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Xia X.,Clarkson University | Carroll-Haddad A.,Clarkson University | Brown N.,Environmental | Utell M.J.,University of Rochester | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2016

Objective: The objectives were: 1) measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 100μL of human serum and 2) assess PAH and PCDD/PCDF as markers of burn pit exposures during military deployments. Methods: PAHs and PCDDs/PCDFs were analyzed in 100μL serum samples collected pre- and post-deployment from 200 persons deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan (CASE); 200 persons not deployed (CONTROL) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results: Naphthalene was found in ∼83% of the samples and was statistically different between post-deployment CASE personnel and pre-deployment. 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran were found in ∼38% of samples. Concentrations were significantly different between CASE and CONTROL and between pre- and post-deployment samples. Conclusions: PAH and PCDD/PCDF in serum can serve as exposure markers and measurements in small volumes is feasible for quantifying exposure to burn pits. © 2016 American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

Guenther A.B.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Jiang X.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Heald C.L.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Sakulyanontvittaya T.,Environmental | And 3 more authors.
Geoscientific Model Development | Year: 2012

The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1) is a modeling framework for estimating fluxes of biogenic compounds between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere using simple mechanistic algorithms to account for the major known processes controlling biogenic emissions. It is available as an offline code and has also been coupled into land surface and atmospheric chemistry models. MEGAN2.1 is an update from the previous versions including MEGAN2.0, which was described for isoprene emissions by Guenther et al. (2006) and MEGAN2.02, which was described for monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions by Sakulyanontvittaya et al. (2008). Isoprene comprises about half of the total global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission of 1 Pg (1000 Tg or 1015 g) estimated using MEGAN2.1. Methanol, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, α-pinene, β-pinene, t-β-ocimene, limonene, ethene, and propene together contribute another 30% of the MEGAN2.1 estimated emission. An additional 20 compounds (mostly terpenoids) are associated with the MEGAN2.1 estimates of another 17% of the total emission with the remaining 3% distributed among >100 compounds. Emissions of 41 monoterpenes and 32 sesquiterpenes together comprise about 15% and 3%, respectively, of the estimated total global BVOC emission. Tropical trees cover about 18% of the global land surface and are estimated to be responsible for ∼80% of terpenoid emissions and ∼50% of other VOC emissions. Other trees cover about the same area but are estimated to contribute only about 10% of total emissions. The magnitude of the emissions estimated with MEGAN2.1 are within the range of estimates reported using other approaches and much of the differences between reported values can be attributed to land cover and meteorological driving variables. The offline version of MEGAN2.1 source code and driving variables is available from http://bai.acd.ucar.edu/ MEGAN/ and the version integrated into the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) can be downloaded from http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/. © Author(s) 2012.

Moe S.J.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research | De Schamphelaere K.,Ghent University | Clements W.H.,Colorado State University | Sorensen M.T.,Environmental | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2013

Increased temperature and other environmental effects of global climate change (GCC) have documented impacts on many species (e.g., polar bears, amphibians, coral reefs) as well as on ecosystem processes and species interactions (e.g., the timing of predator-prey interactions). A challenge for ecotoxicologists is to predict how joint effects of climatic stress and toxicants measured at the individual level (e.g., reduced survival and reproduction) will be manifested at the population level (e.g., population growth rate, extinction risk) and community level (e.g., species richness, food-web structure). The authors discuss how population- and community-level responses to toxicants under GCC are likely to be influenced by various ecological mechanisms. Stress due to GCC may reduce the potential for resistance to and recovery from toxicant exposure. Long-term toxicant exposure can result in acquired tolerance to this stressor at the population or community level, but an associated cost of tolerance may be the reduced potential for tolerance to subsequent climatic stress (or vice versa). Moreover, GCC can induce large-scale shifts in community composition, which may affect the vulnerability of communities to other stressors. Ecological modeling based on species traits (representing life-history traits, population vulnerability, sensitivity to toxicants, and sensitivity to climate change) can be a promising approach for predicting combined impacts of GCC and toxicants on populations and communities. © 2012 SETAC.

Milanesi L.,Environmental | Pilotti M.,Environmental | Bacchi B.,Environmental
Water Resources Research | Year: 2016

Flood risk assessment and mitigation are important tasks that should take advantage of rational vulnerability models to increase their effectiveness. These models are usually identified through a relevant set of laboratory experiments. However, there is growing evidence that these tests are not fully representative of the variety of conditions that characterize real flood hazard situations. This paper suggests a citizen science-based and innovative approach to obtain information from web resources for the calibration of people's vulnerability models. A comprehensive study employing commonly used web engines allowed the collection of a wide set of documents showing real risk situations for people impacted by floods, classified according to the stability of the involved subjects. A procedure to extrapolate the flow depth and velocity from the video frames is developed and its reliability is verified by comparing the results with observation. The procedure is based on the statistical distribution of the population height employing a direct uncertainty propagation method. The results complement the experimental literature data and conceptual models. The growing availability of online information will progressively increase the sample size on which the procedure is based and will eventually lead to the identification of a probability surface describing the transition between stability and instability conditions of individuals in a flow. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Ignaccolo M.,Duke University | De Michele C.,Environmental
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010

The probability density function of the drop diameter at the ground is investigated during stratiform and convective precipitation intervals at Darwin, Australia. We show how, after a renormalization procedure of the drop diameter, the empirical probability density functions of both types of precipitation collapse in a single curve, indicating the possible existence of an invariant distribution of the drop diameter at the ground. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

Turnbull A.,Environmental
Electronics Goes Green 2012+, ECG 2012 - Joint International Conference and Exhibition, Proceedings | Year: 2012

RoHS2 takes effect in EU Member States from 2 January 2013 and is a CE Marking Directive. RoHS2 requires Manufacturers to follow the procedures in Module A of Decision 768/2008/EC which prescribe the conformity assessment procedures that Manufacturers must carry out and the technical documentation they must draw up to demonstrate that their products are RoHS compliant. Many companies already have established compliance processes and quality management systems for RoHS1 compliance. For those companies whose existing procedures do not already meet RoHS2 requirements, CENELEC has produced standard EN 50581:2012 'Technical Documentation for the assessment of electrical and electronic products with respect to the restriction of hazardous substances'. © 2012 Fraunhofer IZM.

Ramsey S.H.,Environmental
11AIChE - 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting and 7th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

A discussion on the O3 standards covers EPA's opinion that the scientific evidence as to the effects of ozone on children and other at-risk members of the population warranted a reconsideration of the primary standard; impacts of O3 on vegetation and forested ecosystems, which warranted reconsideration of the secondary standard; EPA's issuance of re-revised standards; possibility of increase in the number of counties that are designated as not in attainment of one or both of the revised standards; designing and implementing SIP; challenges facing regulatory agencies and the industries that they regulate; and the direction states and EPA will take with their implementation plans. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting & 7th Global Congress on Process Safety (Chicago, IL 3/13-17/2011).

Kinslow C.J.,Environmental
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment 2014: The Journey Continues | Year: 2014

Being frightened of the unknown is a natural and essential human response. Most people in the US have never seen a hydraulic fracturing facility and know relatively little about their operations, and yet many have already developed opinions about their safety and environmental impact based on reports in the media. Energy companies must recognize and prepare for this reality when approaching communities where the development of hydraulic fracturing facilities is now being proposed. Dr. Kinslow presents several examples of community engagement strategies as they relate to the energy industry, specifically hydraulic fracturing, in Texas and other states. Through these examples, she illustrates how applying the three tools of commitment, transparency and dedicating the right people for this type of engagement are critical to addressing community concerns and to the economic success of hydraulic fracturing. Commitment to the community involves a proactive response to questions and concerns of the community. Interestingly, many concerns from fracking communities do not coincide with those concerns illustrated in the media. Proactively recognizing and addressing these issues learned from past experiences places the industry in a solid position to build a trusting relationship. Transparency is essential in this relationship. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) has developed an outstanding and transparent system of engagement, data-sharing and strong community outreach. This Agency-wide attitude has gained the TCEQ standing as a science-based, strategic, and trust worthy group to turn to when human health impacts are an issue in state and federal regulatory decision making. Having the right people to bring these tools forward is essential for successful engagement. This team must involve a set of communicators that are ready to apply their scientific, business, and regulatory knowledge in order to help people in the communities understand the safety and environmental issues. Communities know when someone is not genuine. Having the right people at the front lines to build and maintain that genuine relationship through knowledge sharing will gain respect and trust on all sides. Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Starosvetsky D.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Starosvetsky J.,Environmental | Armon R.,Environmental | Ein-Eli Y.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Corrosion Science | Year: 2010

Features related to the cathodic reduction of iron sulfides precipitation on iron surface during its exposure to SRB culture were studied. Electrochemical measurements were performed with pure iron and platinum electrodes plated with a thin iron film in de-aerated SRB culture. The study reveals that iron sulfide precipitation is being cathodically reduced just below a potential of -0.1 VSCE, and if iron corrosion process occurs at potentials below that threshold potential, then the reduction of iron sulfide may provide an alternative cathodic depolarization mechanism in SRB. This cathodic process can maintain iron and corrosion at potentials above RHE potential. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Holman C.,Environmental
Health estate | Year: 2012

Dr Claire Holman, Principal at ENVIRON, a global consultancy which works with clients 'to manage their most challenging environmental and health and safety issues, and attain their sustainability goals', considers the impacts on health of dust released during demolition work, and the measures that can be taken to mitigate them. Drawing on a recent case study, she explains how ENVIRON prepared a comprehensive site dust management plan (DMP) to minimise fungal spore release during the demolition of a building located adjacent to residential accommodation for child leukaemia patients and their parents. She also considers some of the lessons learned, in terms of actions that 'worked well' and those that could, with hindsight, have been undertaken 'better'.

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