Lisbon, Portugal
Lisbon, Portugal

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Abstract Introduction and Objectives To determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU) in outpatients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and in normotensive, nona-diabetic outpatients (control group); and, as secondary objectives, to examine the differences in the distribution of MAU in the four subgroups and the association of different clinical and epidemiological variables with MAU. Methods RACE (micRoAlbumin sCreening survEy) was a multicenter, descriptive observational crossa- sectional study, which enrolled outpatients followed in primary care in Portugal. Patients with potential reasons for a false-positive MAU test were excluded. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of MAU as assessed by Micral® test strips and blood pressure. Demographic variables, presence of comorbidities, use of cardiovascular and antidiabetic drugs and biochemical variables were also analyzed. Results A total of 9198 patients (3769 with hypertension, 3100 with both DM and hypertension, 423 with DM and without hypertension, and 1906 controls), 54.7% women, were included in the primary analysis. Overall prevalence of MAU was 58% in patients with DM and hypertension, 51% in patients with DM, 43% in patients with hypertension, and 12% in controls (chia-square: p<0.001 for all subgroups). In multivariate analysis, predictors for MAU were the presence of DM or hypertension, HbA1C, male gender, age, systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol. Conclusions MAU is extremely common in outpatients with DM and/or hypertension followed in primary care, especially in those with both hypertension and DM and high cardiovascular risk. MAU screening would help identify individuals at risk and increase awareness of kidney disease and target organ damage. © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia.


PubMed | Novartis, Hospital Santa Maria da Feira, Fernando Pessoa University, University of Porto and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista portuguesa de cardiologia : orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology : an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology | Year: 2015

To determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU) in outpatients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and in normotensive, non-diabetic outpatients (control group); and, as secondary objectives, to examine the differences in the distribution of MAU in the four subgroups and the association of different clinical and epidemiological variables with MAU.RACE (micRoAlbumin sCreening survEy) was a multicenter, descriptive observational cross-sectional study, which enrolled outpatients followed in primary care in Portugal. Patients with potential reasons for a false-positive MAU test were excluded. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of MAU as assessed by Micral() test strips and blood pressure. Demographic variables, presence of comorbidities, use of cardiovascular and antidiabetic drugs and biochemical variables were also analyzed.A total of 9198 patients (3769 with hypertension, 3100 with both DM and hypertension, 423 with DM and without hypertension, and 1906 controls), 54.7% women, were included in the primary analysis. Overall prevalence of MAU was 58% in patients with DM and hypertension, 51% in patients with DM, 43% in patients with hypertension, and 12% in controls (chi-square: p<0.001 for all subgroups). In multivariate analysis, predictors for MAU were the presence of DM or hypertension, HbA1C, male gender, age, systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol.MAU is extremely common in outpatients with DM and/or hypertension followed in primary care, especially in those with both hypertension and DM and high cardiovascular risk. MAU screening would help identify individuals at risk and increase awareness of kidney disease and target organ damage.


Almeida J.,New University of Lisbon | Almeida J.,Hospital S Francisco Xavier | Serrao E.M.,Hospital Fernando Fonseca | Almeida A.T.,Hospital Sta Marta | Afonso J.G.,Hospital D Estefgnia
Clinical Neuropharmacology | Year: 2011

Background: The cerebellum has traditionally been regarded as an organ of motor coordination. However, the importance of the cerebellum in psychiatric disorders, behavior, and cognition is increasingly being recognized. There is no consensus concerning treatment of schizophrenia-like psychosis after cerebellar pathology. Reports describe the use of several antipsychotics, either alone or in combination with antidepressants or lithium. Clozapine is used for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia, but there are no reports of its use in the above-mentioned situation. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 20-year-old woman who developed a schizophrenia-like psychosis after rupture of arteriovenous malformation at 13 years of age. The psychotic symptoms proved to be resistant to treatment, and several psychopharmacological schemas were tried. The clinical picture only showed consistent improvement with the combined use of clozapine and valproate. Conclusions: The relationship between chronic psychosis and cerebellar pathology remains poorly understood. Cases like the present one suggest that clozapine and valproate may be used safely and effectively in refractory schizophrenia-like psychosis associated with cerebellar pathology. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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