Mutimura E.,Regional Alliance for Sustainable Development |
Anastos K.,Yeshiva University |
Hoover D.,Rutgers University |
Dusingize J.C.,Regional Alliance for Sustainable Development |
And 5 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2015
Background: Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the advanced stages of HIV infection remains a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to better understand barriers and enablers to timely ART initiation in Rwanda where ART coverage is high and national ART eligibility guidelines first expanded in 2007-2008. Methods: Using data on 6326 patients (≥15 years) at five Rwandan clinics, we assessed trends and correlates of CD4+ cell count at ART initiation and the proportion initiating ART with advanced HIV disease (CD4+ < 200 cells/μl or WHO stage IV) . Results: Out of 6326 patients, 4486 enrolling in HIV care initiated ART with median CD4+ cell count of 211 cells/μl [interquartile range: 131-300]. Median CD4+ cell counts at ART initiation increased from 183 cells/ml in 2007 to 293 cells/ml in 2011-2012, and the proportion with advanced HIV disease decreased from 66.2 to 29.4%. Factors associated with a higher odds of advanced HIV disease at ART initiation were male sex [adjusted odds ratios (AOR)=1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-2.1] and older age (AOR46-55+ vs. <25=2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.3). Among those initiating ART more than 1 year after enrollment in care, those who had a gap in care of 12 or more months prior to ART initiation had higher odds of advanced HIV disease (AOR=5.2; 95% CI: 1.2-21.1) . Conclusion: Marked improvements in the median CD4+ cell count at ART initiation and proportion initiating ART with advanced HIV disease were observed following the expansion of ART eligibility criteria in Rwanda. However, sex disparities in late treatment initiation persisted through 2011-2012, and appeared to be driven by later diagnosis and/or delayed linkage to care among men . © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health. © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Mutabazi V.,Ministry of Health |
Bitega J.P.,Military Medical Insurance |
Ngeruka L.M.,Rwanda Military Hospital |
Karema C.,Ministry of Health |
Binagwaho A.,Ministry of Health
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
The PrePex is a WHO-prequalified medical device for adult male circumcision for HIV prevention. The Government of Rwanda was the first country to implement the PrePex device and acts as the leading center of excellence providing training and formal guidelines. As part of the Government's efforts to improve PrePex implementation, it made efforts to improve the psychological acceptability of device by men, thus increasing uptake with VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa. Some men who underwent the PrePex procedure complained of foreskin odor while wearing the PrePex 3-7 days after it was placed. This complaint was identified as potential risk for uptake of the device. Researchers from Rwanda assumed there is a possible relation between the level of foreskin odor and patient foreskin hygiene technique. The Government of Rwanda decided to investigate those assumptions in a scientific way and conduct a trial to test different hygiene-cleaning methods in order to increase the acceptability of PrePex and mitigate the odor concern. The main objective of the trial was to compare odor levels between three arms, having identical personal hygiene but different foreskin hygiene techniques using either clear water with soap during a daily shower, soapy water using a syringe, or chlorhexidine using a syringe. One hundred and one subjects were enrolled to the trial and randomly allocated into three trial arms. Using chlorhexidine solution daily almost completely eliminated odor, and was statistically significant more effective that the other two arms. The trial results suggest that odor from the foreskin, while wearing the PrePex device, could be related to the growth of anaerobic bacteria, which can be prevented by a chlorhexidine cleaning method. This finding can be used to increase acceptability by men when considering PrePex as one of the leading methods for HIV prevention in VMMC programs. © 2015 Mutabazi et al.
PubMed | Rwanda Military Hospital, Military Medical Insurance and Ministry of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
The PrePex is a WHO--prequalified medical device for adult male circumcision for HIV prevention. The Government of Rwanda was the first country to implement the PrePex device and acts as the leading center of excellence providing training and formal guidelines. As part of the Governments efforts to improve PrePex implementation, it made efforts to improve the psychological acceptability of device by men, thus increasing uptake with VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa. Some men who underwent the PrePex procedure complained of foreskin odor while wearing the PrePex 3-7 days after it was placed. This complaint was identified as potential risk for uptake of the device. Researchers from Rwanda assumed there is a possible relation between the level of foreskin odor and patient foreskin hygiene technique. The Government of Rwanda decided to investigate those assumptions in a scientific way and conduct a trial to test different hygiene-cleaning methods in order to increase the acceptability of PrePex and mitigate the odor concern. The main objective of the trial was to compare odor levels between three arms, having identical personal hygiene but different foreskin hygiene techniques using either clear water with soap during a daily shower, soapy water using a syringe, or chlorhexidine using a syringe. One hundred and one subjects were enrolled to the trial and randomly allocated into three trial arms. Using chlorhexidine solution daily almost completely eliminated odor, and was statistically significant more effective that the other two arms. The trial results suggest that odor from the foreskin, while wearing the PrePex device, could be related to the growth of anaerobic bacteria, which can be prevented by a chlorhexidine cleaning method. This finding can be used to increase acceptability by men when considering PrePex as one of the leading methods for HIV prevention in VMMC programs.
PubMed | University of Kigali, Partners In Health, Georgetown University, Butaro Hospital and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2015
Community-based surveillance methods to monitor epidemiological progress in surgery have not yet been employed for surgical capacity building. The aim of this study was to create and assess the validity of a questionnaire that collected data for untreated surgically correctable diseases throughout Burera District, northern Rwanda, to accurately plan for surgical services.A structured interview to assess for the presence or absence of ten index surgically treatable conditions (breast mass, cleft lip/palate, club foot, hernia or hydrocele [adult and paediatric]), hydrocephalus, hypospadias, injuries or wounds, neck mass, undescended testes, and vaginal fistula) was created. The interview was built based on previously validated questionnaires, forward and back translated into the local language and underwent focus group augmentation and pilot testing. In March and May, 2012, data collectors conducted the structured interviews with a household representative in 30 villages throughout Burera District, selected using a two-stage cluster sampling design. Rwandan physicians revisited the surveyed households to perform physical examinations on all household members, used as the gold standard to validate the structured interview. Ethical approval was obtained from Boston Childrens Hospital (Boston, MA, USA) and the Rwandan National Ethics Committee (Kigali, Rwanda). Informed consent was obtained from all households.2990 individuals were surveyed, a 97% response rate. 2094 (70%) individuals were available for physical examination. The calculated overall sensitivity of the structured interview tool was 445% (95% CI 389-502) and the specificity was 977% (969-983%; appendix). The positive predictive value was 70% (95% CI 605-735), whereas the negative predictive value was 913% (900-925). The conditions with the highest sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were hydrocephalus (100% and 100%), clubfoot (100% and 998%), injuries or wounds (547% and 989%), and hypospadias (50% and 100%). Injuries or wounds and hernias or hydroceles were the conditions most frequently identified on examination that were not reported during the interview (appendix).To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first attempt to validate a community-based surgical surveillance tool. The finding of low sensitivity limits the use of the tool, which will require further revision, and calls into question previously published unvalidated community surgical survey data. To improve validation of community-based surveys, community education efforts on common surgically treatable conditions are needed in conjunction with increased access to surgical care. Accurate community-based surveys are crucial to integrated health system planning that includes surgical care as a core component.The Harvard Sheldon Traveling Fellowship.
PubMed | University of Kigali, Partners In Health, Georgetown University, Butaro Hospital and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2015
In low-income and middle-income countries, surgical epidemiology is largely undefined at the population level, with operative logs and hospital records serving as a proxy. This study assesses the distribution of surgical conditions that contribute the largest burden of surgical disease in Burera District, in northern Rwanda. We hypothesise that our results would yield higher rates of surgical disease than current estimates (from 2006) for similar low-income countries, which are 295 per 100000 people.In March and May, 2012, we performed a cross-sectional study in Burera District, randomly sampling 30 villages with probability proportionate to size and randomly sampling 23 households within the selected villages. Six Rwandan surgical postgraduates and physicians conducted physical examinations on all eligible participants in sampled households. Participants were assessed for injuries or wounds, hernias, hydroceles, breast mass, neck mass, obstetric fistula, undescended testes, hypospadias, hydrocephalus, cleft lip or palate, and club foot. Ethical approval was obtained from Boston Childrens Hospital (Boston, MA, USA) and the Rwandan National Ethics Committee (Kigali, Rwanda). Informed consent was obtained from all participants.Of the 2165 examined individuals, the overall prevalence of any surgical condition was 12% (95% CI 92-149) or 12009 per 100000 people. Injuries or wounds accounted for 55% of the prevalence and hernias or hydroceles accounted for 40%, followed by neck mass (42%), undescended testes (19%), breast mass (12%), club foot (1%), hypospadias (06%), hydrocephalus (06%), cleft lip or palate (0%), and obstetric fistula (0%). When comparing study participant characteristics, no statistical difference in overall prevalence was noted when examining sex, wealth, education, and travel time to the nearest hospital. Total rates of surgically treatable disease yielded a statistically significant difference compared with current estimates (p<0001).Rates of surgically treatable disease are significantly higher than previous estimates in comparable low-income countries. The prevalence of surgically treatable disease is evenly distributed across demographic parameters. From these results, we conclude that strengthening the Rwandan health systems surgical capacity, particularly in rural areas, could have meaningful affect on the entire population. Further community-based surgical epidemiological studies are needed in low-income and middle-income countries to provide the best data available for health system planning.The Harvard Sheldon Traveling Fellowship.
Kateera F.,Rwanda Military Hospital |
Walker T.D.,University Teaching Hospital |
Walker T.D.,College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda |
Mutesa L.,College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda |
And 9 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014
Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) are significant global public health challenges with health care workers (HCWs) at especially high risk of exposure in resource-poor settings.We aimed to measure HBV and HCV prevalence, identify exposure risks and evaluate hepatitis-related knowledge amongst Rwandan tertiary hospital HCWs. Methods: A cross sectional study involving tertiary hospital employees was conducted from October to December 2013. A pre-coded questionnaire was used to collect data on HCWs' socio-demographics, risk factors and knowledge of blood-borne infection prevention. Blood samples were drawn and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Results: Among 378 consenting HCWs, the prevalence of HBsAg positivitywas 2.9% (11/378; 95% CI 1.9 to 4.6%) and anti-HCV positivity 1.3% (5/378; 95% CI 0.7 to 2.7%). Occupational exposure to blood was reported in 57.1% (216/378). Of the 17 participants (4.5%; 17/378) who reported having received the HBV vaccine, only 3 participants (0.8%) had received the three-dose vaccination course. Only 42 HCWs (42/378; 11.1%) were aware that a HBV vaccinewas available. Most HCW (95.2%; 360/378) reported having been tested for HIV in the last 6 months. Conclusions: Despite their high workplace exposure risk, HBV and HCV sero-prevalence rates among HCWs were low. The low HBV vaccination coverage and poor knowledge of preventative measures among HCWs suggest low levels of viral hepatitis awareness despite this high exposure. © The Author 2015.
PubMed | Rwanda Military Hospital, University of Massachusetts Medical School and College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
PrePex Male Circumcision (MC) has been demonstrated as an effective and scalable strategy to prevent HIV infection in low- and middle-income countries. This study describes the follow-up and outcomes of clients who underwent PrePex MC between January 2011 and December 2012 with weekly follow-up at the Rwanda Military Hospital, the first national hospital in Rwanda to adopt PrePex.Data on 570 clients age 21 to 54 were extracted from patient records. We compared socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, the operators qualification, HIV status, pain before and after device removal, urological status, device size and follow-up time between clients who were formally discharged and those who defaulted. We reported bivariate associations between each covariate and discharge status, number of people with adverse events by discharge status, and time to formal discharge or defaulting using life table methods. Data were entered into Epidata and analyzed with Stata v 13.Among study participants, 96.5% were circumcised by non-physician operators, 85.4%were under 30 years, 98.9% were HIV-negative and 97.9% were without any urological problems that could delay the healing time. Most (70.7%) defaulted before formal discharge. Pain before (p<0.001) and after PrePex device removal (p = 0.001) were associated with discharge status, although very few cases were reported, and pain was more commonly missing among defaulters. Twenty-seven adverse events were reported (7 formally discharged, 20 defaulters). Median follow-up time was seven weeks among formally discharged and six weeks among defaulters (p<0.001).Given that all socio-demographic and most clinical characteristics were not associated with defaulting, we hypothesize that clients stopped returning once they determined they were healed. We recommend less frequent follow-up protocols to encourage clinical visits until formal discharge. Based on these results and recommendations, we believe PrePex MC is a practical circumcision strategy in Rwanda and in sub-Saharan Africa.
Skelton T.,University of Toronto |
Nshimyumuremyi I.,University of Rwanda |
Mukwesi C.,Rwanda Military Hospital |
Whynot S.,Dalhousie University |
And 2 more authors.
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2016
Background: Safe anesthesia care is challenging in developing countries where there are shortages of personnel, drugs, equipment, and training. Anesthetists' Non-technical Skills (ANTS) - task management, team working, situation awareness, and decision making - are difficult to practice well in this context. Cesarean delivery is the most common surgical procedure in inf-Saharan Africa. This pilot study investigates whether a low-cost simulation model, with good psychological fidelity, can be used effectively to teach ANTS during cesarean delivery in Rwanda. Methods: Study participants were anesthesia providers working in a tertiary referral hospital in Rwanda. Baseline observations were conducted for 20 anesthesia providers during cesarean delivery using the established ANTS framework. After the first observation set was complete, participants were randomly assigned to either simulation intervention or control groups. The simulation intervention group underwent ANTS training using low-cost high psychological fidelity simulation with debriefing. No training was offered to the control group. Postintervention observations were then conducted in the same manner as the baseline observations. RESULTS: The primary outcome was the overall ANTS score (maximum, 16). The median (range) ANTS score of the simulation group was 13.5 (11-16). The ANTS score of the control group was 8 (8-9), with a statistically significant difference (P =.002). Simulation participants showed statistically significant improvement in infcategories and in the overall ANTS score compared with ANTS score before simulation exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Rwandan anesthesia providers show improvement in ANTS practice during cesarean delivery after 1 teaching session using a low-cost high psychological fidelity simulation model with debriefing. © 2016 International Anesthesia Research Society.
Egziabher T.G.,Rwanda Military Hospital |
Eugene N.,Rwanda Military Hospital |
Ben K.,Rwanda Military Hospital |
Fredrick K.,Rwanda Military Hospital
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2015
Background: Globally, 50,000-100,000 women develop obstetric fistula annually. At least 33,000 of these women live in Sub-Saharan Africa where limitations in quality obstetric care and fistula corrective repairs are prevalent. Among women with fistula seeking care at public health facilities in resource-limited settings, there is paucity of data on quality of care received. The aim of this study was to characterize obstetric fistula among Rwandan women managed at a public tertiary hospital and evaluate for predictors of successful fistula closures. Methods: A retrospective review of records for all obstetric fistula women managed at a public referral health facility between 2007 and 2013 was performed. Patient socio-demographics, obstetric characteristics and fistula repair outcomes data were reviewed. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse for predictors of successful fistula repair outcomes. Results: A total of 272 women aged between 16 to 78 years and with a mean age of 34.6 years were included. Of these, 93 (34.2 %), 48 (17.6 %), 65 (24 %) and 64 (23 %) women had vesico-vaginal fistula, recto-vaginal fistula, urethro-vaginal fistula and vesico-uteral fistula types, respectively. Successful fistula closure was achieved among 86.3 %. Women with fistula who reported being in labour for ≥3 days, having ≥1 previous fistula repair attempt, and having lived with the fistula for >1 year, had significantly lower odds of successful repair outcomes. Conclusions: Among 272 women with obstetric fistula managed in this study, 69.5 and 26.5 % of their fistula were causally associated with obstructed labour complications and iatrogenic factors, respectively. Successful fistula closure rates of about 89 % among women of index repair attempt were achieved. Conversely, reported histories of ≥3 days in labour, ≥1 previous failed attempts at repair and a fistula duration of >1 year, were significant determinants of failed fistula closures. To effectively mitigate obstetric fistula burden in Rwanda, a comprehensive package of services including quality emergency obstetric care, increased availability of and access to quality fistula repair, active surveillance to identify community-based women with fistula and a strong political will towards effective fistula care, are recommended. © 2015 Egziabher et al.
PubMed | Rwanda Military Hospital and Harvard University
Type: | Journal: World journal of surgery | Year: 2016
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is first-line treatment for uncomplicated gallstone disease in high-income countries due to benefits such as shorter hospital stays, reduced morbidity, more rapid return to work, and lower mortality as well-being considered cost-effective. However, there persists a lack of uptake in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, there is a need to evaluate laparoscopic cholecystectomy in comparison with an open approach in these settings.A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate laparoscopic and open cholecystectomies at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH), a tertiary care referral hospital in Rwanda. Sensitivity and threshold analyses were performed to determine the robustness of the results.The laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy costs and effectiveness values were $2664.47 with 0.87 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and $2058.72 with 0.75 QALYs, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for laparoscopic over open cholecystectomy was $4946.18. Results are sensitive to the initial laparoscopic equipment investment and number of cases performed annually but robust to other parameters. The laparoscopic intervention is more cost-effective with investment costs less than $91,979, greater than 65 cases annually, or at willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds greater than $3975/QALY.At RMH, while laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be a more effective approach, it is also more expensive given the low caseload and high investment costs. At commonly accepted WTP thresholds, it is not cost-effective. However, as investment costs decrease and/or case volume increases, the laparoscopic approach may become favorable. Countries and hospitals should aspire to develop innovative, low-cost options in high volume to combat these barriers and provide laparoscopic surgery.