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Cai G.,University of Adelaide | Jin B.,University of Adelaide | Jin B.,SA Water Corporation | Monis P.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2011

Fermentative hydrogen production (FHP) has received a great R & D interest in recent decades, as it offers a potential means of producing H 2 from a variety of renewable resources, even wastewater via a low energy continuous process. Various extracellular metabolites including ethanol, acetate, butyrate and lactate can be produced during the fermentation, building a complex metabolic network of the FHP. Except for the recognition of its complexity, the metabolic flux network has not been well understood. Studies on biochemical reactions and metabolic flux network associated with the FHP in anaerobic fermentation system have only been drawn attention in recent years. This review summarizes the biochemical reactions taking place in the metabolic network of FHP. We discuss how the key operation factors influence metabolism in the FHP process. Recently developed and applied technologies for metabolic flux analysis have been described. Future studies on the metabolic network to enhance fermentative hydrogen production by strict anaerobes are recommended. It is expected that this review can provide useful information in terms of fundamental knowledge and update technology for scientists and research engineers in the field of biological hydrogen production. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Fan J.,University of Adelaide | Ho L.,University of Adelaide | Ho L.,SA Water Corporation | Hobson P.,SA Water Corporation | Brookes J.,University of Adelaide
Water Research | Year: 2013

Cyanobacterial blooms are continuously critical challenges in drinking water systems which can have various negative impacts such as production of taste, odour and toxic compounds. Furthermore, the intracellular metabolites could be released into surrounding waters when the cyanobacterial membranes are destroyed. Although a variety of techniques have been developed to control cyanobacterial blooms and remove cyanobacterial cells or metabolites in water treatment processes, the effect of these treatments on the membrane integrity of cyanobacterial cells have not been systematically studied and compared. This study evaluated the effectiveness of copper sulphate (CuSO4), chlorine, potassium permanganate (KMnO4), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ozone on the cell integrity and densities of Microcystis aeruginosa. All of these technologies can compromise the cell membrane of cyanobacteria to varying degrees. Chlorine showed the strongest ability to impair the cell integrity with a majority (≥88%) of the cells compromised within the first minute and with the cell lysis rates ranging of 0.640-3.82h-1 during 1-60min. Ozone dose of 6mgL-1 also could induce 90% lysis of the cyanobacterial cells in 5min and the cell lysis rate of KMnO4 (10mgL-1) was 0.829h-1. CuSO4 and H2O2 could not only destroy the viability of cyanobacterial cells but also showed algistatic potential over the 7 day treatment. The potential of all the oxidants (chlorine, KMnO4, H2O2 and ozone) considered as algicides were discussed in this study. The benefits and drawbacks of these control and water treatment options were assessed as well. © 2013 .


Laera G.,CNR Water Research Institute | Chong M.N.,CSIRO | Chong M.N.,University of Adelaide | Jin B.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

This paper aims to demonstrate that integrating biological process and photocatalytic oxidation in a system operated in recycling mode can be a promising technology to treat pharmaceutical wastewater characterized by simultaneous presence of biodegradable and refractory/inhibitory compounds. A lab-scale system integrating a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a TiO2 slurry photoreactor was fed on simulated wastewater containing 10mg/L of the refractory drug Carbamazepine (CBZ). Majority of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed by the MBR, while the photocatalytic oxidation was capable to degrade CBZ. CBZ degradation kinetics and its impacts on the biological process were studied. The adoption of a recycling ratio of 4:1 resulted in removal of up to 95% of CBZ. Effluent COD reduction, sludge yield increase and respirometric tests suggested that the oxidation products were mostly biodegradable and not inhibiting the microbial activity. These results evidenced the advantages of the proposed approach for treating pharmaceutical wastewater and similar industrial effluents. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Chong M.N.,University of Adelaide | Zhu H.Y.,Queensland University of Technology | Jin B.,University of Adelaide | Jin B.,SA Water Corporation
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

In this study, a new generation H-titanate nanofiber catalyst (TNC) with long fibril morphology and surface covered anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) crystals of 10-20 nm was used as the photocatalyst for improved photoactivity, mass transfer resistance and downstream separation. The combined Taguchi method and response surface analysis (RSA) were employed to evaluate the effects of key operational factors of TNC loading, pH, aeration rate and initial Congo Red (CR) concentration on the performances of TNC in an annular slurry photoreactor (ASP). The average CR photocatalytic degradation rate (mg dm-3 min-1) was estimated and applied as the response outputs of the L9 (3)4 Taguchi orthogonal array. Results from the RSA interpretations revealed that pH, initial CR concentration and aeration rate were the significant factors, while TNC loading appears to be the least significant factor. On contrary, positive interactions of TNC loading were observed when being coupled with pH and aeration rate. Other interactions of the operation factors were also determined using statistical analysis. A natural logarithmic modified regression equation was developed from multiple regression analysis for response surface modelling. This model predicted that the average photocatalytic degradation rate of CR was 0.1576 mg dm3 min-1 under the optimal conditions. A subsequent verification experiment showed a photocatalytic degradation rate of 0.1563 ± 0.0282 mg dm-3 min-1, which is in good agreement with the model predicted value. This proved the applicability of the developed model as a reliable design and modelling tool for scaling up the photocatalytic reactor process. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Vimonses V.,University of Adelaide | Jin B.,University of Adelaide | Jin B.,SA Water Corporation | Chow C.W.K.,SA Water Corporation
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

Our recent work reported that a mixed adsorbent with natural clay materials and lime demonstrated an enhanced capacity and efficiency to remove anionic Congo Red dye from wastewater. This study aims to investigate the removal kinetic and mechanisms of the mixed materials involved in the decolourisation of the dye to maximise their prospective applications for industrial wastewater treatment. The experimental results showed that dye removal was governed by combined physiochemical reactions of adsorption, ion-exchange, and precipitation. Ca-dye precipitation contributed over 70% total dye removal, followed by adsorption and ion-exchange. The dye removal kinetic followed the pseudo-second-order expression and was well described by the Freundlich isotherm model. This study indicated pH was a key parameter to govern the removal mechanisms, i.e. adsorption/coagulation at acidic pH and precipitation at basic condition. Yet, the overall removal efficiency was found to be independent to the operation conditions. , resulting in more than 94% dye removal. This work revealed that the mixed clays and lime can be applied as alternative low-cost adsorbents for industrial wastewater treatment. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.


Cai G.,University of Adelaide | Jin B.,University of Adelaide | Monis P.,SA Water Corporation | Saint C.,University of South Australia
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2013

Clostridium butyricum, a well known H2 producing bacterium, produces lactate, butyrate, acetate, ethanol, and CO2 as its main by-products from glucose. The conversion of pyruvate to lactate, butyrate and ethanol involves oxidation of NADH. It was hypothesized that the NADH could be increased if the formation of these by-products could be eliminated, resulting in enhancing H2 yield. Herein, this study aimed to establish a genetic and metabolic approach for enhancing H2 yield via redirection of metabolic pathways of a C. butyricum strain. The ethanol formation pathway was blocked by disruption of aad (encoding aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase) using a ClosTron plasmid. Although elimination of ethanol formation alone did not increase hydrogen production, the resulting aad-deficient mutant showed approximately 20% enhanced performance in hydrogen production with the addition of sodium acetate. This work demonstrated the possibility of improving hydrogen yield by eliminating the unfavorable by-products ethanol and lactate. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Ho L.,SA Water Corporation | Ho L.,University of Adelaide | Lambling P.,School of Chemistry, Physics and Electronics, Lyon | Bustamante H.,Sydney Water | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2011

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and microcystin are two potent toxins that can be produced by cyanobacteria in drinking water supplies. This study investigated the application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the removal of these toxins under conditions that could be experienced in a water treatment plant. Two different PACs were evaluated for their ability to remove CYN and four microcystin variants from various drinking water supplies. The removal of natural organic material by the PACs was also determined by measuring the levels of dissolved organic carbon and UV absorbance (at 254 nm). The PACs effectively removed CYN and the microcystins from each of the waters studied, with one of the PACs shown to be more effective, possibly due to its smaller particle diameter. No difference in removal of the toxins was observed using PAC contact times of 30, 45 and 60 min. Furthermore, the effect of water quality on the removal of the toxins was minimal. The microcystin variants were adsorbed in the order: MCRR > MCYR > MCLR > MCLA. CYN was found to be adsorbed similarly to MCRR. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | November 3, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Zion Market Research has published a new report titled “Biotechnology Reagents Market by Technology (Chromatography, Electrophoresis, PCR, Mass Spectrometry, Flow Cytometry, Tissue Culture, Expression and Transfection) for DNA & RNA Analysis, Protein Purification, Drug Testing, and Gene Expression, by End user (Biotech Companies, Pharmaceuticals, Research Institutes, Diagnostic Centers and Others): Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2015 – 2021” According to the report, global demand for biotechnology reagents was valued at over USD 56.4 billion in 2015, is expected to reach above USD 94.6 billion in 2021 and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of slightly above 9.0% between 2016 and 2021. Reagents are compound, substance or mixture, used for analysis of other compound or substance by chemical reaction. Reagents are either organic or inorganic depending on the composition. Grignard reagent Fenton's reagent and Collins reagent are the examples of organic reagents.. Biotechnology reagents are used to identify compound or substance in the biological solutions. Biotechnology reagents are used in field of bioscience, diagnosis, research and education. Escalating R&D expenditure by biotechnology firms triggers the growth of biotechnology reagent market. Prevailing techniques such as combinatorial chemistry, DNA chips, high throughput screening and proteomics exhibit potential growth of market. Biotechnology reagents are used in basic research, therapeutics, biomedical and in commercialization. Constant product development by the food and beverage, pharmaceuticals and agro biotech likely contribute to the splendid growth of biotechnology reagent market. Though, rising cost of biopharmaceutical products and huge research and development expenses impede the growth of biotechnology reagent market. Wide range of environment applications and unexploited opportunities are likely to open new market avenues in the near future. The biotechnology reagent market can be categorized on the basis of technology, application, end user and region. Technology segment includes chromatography, electrophoresis, PCR, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, expression and transfection. Chromatography reagents and tissue culture reagents are anticipated to witness dynamic growth in the predicted period owing to several inventions in biotechnology industries. Applications of biotechnology reagents can be classified into DNA & RNA analysis, protein purification, drug testing, and gene expression. Protein purification followed by drug testing and gene expression witnessing unprecedented boom in recent times due to massive demand from life science stream for developing new products. The end users for biotechnology reagents include biotech companies, pharmaceuticals, research institutes and diagnostic centers among others. Biotech companies emerged as largest segment due to increased demand for R&D section. The biotechnology reagents market has been classified into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. In 2014, among the total market share, North America held the largest shares. North America dominates the biotechnology reagents market due to inventions of new products, government initiatives, sophisticated healthcare sector and large investments for biotechnology reagents. U.S. emerged as fastest growing market due to success in completion of human genome project and amplified use of reagents in molecular biology. Furthermore, Asia Pacific is also anticipated to impact positively on the growth of this market owing to rise in R&D sector. Some of the key players for the biotechnology reagents market include Abbott, Beckman Coulter, Agilent Technologies Inc., Water Corporation, Bio-Rad, Roche, Sigma-Aldrich, Life Technologies, Betcon Dickinson and Thermo Fisher Scientific among others. This report segments the biotechnology reagents market as follows:


Paris, le 27 Décembre 2016 - Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation (Kahramaa) a récemment signé avec Nexans un contrat portant sur des câbles d'énergie. Le contrat d'un montant de 300 millions d'euros environ concerne des câbles basse et moyenne tension destinés à des projets d'infrastructures civiles au Qatar. Par ce contrat, le Groupe va contribuer à répondre à la demande croissante d'énergie et à faciliter le développement d'infrastructures en fournissant des câbles à l'Emirat. Ces câbles serviront à connecter des sous-stations à divers projets d'infrastructures à Doha et dans ses banlieues, tels que la construction du nouveau port de Doha, le programme ferroviaire de Qatar Rail et la réalisation du métro ou encore les travaux en prévision de la Coupe du Monde de la FIFA en 2022. Nexans donne de l'énergie à la vie par une large gamme de câbles et solutions de câblage qui permet d'accroître la performance de ses clients dans le monde entier. Les équipes du Groupe agissent comme partenaires au service de leurs clients dans quatre principaux domaines d'activités : le transport et la distribution d'énergie (réseaux terrestres et sous-marins) les ressources énergétiques (pétrole et gaz, mines et énergies renouvelables), les transports (routiers, ferroviaires, aériens et maritimes) et le bâtiment (commercial, résidentiel et centres de données). La stratégie de Nexans s'appuie sur une innovation continue des produits, des offres de solutions et de services, mais aussi sur l'implication des équipes, l'accompagnement des clients et l'adoption de procédés industriels sûrs et respectueux de l'environnement. En 2013, Nexans est devenu le premier acteur de l'industrie du câble à créer une Fondation d'entreprise destinée à soutenir des actions en faveur de l'accès à l'énergie pour les populations défavorisées à travers le monde. Nexans est un membre actif d'Europacable, l'association européenne des fabricants de fils et câbles. Le Groupe est signataire de la Charte de l'industrie Europacable, expression de l'attachement des membres aux principes et objectifs du développement du câble éthique, durable et de haute qualité. Nexans, acteur de la transition énergétique est présent industriellement dans 40 pays, a des activités commerciales dans le monde entier et emploie près de 26 000 personnes.. En 2015, le Groupe a réalisé un chiffre d'affaires de 6,2 milliards d'euros. Nexans est coté sur le marché Euronext Paris, compartiment A.  Pour plus d'informations, consultez le site www.nexans.com


News Article | April 6, 2016
Site: cleantechnica.com

A remote solar-diesel hybrid mini-grid that is being used to power a remote indigenous community in northern Australia will soon be fitted with battery storage, after German energy storage expert Qinous won the tender to supply and install a 1,987kWh lithium-ion system. The tender was awarded by local energy provider Power and Water Corporation, who commissioned the construction of the hybrid system at the Daly River community as part of a four-year, $55 million plan to transform the energy supply of Indigenous communities in the Australia’s Northern Territory. The new battery system will store the excess solar energy generated by the hybrid plant, while also providing the grid-forming functions of the diesel generators, which to date have been the only source of power for communities like that at Daly River. Dow Airen, Power and Water’s senior project manager said the Qinous tender was selected as a “technically and commercially compelling” solution to the remote power problem. As Qinous’ Steffen Heinrich noted in a statement on the project, “the operation of diesel generators is not only expensive for Power and Water, but is also a burden for the environment because of air pollution and spill risks. The lithium-ion battery will allow the current diesel generators to be switched off completely during the day, increasing the use of “affordable and clean” renewable energy, he said. Overall, the goal is for around 30 communities to be equipped with hybrid solar and storage, as part of the Solar SETuP scheme that is jointly funded by the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) and the Northern Territory Government. “We look forward to realising the battery system together with Qinous… we are always looking for innovative solutions to provide power to our most remote residents,” said PWC’s Airen. A factory acceptance test of the battery system is planned for June, and the project is scheduled to go into operation in October 2016.   Drive an electric car? Complete one of our short surveys for our next electric car report.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  

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