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Nova Viçosa, Brazil

The terminology used in the paleoanatomical study of gymnospermous woods, proceeding from Carboniferous and Permian of Gondwana, is characterized by vagueness of criteria regarding the selection of the characteristics of taxonomic value. In this regard, a greater negligence is comparatively emphasized in relation to the pith than the other units that composed the stem and the lack of uniformity in the nomenclature used in primary and secondary xylem paleoanatomy. Such procedures have led to elaboration of incomplete generic and specific descriptions, to the difficulty of comparison between the specimens and, often, to the inadequate taxonomic. Thus, aiming at the definition of the features of taxonomic value and the standardization of terminology, a methodology based on proposition and discussion of the anatomical characteristics of the pith and primary and secondary xylem used to inter-taxa differentiation of the Gondwana gymnospermous woods is presented. Notes about the anatomy of the other units of stem, neighboring the secondary xylem, and illustrations of taxa that exhibit the characters considered are also presented.

Partidario M.R.,University of Lisbon | Coutinho M.,Campus Universitario
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2011

This is the brief story of a decision process and the role of Strategic Environmental Assessment in government political decision-making. Following a prolonged, and agitated, decision process, initiated in the 1960s, the Government of Portugal in 2005 took the final decision to build the new international airport of Lisbon at the controversial location of Ota, 40. km north of Lisbon. The detailed project design and EIA were started. However this decision would change in 2007 due to the challenge raised by a private sponsored study that identified an alternative location for the airport at Campo de Tiro de Alcochete (CTA). This new site, which had never been considered as an option before, appeared to avoid many of the problems that caused public controversy at the Ota site. The Government, pressured by this challenge, promoted a strategic comparative assessment between the two sites. The result of this study was the choice of CTA as the preferred location. This paper discusses this radical change in the decision from a socio-political perspective. It will highlight the relevance of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and the strategic and constructive approach it enables in mega-project decision-making. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Dunlop J.A.,Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science | De Oliveira Bernardi L.F.,Campus Universitario
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2014

A fossil opilioacarid mite (Parasitiformes: Opilioacarida) in Burmese amber is described as ?Opilioacarus groehni sp. nov. This ca. 99 Ma record (Upper Cretaceous: Cenomanian) represents only the third fossil example of this putatively basal mite lineage, the others originating from Eocene Baltic amber (ca. 44-49 Ma). Our new record is not only the oldest record of Opilioacarida, but it is also one of the oldest examples of the entire Parasitiformes clade. The presence of Opilioacarida - potentially Opiloacarus - in the Cretaceous of SE Asia suggests that some modern genus groups were formerly more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere, raising questions about previously suggested Gondwanan origins for these mites. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Diaz Pace D.M.,Campus Universitario
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer | Year: 2013

In this paper, line profile analysis of several Cr transitions was carried out for characterization of a laser-induced plasma. The plasma was generated on a metallic alloy (nominal Cr concentration 29.7%) in air at atmospheric pressure by using an infrared Nd:YAG laser. The emission intensities of 24 Cr I lines and 25 Cr II lines were measured spatially integrated along the line-of-sight with good resolution. Their line profiles were analyzed applying a computational fitting algorithm under a framework of a homogeneous plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium. The effects of self-absorption and spatial inhomogeneity were taken into account. The plasma temperature and the parameters Nl (the atom/ion concentration times the length of the plasma along the line-of-sight) were accurately determined, and the electron density was estimated. The results were properly interpreted under the employed approach, demonstrating the important influence of the issues investigated on characterizing the physical state of laser-induced plasmas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Fernandez S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Naranjo F.B.,Campus Universitario
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2010

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at 100 °C on polyethylene terephthalate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The sputtering parameters such as RF power and Argon working pressure were varied from 25 to 125 W and from 1.1 to 0.2 Pa, respectively. The structural properties of as-deposited films were analysed by X-ray diffraction, showing that all the deposited films were polycrystalline, with hexagonal structure and a strong preferred c-axis orientation (0 0 2). Full width at half maximum and grain sizes were around 0.27° and ranged from 24 to 32 nm, respectively. The strain state of the samples was also estimated from X-ray diffraction measurements, obtaining compressive stresses from 0.29 to 0.05 GPa. Resistivity as low as 1.1×10-3 Ω cm was achieved for the film deposited at 75 W and 0.2 Pa, sample that showed a low strain state of -0.06 GPa. High optical transmittance (∼80%) was exhibited when films were deposited at RF powers below 100 W. Band gap energies ranged from 3.36 to 3.39 eV and a refractive index of 1.80±0.05, constant in the visible region, was also obtained. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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