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Wang J.,University of California at Riverside | Cao H.,University of California at Riverside | You C.,University of California at Riverside | Yuan B.,University of California at Riverside | And 6 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

SExposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) can give rise to the formation of various DNA damage products. Among them, d(G[8-5m]T) can be induced in isolated DNA treated with Fenton reagents and in cultured human cells exposed to c-rays, d(G[8-5m]T) can be recognized and incised by purified Escherichia coli UvrABC nuclease. However, it remains unexplored whether d(G[8-5 m]T) accumulates in mammalian tissues and whether it is a substrate for nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vivo. Here, we found that d(G[8-5 m]T) could be detected in DNA isolated from tissues of healthy humans and animals, and elevated endogenous ROS generation enhanced the accumulation of this lesion in tissues of a rat model of Wilson's disease. Additionally, XPA-deficient human brain and mouse liver as well as various types of tissues of ERCC1-deficient mice contained higher levels of d(G[8-5 m]T) but not ROS-induced single-nucleobase lesions than the corresponding normal controls. Together, our studies established that d(G[8-5 m]T) can be induced endogenously in mammalian tissues and constitutes a substrate for NER in vivo. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

Park S.O.,Yeshiva University | Kumar M.,Yeshiva University | Gupta S.,Yeshiva University | Gupta S.,Ruth L And David S Gottesman Institute For Stem Cell And Regenerative Medicine Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The nature of host-virus interactions in hepatitis B virus infection is incompletely understood. Since soluble factors, e.g., cytokines and metals, may exacerbate liver injury in chronic hepatitis, we considered that defining the effects of receptor-mediated signaling upon viral replication will be significant. Consequently, we studied effects of iron or TGF-β-induced TGF-β/BMP signaling in the HepG2 2.2.15 cell model of hepatitis B virus replication. We found iron and TGF-β increased hepcidin mRNA expression or TGF-β receptor kinase activity, respectively, which indicated that 2.2.15 cells responded appropriately to these substances. However, iron increased but TGF-β decreased hepatitis B virus mRNA and DNA expression. TGF-β induced expression at the mRNA level of multiple TGF-β/BMP pathway genes. This change was not observed in iron-treated cells. On the other hand, presence of SMAD proteins in iron or TGF-β-treated cells, including of SMAD4, did confirm convergence of TGF-β/BMP signaling pathways under these conditions. Since transcription factors in TGF-β/BMP signaling pathways could not have directly targeted hepatitis B virus itself, we studied whether iron or TGF-β exerted their effects through alternative mechanisms, such as by involvement of antiviral cellular microRNAs. We discovered cellular microRNA expression profiles were significantly different in iron or TGF-β-treated cells compared with untreated control cells. In many cases, exposure to iron or TGF-β changed microRNA expression in opposite directions. Introduction in cells of sequences representing such differentially expressed microRNAs, e.g., hsa-miR-125a-5p and -151-5p, even reproduced effects on virus replication of iron- or TGF-β. We surmised that TGF-β/BMP pathway members, i.e., SMADs, likely governed iron or TGF-β-induced microRNA expression. Iron may have mediated Drosha/DGCR8/heme-mediated processing of microRNAs. In turn, cellular microRNAs regulated replication of hepatitis B virus in iron or TGF-β-treated cells. This knowledge should advance studies of mechanisms in viral-host interactions, hepatic injury, and therapeutic developments for hepatitis B. © 2012 Park et al. Source

Kunisaki Y.,Ruth L And David S Gottesman Institute For Stem Cell And Regenerative Medicine Research | Kunisaki Y.,Yeshiva University | Kunisaki Y.,Kyushu University | Frenette P.S.,Ruth L And David S Gottesman Institute For Stem Cell And Regenerative Medicine Research | Frenette P.S.,Yeshiva University
International Journal of Hematology | Year: 2014

The fate decision of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), quiescence, proliferation or differentiation, is uniquely determined by functionally specialized microenvironments defined as the HSC niches. However, whether quiescence and proliferation of HSCs are regulated by spatially distinct niches is unclear. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential niche cells, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow remains controversial. In our recent study, we have established whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence techniques, which allow us to precisely assess the localization of HSCs and their relationships with stromal structures. Furthermore, we have assessed the significance of these associations using a computational simulation. These novel analyses have revealed that quiescent HSCs are specifically associated with small caliber arterioles, which are predominantly distributed in the endosteal bone marrow while the associations with sinusoidal vessels or osteoblasts are not significant. Physical ablation of the arteriolar niche causes the shift of HSC localization to sinusoidal niches, where HSCs are switched into non-quiescent status. This new imaging analyses together with previous studies suggest the presence of spatially distinct vascular niches for quiescent and non-quiescent (proliferating) HSCs in the bone marrow. © The Japanese Society of Hematology 2014. Source

Mendelson A.,Yeshiva University | Mendelson A.,Ruth L And David S Gottesman Institute For Stem Cell And Regenerative Medicine Research | Frenette P.S.,Yeshiva University | Frenette P.S.,Ruth L And David S Gottesman Institute For Stem Cell And Regenerative Medicine Research
Nature Medicine | Year: 2014

The bone marrow niche has mystified scientists for many years, leading to widespread investigation to shed light into its molecular and cellular composition. Considerable efforts have been devoted toward uncovering the regulatory mechanisms of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche maintenance. Recent advances in imaging and genetic manipulation of mouse models have allowed the identification of distinct vascular niches that have been shown to orchestrate the balance between quiescence, proliferation and regeneration of the bone marrow after injury. Here we highlight the recently discovered intrinsic mechanisms, microenvironmental interactions and communication with surrounding cells involved in HSC regulation, during homeostasis and in regeneration after injury and discuss their implications for regenerative therapy. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. Source

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