Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, /ˈrʌtɡərz/, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and the largest institution for higher education in New Jersey.Originally chartered as Queen's College on November 10, 1766, Rutgers is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine "Colonial Colleges" founded before the American Revolution. The college was renamed Rutgers College in 1825 in honor of Colonel Henry Rutgers , a New York City landowner, philanthropist and former military officer, whose generous donation to the school allowed it to reopen after years of financial difficulty. For most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church and admitted only male students. The college expanded its role in research and instruction in agriculture, engineering, and science when it was named as the state's sole land-grant college in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862. It gained university status in 1924 with the introduction of graduate education and further expansion. However, Rutgers evolved into a coeducational public research university after being designated "The State University of New Jersey" by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956. It is one of only two colonial colleges that later became public universities.Rutgers has three campuses located throughout New Jersey. The New Brunswick campus straddles the Raritan River in New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway. Two regional campuses are located in Newark and Camden, with additional facilities elsewhere in New Jersey. Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate and professional students.Rutgers is considered to be a Public Ivy, a term coined to describe public universities that offer an academic climate comparable to that in the Ivy League. The University is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and is a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, the Association of American Universities and the Universities Research Association Wikipedia.
Jakle F.,Rutgers University
A comprehensive overview of advances in the synthesis of organoborane polymers for optical, electronic, and sensory applications, is presented. Study of conjugated main chain organoboron polymers obtained through hydroboration of 2,5-diethynylthiophene derivatives with BCl3/Et3SiH mixture showed that polymers are differently colored depending on the substituents on the alkynyl groups. Luminescent polymer gels prepared by hydroboration polymerization of MesBH2 showed the occurrence of partial gelation when the reaction is performed in relatively concentrated THF solution. Tin-boron exchange reactions are also studied as a potentially milder and more selective polymerization method showing that the polycondensation process occurs between a bifunctional haloborane and a ditin species. Source
Sellwood J.A.,Rutgers University
Reviews of Modern Physics
Disk galaxies evolve over time through processes that may rearrange both the radial mass profile and the metallicity distribution within the disk. This review of such slow changes is largely, though not entirely, restricted to internally driven processes that can be distinguished from evolution driven by galaxy interactions. It both describes our current understanding of disk evolution and identifies areas where more work is needed. Stellar disks are heated through spiral scattering, which increases random motion components in the plane, while molecular clouds redirect some fraction of the random energy into vertical motion. The recently discovered process of radial migration at the corotation resonance of a transient spiral mode does not alter the underlying structure of the disk, since it neither heats the disk nor causes it to spread, but it does have a profound effect on the expected distribution of metallicities among the disk stars. Bars in disks are believed to be major drivers of secular evolution through interactions with the outer disk and with the halo. Once the material that makes up galaxy disks is converted into stars, their overall angular momentum distribution cannot change by much, but that of the gas is generally far more liable to rearrangement, allowing rings and pseudobulges to form. While simulations are powerful tools from which we have learned a great deal, those of disks may suffer from collisional relaxation that requires some results to be interpreted with caution. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source
Reinfelder J.R.,Rutgers University
Annual Review of Marine Science
The accumulation of inorganic carbon from seawater by eukaryotic marine phytoplankton is limited by the diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO 2) in water and the dehydration kinetics of bicarbonate to CO 2 and by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase's (RubisCO) low affinity for its inorganic carbon substrate, CO 2. Nearly all marine phytoplankton have adapted to these limitations and evolved inorganic carbon (or CO 2) concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to support photosynthetic carbon fixation at the concentrations of CO 2 present in ocean surface waters (<10-30 μM). The biophysics and biochemistry of CCMs vary within and among the three dominant groups of eukaryotic marine phytoplankton and may involve the activity of external or intracellular carbonic anhydrase, HCO 3 - transport, and perhaps a C 4 carbon pump. In general, coccolithophores have low-efficiency CCMs, and diatoms and the haptophyte genus Phaeocystis have high-efficiency CCMs. Dinoflagellates appear to possess moderately efficient CCMs, which may be necessitated by the very low CO 2 affinity of their form II RubisCO. The energetic and nutrient costs of CCMs may modulate how variable CO 2 affects primary production, element composition, and species composition of phytoplankton in the ocean. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source
Rutgers University | Date: 2015-03-31
The present invention relates to primary and secondary electrochemical energy storage systems. More particularly, the present invention relates to such systems as battery cells, especially battery cells utilizing metal fluorides with the presence of phosphates or fluorophosphates, which use materials that take up and release ions as a means of storing and supplying electrical energy.
Rutgers University and Coordinated Program Development, Llc | Date: 2015-01-29
Unpurified or low pure soy phosphatidylserine is used to make cochleates. The cochleates contain about 40-74% soy phosphatidylserine, a multivalent cation and a biological active. A preferred cochleate contains the antifungal agent amphotericin B.