American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014
Food sustainability and food security are increasingly in the spotlight and increasingly intertwined. According to some projections we will need to nearly double food production in the next 4 decades. This article argues that protein production and consumption are pivotal to sustainability, because anthropogenic contributions to the nitrogen cycle are 100-200% compared with a contribution of 1-2% to the carbon cycle by mineral fuel combustion, with biodiversity as the main casualty. Because 1 kg animal protein requires w6 kg plant protein, its largescale production by means of factory farming is a major driver of biodiversity loss, climate change, and freshwater depletion. Furthermore, intensive livestock production is associated with antibiotics resistance and increasing incidence of emerging diseases. Therefore, a "reversed" diet transition back to less animal protein could make a difference. Some European countries, such as the United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands, have published integrated policy reports addressing food security, sustainability, and health combined. The food industry is focusing on food safety and increasingly on sustainability. An important issue is consumer communication, because consumer "framing" is radically different from that of governmental and industrial policy makers. There is no "one size fits all." A huge range of differences exists between countries and between distinct groups of consumers within countries; getting consumers to change their diets in a more sustainable direction is likely to require much more than gentle nudging. National governments and the United Nations should assume their responsibilities and initiate a global strategy integrating sustainability, food security, nutrition, and equity. To date, the profit pillar of sustainability has taken precedence over planet and people. It is time to redress the balance. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
Journal of medicine and life | Year: 2013
Medicine and dentistry interface at many levels. For example, the focal infection theory, popular at the outset of the 1900s, suggested that systemic ailments could be traced to dental infections, which, in those days, were common, chronic, and often untreated. With the advent of modern dental and medical treatment, particularly antibiotics, this relationship was largely forgotten. Until recently, the discovery of relationships between periodontal disease and heart ailments, maternal oral health and prematurity of offspring, bidirectional interrelationships between diabetes and periodontal diseases, relationship of oral infections and chronic respiratory diseases and relationship between skeletal and oral bone mineral density, has brought a shift in the perspective. Research is now focused on the potential impact of periodontal diseases on systemic health. Thus, the impact of oral infection in systemic health defined a novel branch in Periodontology termed Periodontal medicine.
Lee C.W.,Murdoch University |
Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry | Year: 2013
Background and objectives: Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) is now considered evidence based practice in the treatment of trauma symptoms. Yet in a previous meta-analysis, no significant effect was found for the eye movement component. However methodological issues with this study may have resulted in a type II error. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine current published studies to test whether eye movements significantly affect the processing of distressing memories. Method: A systematic review of the literature revealed two groups of studies. The first group comprised 15 clinical trials and compared the effects of EMDR therapy with eye movements to those of EMDR without the eye movements. The second group comprised 11 laboratory trials that investigated the effects of eye movements while thinking of a distressing memory versus the same procedure without the eye movements in a non-therapy context. The total number of participants was 849. Results: The effect size for the additive effect of eye movements in EMDR treatment studies was moderate and significant (Cohen's d = 0.41). For the second group of laboratory studies the effect size was large and significant (d = 0.74). The strongest effect size difference was for vividness measures in the non-therapy studies (d = 0.91). The data indicated that treatment fidelity acted as a moderator variable on the effect of eye movements in the therapy studies. Conclusions: Results were discussed in terms of current theories that suggest the processes involved in EMDR are different from other exposure based therapies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research | Year: 2011
In this study, heat transfer coefficient of plate heat exchanger was experimentally investigated. Plate heat exchanger into experimental mechanism was set. Different tests by varying of mass flow rates and inlet temperatures were carried out. Analyses of obtained results were performed. Variation of heat transfer coefficient of plate heat exchanger was investigated. © Sila Science.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010
Energy demand continues to increase in turn raising concerns about energy supply. In this paper, the author has tried to systematize the role of the energy sector in South Eastern (SE) Europe in the context of the European energy policy process. This should make the energy sector in SE Europe more visible and open to substantial activities and appropriate funding. This is important to assure its full alignment with the European energy policy process, and in so doing, make it less fragile. According to the SE European Energy Community Treaty, parties to the Treaty are obliged to implement reforms in the energy and environmental sector in accordance with the European Union's respective policy. This paper raises awareness of the environmental requirements that have been set, of renewable energy and its implementation, at the same time pointing out that the response in SE Europe has been at a low level. It is believed that this paper could draw attention to the existing problems and could contribute to the establishment of a common integrated energy market in SE Europe and the EU. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.