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Kolkata, India

Krishnakumar P.,Medical College
Indian pediatrics

To study the nature of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in children and to identify the associated factors. Child Guidance Clinic attached to the Department of Pediatrics of a teaching hospital in South India. Children with history of deliberate self harm who were referred to the CGC for psychological evaluation during a 10 year period. Methods: Children and parents were interviewed together and separately and details regarding age, sex, family and school environment, stresses and nature of self harm were documented. Psychiatric diagnosis was made based on DSM IV diagnostic criteria. Among the 30 children included in the study, 21 were boys and 9 were girls. Majority of children were between the ages of 11 and 13 years, the youngest being 6 years old. 76%of children had history of acute stressful life events and 62%of them had chronic ongoing stress. 62%of children had stress in the family and 41%had stress at school. Stress in the family included death of a parent, conflicts with parents or siblings, mental illness in the family, parental alcoholism and parental disharmony. Stress at school included conflicts with classmates, punishment or negative comments by teachers and learning problems. Psychiatric disorders were present in 52%of children, the commonest being depressive disorder. The commonest mode of DSH was self poisoning, and rat poison (zinc phosphide) was the commonest substance used. Deliberate self harm occurs in young children and the risk factors are comparable to those in adolescents. Source

Trivedi N.A.,Medical College
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

Background : Low-dose aspirin (LDA) is widely used for prevention of preeclampsia. However, conflicting results have been obtained from various studies. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of LDA in prevention of preeclampsia in high-risk and low-risk women. Materials and Methods : A total of 19 randomized control trials were identified using PUBMED search engine and Cochrane Clinical Trial register. The study population was divided into high-risk and low-risk groups. The effect measured was incidence of preeclampsia in women taking either LDA or placebo where the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for both groups. Results : A total of 28237 women were studied, out of which 16550 were in the low-risk group while 11687 were in the high-risk group. The overall incidence of preeclampsia was 7.4%. With the aspirin group it was 6.9% while in the placebo group it was 7.8%. In the high-risk group there was 21% reduction in the risk of preeclampsia associated with the use of aspirin (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97). However, LDA is not effective in reducing the risk in low-risk population (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.64-1.17). Conclusion: LDA has a small effect in the prevention of preeclampsia in women considered to be at high risk for the disease. However, it is not effective in reducing the risk in the low-risk group. Source

Paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) is a probably underreported primary headache disorder. It is characterized by repeated attacks of severe, strictly unilateral pain lasting 2 to 30 minutes localized to orbital, supraorbital, and temporal areas accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic features. The hallmark of PH is the absolute cessation of the headache with indomethacin. However, these all features may not be present in all cases and a few cases may remain unclassified according to the 2nd Edition of The International classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) criteria for PH. Twenty-two patients were included in this retrospective observation. We describe 17 patients, observed over six years, who fulfilled the ICHD-II criteria for PH. In parallel, we identified five more patients in whom one of the features of the diagnostic criteria for PH was missing. Two patients did not show any evidence of cranial autonomic feature during the attacks of headache. Another two patients did not fulfill the criteria for PH as the maximum attack frequency was less than five. One patient had an incomplete response to indomethacin. A subset of patients may not have all the defined features of PH and there is a need for refinement of the existing diagnostic criteria. Source

Imam K.,Medical College
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

Management of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) demands a comprehensive approach which includes diabetes education, an emphasis on life style modification, achievement of good glycemic control, minimization of cardiovascular risk, and avoidance of drugs that can aggravate glucose or lipid metabolism, and screening for diabetes complications, Comprehensive diabetes management can delay the progression of complication and maximize the quality of life. Acquiring knowledge about diabetes is an essential part of diabetes management, and even more important is to make the patient aware of this chronic disease, "For a diabetic patient, knowledge and unders tanding are not a part of treatment-they are the treatment." © 2012 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Imam K.,Medical College
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose homeostasis and associated with long term vascular complications leading to morbidity and mortality. It is the fastest growing non-communicable disease throughout the world. The pathophysiology of diabetes is complex and multifactorial. Understanding pathological mechanisms of disease can help clinicians to identify and treat the factors involved effectively, and design preventive strategies so as to halt the pandemic of this deadly disorder. © 2012 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media. Source

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