particular phenotypic traits. Specific differences between spring and winter barleys most likely reflect different breeding aims. The developed markers can be used as tool for further genetic studies and marker-assisted selection during breeding of barley. © 2013 Matthies et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Rubtsova M.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Gnad H.,Saaten Union Biotec GmbH | Melzer M.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Weyen J.,Saaten Union Biotec GmbH | Gils M.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
Plant Biotechnology Reports | Year: 2013

Doubled haploid technologies have become key tools for plant breeding. Using these techniques, the speed and efficiency of plant improvement processes can be significantly enhanced. Anther culture-based technologies have the potential to regenerate large numbers of doubled haploid plants without colchicine treatment. In an attempt to elucidate the influence of phytohormones on non-directly induced chromosome doubling, two synthetic auxins, 2,4-D and centrophenoxine, were tested in a wheat anther culture approach. Whereas the induction of androgenic embryo-like structures (ELSs) was efficient for both auxins, we observed a significantly higher frequency of chromosome doubling when using 2,4-D than when using centrophenoxine. When 2,4-D was added to the induction medium, a positive correlation between the size of ELSs and their ploidy level was detected by flow cytometry. The morphological selection of ELSs, a process that was included in routine operations of the method without significantly extending the input of time and effort, facilitates the production of fertile DH plants with a frequency of 60 %. Our findings may contribute to a more efficient production of doubled haploid wheat plants using a colchicine-free anther culture approach. © 2012 Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology and Springer.


PubMed | Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, University of Hamburg and Saaten Union Biotec GmbH
Type: | Journal: BMC plant biology | Year: 2016

Microspore embryogenesis describes a stress-induced reprogramming of immature male plant gametophytes to develop into embryo-like structures, which can be regenerated into doubled haploid plants after whole genome reduplication. This mechanism is of high interest for both research as well as plant breeding. The objective of this study was to characterize transcriptional changes and regulatory relationships in early stages of cold stress-induced wheat microspore embryogenesis by transcriptome and small RNA sequencing using a highly responsive cultivar.Transcriptome and small RNA sequencing was performed in a staged time-course to analyze wheat microspore embryogenesis induction. The analyzed stages were freshly harvested, untreated uninucleate microspores and the two following stages from in vitro anther culture: directly after induction by cold-stress treatment and microspores undergoing the first nuclear divisions. A de novo transcriptome assembly resulted in 29,388 contigs distributing to 20,224 putative transcripts of which 9,305 are not covered by public wheat cDNAs. Differentially expressed transcripts and small RNAs were identified for the stage transitions highlighting various processes as well as specific genes to be involved in microspore embryogenesis induction.This study establishes a comprehensive functional genomics resource for wheat microspore embryogenesis induction and initial understanding of molecular mechanisms involved. A large set of putative transcripts presumably specific for microspore embryogenesis induction as well as contributing processes and specific genes were identified. The results allow for a first insight in regulatory roles of small RNAs in the reprogramming of microspores towards an embryogenic cell fate.


Gholami M.,Justus Liebig University | Gholami M.,University of Gottingen | Bekele W.A.,Justus Liebig University | Schondelmaier J.,Saaten Union Biotec GmbH | Snowdon R.J.,Justus Liebig University
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2012

Complex polyploid crop genomes can be recalcitrant towards conventional DNA sequencing approaches for allele mining in candidate genes for valuable traits. In the past, this has greatly complicated the transfer of knowledge on promising candidate genes from model plants to even closely related polyploid crops. Next-generation sequencing offers diverse solutions to overcome such difficulties. Here, we present a method for multiplexed 454 sequencing in gene-specific PCR amplicons that can simultaneously address multiple homologues of given target genes. We devised a simple two-step PCR procedure employing a set of barcoded M13/T7 universal fusion primers that enable a cost-effective and efficient amplification of large numbers of target gene amplicons. Sequencing-ready amplicons are generated that can be simultaneously sequenced in pools comprising multiple amplicons from multiple genotypes. High-depth sequencing allows resolution of the resulting sequence reads into contigs representing multiple homologous loci, with only insignificant off-target capture of paralogues or PCR artefacts. In a case study, the procedure was tested in the complex polyploid genome of Brassica napus for a set of nine genes identified in Arabidopsis as candidates for regulation of seed development and oil content. Up to six copies of these genes were expected in B. napus. SNP discovery was performed by pooled multiplex sequencing of 30 amplicons in 20 diverse B. napus accessions with interesting trait variation for oil content, providing a basis for comparative mapping to relevant quantitative trait loci and for subsequent marker-assisted breeding. © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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