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Jefwa J.,Tropical Soil Biology And Fertility Institute of CIAT | Vanlauwe B.,Tropical Soil Biology And Fertility Institute of CIAT | Coyne D.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Asten P.V.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Crop association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) often prove beneficial to crop productivity through a number of mechanisms, such as improved access to nutrients and water and pest and disease suppression. Banana and plantain (Musa spp.) are both mycorrhizal plants, with a number of studies demonstrating the strong stimulatory effect of AMF on plant growth in pots. Therefore, application of AMF to newly deflasked tissue culture plants or in nurseries may improve plant growth and possibly provide healthier plants for sale to farmers. Pot trials have also shown that inoculated plants are better able to suppress nematodes. However, how this association benefits banana and plantain plant performance under field conditions remains largely unknown. Studies are currently underway to determine the mycorrhizal associations of banana and plantain cultivars with AMF in East and Central Africa. Greenhouse studies complement field studies for comparison at the different levels. In West Africa, studies have been conducted to assess AMF association and yield impact following inoculation. Data from across Africa increasingly highlights that composition and abundance of AMF species associated with Musa spp. is highly variable. Up to 20 AMF species were found to be associated with banana plantations in East and Central Africa. Spore abundance, the inoculum reservoir that determines colonization, is largely influenced by management practices. The data generated to date increasingly illustrates the importance of AMF in banana systems and its sensitivity to crop and soil management practices. Some AMF species appear to be better than others with regard to their effects on banana growth, nutrient uptake and control of root damage by nematodes. Studies are in progress to screen AMF species and establish trials along different integrated soil fertility management practices. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art regarding our knowledge of AMF and its (potential) impact on banana and plantain production in Africa.

Onasanya A.,Africa Rice Center | Onasanya A.,Federal University of Technology Akurre | Basso A.,Africa Rice Center | Basso A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 13 more authors.
Biotechnology | Year: 2010

A combined molecular diagnostic and DNA fingerprinting PCR technique for Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), Pseudomonas fuscovaginae (Pf) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) pathogens from rice has been developed in Africa by this study, using four primer pairs designed from Xoo (NC-007705.1), Xoc (NZ-AAQN01000001.1), Pf (AB021381.1) and Pss (NC-007005.1) complete genome sequence. Molecular PCR diagnostic showed that the presence of at least a band indicates positive detection of a bacterial pathogen and absence of a band indicates negative for no bacterial pathogen detected, while in the same PCR assay the presence of one or more band at different position revealed the DNA fingerprint of a bacterial pathogen. Out of 95 bacterial cultured isolates analyzed, 84 contained Xoo, 50 contained Xoc, 19 contained Pf and 16 contained Pss pathogens. DNA fingerprinting of the 84 Xoo pathogens revealed seven Xoo genotypes, four Xoc genotypes were identified from 50 Xoc pathogens and 19 Pf pathogens produced three Pf genotypes while 16 Pss pathogens formed three Pss genotypes. Development of a reliable molecular technique for Xoo, Xoc, Pf and Pss identification and differentiation is a prerequisite into understanding the genetics of Xoo, Xoc, Pf and Pss population structure in Africa and deployment of durable resistance cultivars. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Gaidashova S.V.,Rwanda Agricultural Research Institute | Gaidashova S.V.,Catholic University of Leuven | Van Asten P.J.A.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Jefwa J.M.,Tropical Soil Biology And Fertility Institute of CIAT | And 2 more authors.
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2010

Root colonization, soil population density and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were assessed in 188 banana fields in contrasting soil types across five eco-regions in Rwanda (Butare-Gitarama, Gashonga, Bugarama, Kibungo, Ruhengeri). Root colonization was observed in all banana plants, whatever the soil type, field site and farm. The population density was higher on the wetter (1 300-1 500mmyr-1) volcanic soils (Gashonga 59.8 and Ruhengeri 48.5 propagules 100g-1 soil, respectively) as compared to the dryer (900-1 200mmyr-1) soils derived from schist and granite (Butare-Gitarama 2.0, Kibungo 8.5, Bugarama 14.7 propagules 100g-1 soil). The diversity was highest in Kibungo and lowest in Butare-Gitarama (10 and 2 spore morphotypes, respectively). These results suggested that AM fungi were widespread in banana cropping systems in Rwanda, but that root colonization, population density and diversity varied considerably depending on edapho-climatic conditions (i.e. rainfall, soil texture and P content) and soil management practices (tillage). © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society.

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