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Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, /ˈrʌtɡərz/, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and the largest institution for higher education in New Jersey.Originally chartered as Queen's College on November 10, 1766, Rutgers is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine "Colonial Colleges" founded before the American Revolution. The college was renamed Rutgers College in 1825 in honor of Colonel Henry Rutgers , a New York City landowner, philanthropist and former military officer, whose generous donation to the school allowed it to reopen after years of financial difficulty. For most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church and admitted only male students. The college expanded its role in research and instruction in agriculture, engineering, and science when it was named as the state's sole land-grant college in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862. It gained university status in 1924 with the introduction of graduate education and further expansion. However, Rutgers evolved into a coeducational public research university after being designated "The State University of New Jersey" by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956. It is one of only two colonial colleges that later became public universities.Rutgers has three campuses located throughout New Jersey. The New Brunswick campus straddles the Raritan River in New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway. Two regional campuses are located in Newark and Camden, with additional facilities elsewhere in New Jersey. Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate and professional students.Rutgers is considered to be a Public Ivy, a term coined to describe public universities that offer an academic climate comparable to that in the Ivy League. The University is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and is a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, the Association of American Universities and the Universities Research Association Wikipedia.

Hennessy S.,University of Pennsylvania | Strom B.L.,University of Pennsylvania | Strom B.L.,Rutgers University
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2015

Adverse drug events (ADEs) are an important public health concern, accounting for 5% of all hospital admissions and two-thirds of all complications occurring shortly after hospital discharge. There are often long delays between when a drug is approved and when serious ADEs are identified. Recent and ongoing advances in drug safety surveillance include the establishment of government-sponsored networks of population databases, the use of data mining approaches, and the formal integration of diverse sources of drug safety information. These advances promise to reduce delays in identifying drug-related risks and in providing reassurance about the absence of such risks. ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Starr J.P.,Rutgers University
World journal of surgery | Year: 2010

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a cyanotic congenital cardiac defect that was first described by Stenson in 1672 and later named for Fallot, who in 1888 described it as a single pathological process responsible for (1) pulmonary outflow tract obstruction, (2) ventricular septal defect (VSD), (3) overriding aortic root, and (4) right ventricular hypertrophy. The surgical history of TOF began with the development of the systemic to pulmonary artery shunt (BT shunt) by Blalock, Taussig, and Thomas in 1944. Ten years later complete repair of TOF was performed by Lillehei using cross-circulation and by Kirklin with a primitive cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. Notable contributions by several other surgeons including Bahnson, Ebert, Malm, Trusler, Barratt-Boyes, and Castaneda would lead us into the modern era of surgery. Today, complete repair of TOF is performed before six months of age with low mortality (<2%). In select cases a modified version of the BT shunt is still performed as the initial procedure. Long-term survival rates are excellent (85%-90%). Adult survivors with TOF are an ever-increasing population and may require reintervention, surgically or catheter based. Promising future innovations include percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement, tissue-engineered autologous valves and conduits, and genetic manipulation. This article presents a review of TOF, including the history of surgical treatment, present-day approaches, and long-term outcomes.

Zhang T.,Rutgers University
Journal of Machine Learning Research | Year: 2010

We consider learning formulations with non-convex objective functions that often occur in practical applications. There are two approaches to this problem: • Heuristic methods such as gradient descent that only find a local minimum. A drawback of this approach is the lack of theoretical guarantee showing that the local minimum gives a good solution. • Convex relaxation such as L1-regularization that solves the problem under some conditions. However it often leads to a sub-optimal solution in reality. This paper tries to remedy the above gap between theory and practice. In particular, we present a multi-stage convex relaxation scheme for solving problems with non-convex objective functions. For learning formulations with sparse regularizaron, we analyze the behavior of a specific multistage relaxation scheme. Under appropriate conditions, we show that the local solution obtained by this procedure is superior to the global solution of the standard L 1 convex relaxation for learning sparse targets. © 2010 Tong Zhang.

Winfree R.,Rutgers University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2010

Bees pollinate most of the world's wild plant species and provide economically valuable pollination services to crops; yet knowledge of bee conservation biology lags far behind other taxa such as vertebrates and plants. There are few long-term data on bee populations, which makes their conservation status difficult to assess. The best-studied groups are the genus Bombus (the bumble bees), and bees in the EU generally; both of these are clearly declining. However, it is not known to what extent these groups represent the approximately 20,000 species of bees globally. As is the case for insects in general, bees are underrepresented in conservation planning and protection efforts. For example, only two bee species are on the global IUCN Red List, and no bee is listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, even though many bee species are known to be in steep decline or possibly extinct. At present, bee restoration occurs mainly in agricultural contexts, funded by government programs such as agri-environment schemes (EU) and the Farm Bill (USA). This is a promising approach given that many bee species can use human-disturbed habitats, and bees provide valuable pollination services to crops. However, agricultural restorations only benefit species that persist in agricultural landscapes, and they are more expensive than preserving natural habitat elsewhere. Furthermore, such restorations benefit bees in only about half of studied cases. More research is greatly needed in many areas of bee conservation, including basic population biology, bee restoration in nonagricultural contexts, and the identification of disturbance-sensitive bee species. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

Deka D.,Rutgers University
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2014

Because of certain requirements under US federal law, many studies have been published in recent years on the role of fixed-route transit and paratransit in meeting the travel needs of persons with disabilities. Although persons with disabilities are several times more likely to take rides from household members than to take public transit, little research has been conducted to explore the circumstances under which such rides are given or taken. To address this gap in literature, this study examines the role of household members in transporting persons with disabilities in contemporary America. It explores how the circumstances for the ride takers may change in the future, identifies future challenges in providing mobility to persons with disabilities, and examines ways to meet those challenges. Using nationwide data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey, the study compares the rides taken by persons with disabilities from household members with trips made by other travel modes, the persons who take rides with those who do not take rides, and the drivers who provide rides with those who do not provide rides. Probit models are used for the comparisons. Implications of the findings are discussed in light of potential demographic changes in the future, especially the growth of single-person households and the consequent loss of household support for transportation. Due to similarities in circumstances in other developed countries, an international context to the study is also provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Liu J.,Rutgers University
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2014

Tumor suppressor p53 has a key role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing tumorigenesis through its regulation of cellular stress responses, including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence. To ensure its proper levels and functions in cells, p53 is tightly regulated mainly through post-translational modifications, such as ubiquitination. Here, we identified E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 as a novel p53 target gene and negative regulator to regulate p53-mediated stress responses. In response to stress, such as DNA damage, p53 binds to the p53 responsive element in the promoter of the TRIM32 gene and transcriptionally induces the expression of TRIM32 in cells. In turn, TRIM32 interacts with p53 and promotes p53 degradation through ubiquitination. Thus, TRIM32 negatively regulates p53-mediated apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence in response to stress. TRIM32 is frequently overexpressed in different types of human tumors. TRIM32 overexpression promotes cell oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis in mice in a largely p53-dependent manner. Taken together, our results demonstrated that as a novel p53 target and a novel negative regulator for p53, TRIM32 has an important role in regulation of p53 and p53-mediated cellular stress responses. Furthermore, our results also revealed that impairing p53 function is a novel mechanism for TRIM32 in tumorigenesis.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 22 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.121.

McGann J.P.,Rutgers University
Chemical Senses | Year: 2013

Presynaptic inhibition is the suppression of neurotransmitter release from a neuron by inhibitory input onto its presynaptic terminal. In the olfactory system, the primary sensory afferents from the olfactory neuroepithelium to the brain's olfactory bulb are strongly modulated by a presynaptic inhibition that has been studied extensively in brain slices and in vivo. In rodents, this inhibition is mediated by -amino butyric acid (GABA) and dopamine released from bulbar interneurons. The specialized GABAergic circuit is now well understood to include a specific subset of GAD65-expressing periglomerular interneurons that stimulate presynaptic GABAB receptors to reduce presynaptic calcium conductance. This inhibition is organized to permit the selective modulation of neurotransmitter release from specific populations of olfactory sensory neurons based on their odorant receptor expression, includes specialized microcircuits to create a tonically active inhibition and a separate feedback inhibition evoked by sensory input, and can be modulated by centrifugal projections from other brain regions. Olfactory nerve output can also be modulated by dopaminergic circuitry, but this literature is more difficult to interpret. Presynaptic inhibition of olfactory afferents may extend their dynamic range but could also create state-dependent or odorant-specific sensory filters on primary sensory representations. New directions exploring this circuit's role in olfactory processing are discussed.

Coleman P.,Rutgers University
Nature Materials | Year: 2012

Custers et al. provide a new materials physics solution to the question of whether Kondo destruction requires two dimensions. The study has found that a new heavy-fermion compound Ce 3Pd 20Si 6 is cubic, and hence manifestly 3D, which exhibits all the qualities of Kondo destruction. A careful low-temperature transport and specific heat measurements show all the hallmarks of Kondo breakdown, a linear resistivity, a jump in the Hall constant and a logarithmic temperature dependence of the specific heat. It is also found that just prior to the antiferromagnetic phase transition, Ce 3Pd 20Si 6 develops a staggered quadrupolar order, in which the shape of the cerium atoms deforms in an alternating pattern across the crystal. In a magnetic field, the different shapes of the cerium atoms have different magnetic polarizabilities, so that in the presence of staggered quadrupolar order, a field induces a small antiferromagnetic density wave.

Shors T.J.,Rutgers University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Scientific studies funded by the United States government must now include both males and females as experimental subjects. This is a welcomed change for those of us who have been reporting on sex differences for decades. That said, there are some issues to consider; I focus on one in this review: females used in animal models of mental illness and health are almost always virgins and yet most adult females around the world, irrespective of species, are not virgins. I am not advocating that all scientists include non-virgin females in laboratory studies, but rather to consider the dynamic nature of the female brain when drawing conclusions through discovery. Stressful life experiences, including those related to sexual aggression and trauma, can have a lasting impact on processes of learning related to mental health and plasticity in the female brain. Her response to stress can change rather dramatically as she emerges from puberty to become pregnant and produce offspring, as she must learn to care for those offspring. The inclusion of females in scientific research has been a long time coming but it comes with a history. Going for- ward, we should take advantage of that history to generate hypotheses that are both reasonable and meaningful. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Miller J.,Rutgers University
Crime and Delinquency | Year: 2014

Mainstream accounts of community corrections supervision emphasize rehabilitation on the one hand, and surveillance and control on the other.This article, however, examines whether probation supervision is used to reduce the exposure of offenders to crime opportunities. Using data from a national community corrections survey, it finds that opportunity-focused supervision (OFS) practices are, to varying degrees, common. Most OFS activities coalesce around a distinct strategy that involves harnessing efforts of potential handlers, place managers, and capable guardians to help steer offenders away from crime opportunities, deployed somewhat independently of conventional supervision strategies. Predictors of the OFS strategy are different from other supervision approaches, and include low caseloads, juvenile supervision, and working in an office serving a rural area. © The Author(s) 2012.

Young W.,Rutgers University
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2014

Umbilical cord blood banks use two methods to store frozen umbilical cord blood (UCB): red cell reduction (RCR) or plasma depletion (PD). The RCR method centrifuges cord blood in hetastarch or albumin to isolate 21 ml of cord blood containing mostly white blood cells, adds 4 ml of 50% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then freezes the resulting 25 ml of cell suspension. The PD method removes plasma, saves all the cells, and freezes the cells in 10% DMSO. PD UCB units are cheaper to process but more expensive to store and somewhat more troublesome to thaw. However, when properly thawed and washed, PD UCB units have as many or more total nucleated cells (TNCs), CD34+ cells, and colony-forming units (CFU) than RCR units. Two studies suggest that PD units have 20-25% more TNCs, MNCs, and CD34+ cells, as well as two to three times more CFU than RCR units. Higher TNC, CD34+, and CFU counts predict engraftment rate with faster neutrophil and platelet recovery. PD units have high engraftment rates with low mortality and high disease-free survival, comparable with clinical results of treatments with RCR units. One recent series of studies suggests that PD units are more effective for treating thalassemia with 2-year survival rates of 88%, disease-free survival rates of 74%, and 100% cure rate for children under age 7, compared to only 61% overall survival and 23% disease-free survival rate in thalassemic children treated with RCR units. These findings suggest that PD units not only have more TNCs, CD34+ cells, and CFU than RCR units but also have high engraftment rates and may be more effective for treating certain conditions such as β-thalassemia. © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

Young W.,Rutgers University
Cell Transplantation | Year: 2014

Three theories of regeneration dominate neuroscience today, all purporting to explain why the adult central nervous system (CNS) cannot regenerate. One theory proposes that Nogo, a molecule expressed by myelin, prevents axonal growth. The second theory emphasizes the role of glial scars. The third theory proposes that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) prevent axon growth. Blockade of Nogo, CSPG, and their receptors indeed can stop axon growth in vitro and improve functional recovery in animal spinal cord injury (SCI) models. These therapies also increase sprouting of surviving axons and plasticity. However, many investigators have reported regenerating spinal tracts without eliminating Nogo, glial scar, or CSPG. For example, many motor and sensory axons grow spontaneously in contused spinal cords, crossing gliotic tissue and white matter surrounding the injury site. Sensory axons grow long distances in injured dorsal columns after peripheral nerve lesions. Cell transplants and treatments that increase cAMP and neurotrophins stimulate motor and sensory axons to cross glial scars and to grow long distances in white matter. Genetic studies deleting all members of the Nogo family and even the Nogo receptor do not always improve regeneration in mice. A recent study reported that suppressing the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene promotes prolific corticospinal tract regeneration. These findings cannot be explained by the current theories proposing that Nogo and glial scars prevent regeneration. Spinal axons clearly can and will grow through glial scars and Nogo-expressing tissue under some circumstances. The observation that deleting PTEN allows corticospinal tract regeneration indicates that the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway regulates axonal growth. Finally, many other factors stimulate spinal axonal growth, including conditioning lesions, cAMP, glycogen synthetase kinase inhibition, and neurotrophins. To explain these disparate regenerative phenomena, I propose that the spinal cord has evolved regenerative mechanisms that are normally suppressed by multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors but can be activated by injury, mediated by the PTEN/ AKT/mTOR, cAMP, and GSK3b pathways, to stimulate neural growth and proliferation. © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

Seidel D.,Rutgers University
Organic Chemistry Frontiers | Year: 2014

This highlight details the recent emergence of a new type of A3 reaction (three-component condensation of an amine, an aldehyde and an alkyne). In contrast to the classic A3 coupling process, the redox-A3 reaction incorporates an iminium isomerization step and leads to amine α-alkynylation. The overall transformation is redox-neutral by virtue of a combined reductive N-alkylation/oxidative C-H bond functionalization. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Artyukhin S.,Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials | Artyukhin S.,Rutgers University | Delaney K.T.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Spaldin N.A.,ETH Zurich | Mostovoy M.,Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials
Nature Materials | Year: 2014

Topological defects in ordered states with spontaneously broken symmetry often have unusual physical properties, such as fractional electric charge or a quantized magnetic field flux, originating from their non-trivial topology. Coupled topological defects in systems with several coexisting orders give rise to unconventional functionalities, such as the electric-field control of magnetization in multiferroics resulting from the coupling between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic domain walls. Hexagonal manganites provide an extra degree of freedom: in these materials, both ferroelectricity and magnetism are coupled to an additional, non-ferroelectric structural order parameter. Here we present a theoretical study of topological defects in hexagonal manganites based on Landau theory with parameters determined from first-principles calculations. We explain the observed flip of electric polarization at the boundaries of structural domains, the origin of the observed discrete vortices, and the clamping between ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic domain walls. We show that structural vortices induce magnetic ones and that, consistent with a recent experimental report, ferroelectric domain walls can carry a magnetic moment. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Foster M.S.,Rice University | Yuzbashyan E.A.,Rutgers University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We show that arbitrarily weak interparticle interactions destabilize the surface states of 3D topological superconductors with spin SU(2) invariance (symmetry class CI) in the presence of nonmagnetic disorder. The conduit for the instability is disorder-induced wave function multifractality. We argue that time-reversal symmetry breaks spontaneously at the surface, so that topologically protected states do not exist for this class. The interaction-stabilized surface phase is expected to exhibit ferromagnetic order, or to reside in an insulating plateau of the spin quantum Hall effect. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Pirrotta V.,Rutgers University
Cell | Year: 2015

Germline stem cells divide asymmetrically, producing a self-renewing stem cell and a differentiating progenitor. Xie et al. now show that this depends on two asymmetric events that together partition a genome copy, carrying the old histones to the stem cell daughter and a copy with new, unmarked histones to the differentiating daughter. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Abdellatif M.,Rutgers University
Circulation Research | Year: 2012

Disturbances in gene expression as a result of perturbed transcription or posttranscriptional regulation is one of the main causes of cellular dysfunction that underlies different disease states. Approximately a decade ago, the discovery of microRNAs in mammalian cells has renewed our focus on posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms during pathogenesis. These tiny posttranscriptional regulators are differentially expressed in almost every disease that has been studied to date and can modulate expression of a gene via specifically binding to its messenger RNA. Because of their capacity to simultaneously target multiple functionally related, genes, they are proving to be potentially powerful therapeutic agents/targets. In this review, we focus on the microRNAs that are differentially regulated in the more common cardiovascular pathologies, their targets, and potential function. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

Anthony T.G.,Rutgers University | Wek R.C.,Indiana University
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2012

During the progression of diabetes, crosstalk between ER stress and inflammation controls islet cell fate. In this issue, Lerner et al. (2012) and Oslowski et al. (2012) discover that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is a regulatory switch connecting the terminal unfolded protein response (UPR) and NLRP3 inflammasome to mediate β cell death. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Shah C.,Rutgers University
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The notions that information seeking is not always a solitary activity and that people working in collaboration for information intensive tasks should be studied and supported have become more prevalent in recent years. Several new research questions, methodologies, and systems have emerged around these notions that may prove to be useful beyond the field of collaborative information seeking (CIS), with relevance to the broader area of information seeking and behavior. This article provides an overview of such key research work from a variety of domains, including library and information science, computer-supported cooperative work, humancomputer interaction, and information retrieval. It starts with explanations of collaboration and how CIS fits in different contexts, emphasizing the interactive, intentional, and mutually beneficial nature of CIS activities. Relations to similar and related fields such as collaborative information retrieval, collaborative information behavior, and collaborative filtering are also clarified. Next, the article presents a synthesis of various frameworks and models that exist in the field today, along with a new synthesis of 12 different dimensions of group activities. A discussion on issues and approaches relating to evaluating various parameters in CIS follows. Finally, a list of known issues and challenges is presented to provide an overview of research opportunities in this field. © 2013 ASIS&T.

Nordstrom K.F.,Rutgers University
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2014

Shore protection structures will continue to be built and maintained to protect coastal infrastructure. This review identifies factors influencing our ability to retain or restore natural features or construct artificial habitats on beaches and dunes in the presence of these structures. Protection structures are visual and physical intrusions into natural landscapes, and they alter natural processes and introduce exotic habitat. Impacts on landforms and habitats vary depending on the type of structure and its size, shape, orientation, type of materials used, age and state of repair. Changes will occur to any structure through time, and decisions must be made to supplement, rebuild, replace, or remove them or allow them to deteriorate. Decisions about removing protection structures are problematic because they might already have habitat value, and the effects of removal are as difficult to predict as the effects of their original emplacement. Creative alternatives to traditional structures can be applied to retain or enhance some of the natural values of landforms and habitats. This can occur by making structures smaller, placing them below ground or water level, selecting construction materials that enhance habitat, or using beach fill to overcome undesirable effects. Decisions are required on whether the enhancement of habitat by modifying traditional structures is actually desirable. Humans must now be considered intrinsic agents of landscape evolution, and decisions on how, when and where to place, modify or remove protection structures depend on numerous human inputs, requiring interventions that have an interdisciplinary perspective and are placed in a societal context. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Sontag E.D.,Rutgers University
IET Systems Biology | Year: 2010

This note studies feedforward circuits as models for perfect adaptation to step signals in biological systems. A global convergence theorem is proved in a general framework, which includes examples from the literature as particular cases. A notable aspect of these circuits is that they do not adapt to pulse signals, because they display a memory phenomenon. Estimates are given of the magnitude of this effect. © 2009 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Rosen A.D.,Rutgers University
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2010

This series of patients clearly shows that the use of absorbable bidirectional barbed sutures for repair of fascial defects in abdominoplasty, including fascial plication, progressive tension, and layered skin closure, is a satisfactory alternative to previously reported options. Furthermore, it eliminates the need for redundant permanent suture material and knots. I believe barbed suture technology is truly the proverbial "better mousetrap" that represents a variation of a familiar theme for all surgeons. I amconfident that novel uses for this revolutionary technology will be quickly forthcoming. Here, too, I hope, plastic surgeons will lead the way. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

Breslin P.A.S.,Rutgers University | Breslin P.A.S.,Monell Chemical Senses Center
Current Biology | Year: 2013

The sense of taste is stimulated when nutrients or other chemical compounds activate specialized receptor cells within the oral cavity. Taste helps us decide what to eat and influences how efficiently we digest these foods. Human taste abilities have been shaped, in large part, by the ecological niches our evolutionary ancestors occupied and by the nutrients they sought. Early hominoids sought nutrition within a closed tropical forest environment, probably eating mostly fruit and leaves, and early hominids left this environment for the savannah and greatly expanded their dietary repertoire. They would have used their sense of taste to identify nutritious food items. The risks of making poor food selections when foraging not only entail wasted energy and metabolic harm from eating foods of low nutrient and energy content, but also the harmful and potentially lethal ingestion of toxins. The learned consequences of ingested foods may subsequently guide our future food choices. The evolved taste abilities of humans are still useful for the one billion humans living with very low food security by helping them identify nutrients. But for those who have easy access to tasty, energy-dense foods our sensitivities for sugary, salty and fatty foods have also helped cause over nutrition-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Felder F.A.,Rutgers University
Electricity Journal | Year: 2011

A holistic analysis is needed to answer the key questions regarding efficiency and equity. In addition, much more thought needs to be given as to whether the combination of these pricing mechanisms provides efficient price signals from a societal perspective or if the multitude of prices and products is undercutting efficient market signals. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

We describe the synthesis of phosphine derivatives of three fluorescent probes that have a brightness and photostability suitable for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy: Alexa488, Cy3B, and Alexa647. In addition, we describe procedures for use of these reagents in azide-specific, bioorthogonal labeling through Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation, as well as procedures for the quantitation of labeling specificity and labeling efficiency. The reagents and procedures of this report enable chemoselective, site-selective labeling of azide-containing biomolecules for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Sass L.A.,Rutgers University
Journal of Psychopathology | Year: 2014

The aim of this article is to lay out a number of ways in which the phenomenological approach to psychopathology can be not merely "descriptive", but contribute as well to the project of "explanation". After considering some ambiguities and controversies pertaining to the notions of description, explanation, understanding and causality, the article turns to a particular example of psychopathology: schizophrenia. The "ipseity-disturbance" model of Sass & Parnas is presented as a way of illustrating the various explanatory possibilities. The ipseity-disturbance model postulates a two-faceted disorder of minimal or basic self-experience, involving hyperreflexivity (exaggerated self-consciousness, initially of an automatic kind) and diminished "self-affection" or self-presence (decline in the sense of existing as a vital and self-identical subject of experience), together with concomitant disturbances in one's "grip" or "hold" on the external world (the clarity and stability of one's experience of external reality). Six kinds of explanatory relationships are described and discussed. Three are synchronic relationships, involving phenomenological implication: equiprimordial, constitutive and expressive. Three pertain to diachronic relationships, involving causal or quasicausal changes over time: basic, consequential and compensatory processes. Whereas the first or synchronic relationships concern forms of mutual implication that clarify the structure of the experiences at issue, the second or diachronic type concerns the development or genesis, over time, of abnormal forms of experience, and related forms of action and expression, in light of the causal or quasi-causal patterns they may demonstrate. These relationships are considered in relation to several philosophical concepts, including Aristotle's notion of the four causes or explanatory factors (material, efficient, formal, final), Husserl's notion of "motivational causality", and the concepts of downward causation, system (or formal) causation, and epiphenomenalism. A final section takes up the self-critical and eminently phenomenological question of the degree to which phenomenological concepts regarding subjectivity can be considered to have an "objective" status, as opposed to being useful ways for us to distinguish aspects or processes of what is in fact a kind of underlying unity. All this helps to clarify the nature of phenomenology's potentially explanatory role.

Kharitonov M.,Rutgers University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We perform a simplified analysis of the edge excitations of the canted antiferromagnetic (CAF) phase of the ν=0 quantum Hall state in both monolayer and bilayer graphene. Namely, we calculate, within the framework of quantum Hall ferromagnetism, the mean-field quasiparticle spectrum of the CAF phase neglecting the modification of the order parameter at the edge. We demonstrate that, at a fixed perpendicular component B - of the magnetic field, the gap Δ edge in the edge excitation spectrum gradually decreases upon increasing the parallel component B -, as the CAF phase continuously transforms to the fully spin-polarized ferromagnetic (F) phase. The edge gap closes completely (Δ edge=0) once the F phase, characterized by gapless counterpropagating edge excitations, is reached at some finite B --dependent value B-* and remains closed upon further increase of B -. This results in a gradual insulator-metal transition, in which the conductance G∼(e2/h)exp(-Δ edge/T) grows exponentially with B - in the range 0

Foster M.S.,Rutgers University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We compute the multifractal spectra associated to local density of states (LDOS) fluctuations due to weak quenched disorder for a single Dirac fermion in two spatial dimensions. Our results are relevant to the surfaces of Z 2 topological insulators such as Bi 2Se 3 and Bi 2Te 3, where LDOS modulations can be directly probed via scanning tunneling microscopy. We find a qualitative difference in spectra obtained for magnetic versus nonmagnetic disorder. Randomly polarized magnetic impurities induce quadratic multifractality at first order in the impurity density; by contrast, no operator exhibits multifractal scaling at this order for a nonmagnetic impurity profile. For the time-reversal invariant case, we compute the first nontrivial multifractal correction, which appears at two loops (impurity density squared). We discuss spectral enhancement approaching the Dirac point due to renormalization, and we survey known results for the opposite limit of strong disorder. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Podzorov V.,Rutgers University
Nature Materials | Year: 2013

Poorly ordered films of conjugated polymers that show high charge mobility recently challenged the idea that disorder is detrimental for electrical conduction. Systematic studies now reveal that long polymeric chains can bridge small crystalline domains thus supporting charge transport on length scales relevant for device operation. Contrary to small conjugated molecules that form tightly packed molecular crystals with an outstanding structural order and high charge mobilities, conjugated polymers consist of long and semiflexible chains of small molecules (conjugated cores) linked together by chemical bonds. Charges can move along these chains, like electrons in wires. When conjugated polymers aggregate in solid films, the chains usually form complex and frequently inhomogeneous morphologies, composed of disordered (amorphous) regions and some ordered domains, where the conjugated cores are packed similarly to small-molecule crystals.

Francis J.A.,Rutgers University | Vavrus S.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2012

Arctic amplification (AA)-the observed enhanced warming in high northern latitudes relative to the northern hemisphere-is evident in lower-tropospheric temperatures and in 1000-to-500hPa thicknesses. Daily fields of 500hPa heights from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis are analyzed over N. America and the N. Atlantic to assess changes in north-south (Rossby) wave characteristics associated with AA and the relaxation of poleward thickness gradients. Two effects are identified that each contribute to a slower eastward progression of Rossby waves in the upper-level flow: 1) weakened zonal winds, and 2) increased wave amplitude. These effects are particularly evident in autumn and winter consistent with sea-ice loss, but are also apparent in summer, possibly related to earlier snow melt on high-latitude land. Slower progression of upper-level waves would cause associated weather patterns in mid-latitudes to be more persistent, which may lead to an increased probability of extreme weather events that result from prolonged conditions, such as drought, flooding, cold spells, and heat waves. copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

Feldman J.,Rutgers University
Psychonomic Bulletin and Review | Year: 2015

Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (in press) argue that veridicality is neither required nor achieved by the visual system, and propose a new framework in which the literal truth of perceptual inferences plays no role. In this brief comment, I concur with and advocate their basic position, though I go on to argue that Bayesian inference already embodies a similar epistemological stance. © 2015, Psychonomic Society, Inc.

Xiang M.,Rutgers University
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2013

The generation of appropriate and diverse neuronal and glial types and subtypes during development constitutes the critical first step toward assembling functional neural circuits. During mammalian retinogenesis, all seven neuronal and glial cell types present in the adult retina are specified from multipotent progenitors by the combined action of various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Tremendous progress has been made over the past two decades in uncovering the complex molecular mechanisms that control retinal cell diversification. Molecular genetic studies coupled with bioinformatic approaches have identified numerous transcription factors and cofactors as major intrinsic regulators leading to the establishment of progenitor multipotency and eventual differentiation of various retinal cell types and subtypes. More recently, non-coding RNAs have emerged as another class of intrinsic factors involved in generating retinal cell diversity. These intrinsic regulatory factors are found to act in different developmental processes to establish progenitor multipotency, define progenitor competence, determine cell fates, and/or specify cell types and subtypes. © 2012 Springer Basel.

Sarkar D.K.,Rutgers University
Frontiers of Hormone Research | Year: 2010

There are several reports showing evidence for the existence of high levels of prolactin (PRL) in alcoholic men and women. Alcohol-induced hyperprolactinemia has also been demonstrated in nonhuman primates and laboratory animals. Therefore, the clinical data as well as animal data suggest that ethanol consumption is a positive risk factor for hyperprolactinemia. In animal studies, it was found that chronic ethanol administration not only elevates plasma levels of PRL but also increases proliferation of pituitary lactotropes. Ethanol action on lactotropes involves crosstalk with estradiol-responsive signaling cascade or estradiol-regulated cell-cell communication. Additionally, it involves suppression of dopamine D2 receptors inhibition of G proteins and intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), modulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) isoforms and their receptors (TβRII), as well as factors secondary to TGF-β actions, including production of beta-fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) from follicular-stellate cells. The downstream signaling that governs b-FGF production and secretion involves activation of the MAP kinase p44/42-dependent pathway. A coordinated suppression of D2 receptor-and TβRII receptor-mediated signaling as well as enhancement of bFGF activity might be critical for ethanol action on PRL production and cell proliferation in lactotropes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Bai L.,Rockefeller University | Morozov A.V.,Rutgers University
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2010

To achieve high compaction, most genomic DNA in eukaryotes is incorporated into nucleosomes; however, regulatory factors and transcriptional machinery must gain access to chromatin to extract genetic information. This conflict is partially resolved by a particular arrangement of nucleosome locations on the genome. Across all eukaryotic species, promoters and other regulatory sequences are more nucleosome-depleted, whereas transcribed regions tend to be occupied with well-positioned, high-density nucleosomal arrays. This nucleosome positioning pattern, as well as its dynamic regulation, facilitates the access of transcription factors to their target sites and plays a crucial role in determining the transcription level, cell-to-cell variation and activation or repression dynamics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Bielory L.,Rutgers University
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports | Year: 2010

Although nasal allergy has been prominent in allergy research, ocular allergy is increasingly recognized as a distinct symptom complex that imposes its own disease burden and reduction in patients' quality of life. In the past year, knowledge of the relationships between allergic conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis has increased. Allergic conjunctivitis is highly prevalent and has a close epidemiologic relationship with allergic rhinitis. Both conditions also exhibit similar pathophysiologic mechanisms. Pathways of communication are thought to increase the likelihood of an inflammatory reaction at both sites following allergen exposure of nasal or ocular tissue. Clinical trials of intranasal therapies have demonstrated efficacy in allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis. Newer intranasal steroids decrease ocular symptoms, potentially achieving efficacy by suppressing the naso-ocular reflex, downregulation of inflammatory cell expression, or restoration of nasolacrimal duct patency. Proposed pathophysiologic interactions between allergic rhinitis and ocular allergy underscore the need for therapies with efficacy in both symptom sets. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Bidle K.D.,Rutgers University
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2015

Planktonic, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic photoautotrophs (phytoplankton) share a diverse and ancient evolutionary history, during which time they have played key roles in regulating marine food webs, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. Because phytoplankton represent the basis of marine ecosystems, the manner in which they die critically determines the flow and fate of photosynthetically fixed organic matter (and associated elements), ultimately constraining upper-ocean biogeochemistry. Programmed cell death (PCD) and associated pathway genes, which are triggered by a variety of nutrient stressors and are employed by parasitic viruses, play an integral role in determining the cell fate of diverse photoautotrophs in the modern ocean. Indeed, these multifaceted death pathways continue to shape the success and evolutionary trajectory of diverse phytoplankton lineages at sea. Research over the past two decades has employed physiological, biochemical, and genetic techniques to provide a novel, comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of the factors controlling this key process. Here, I discuss the current understanding of the genetics, activation, and regulation of PCD pathways in marine model systems; how PCD evolved in unicellular photoautotrophs; how it mechanistically interfaces with viral infection pathways; how stress signals are sensed and transduced into cellular responses; and how novel molecular and biochemical tools are revealing the impact of PCD genes on the fate of natural phytoplankton assemblages. Copyright © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Robinson T.J.,Rutgers University
Electronic Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2010

We use the viewpoint of the formal calculus underlying vertex operator algebra theory to study certain aspects of the classical umbral calculus. We begin by calculating the exponential generating function of the higher derivatives of a composite function, following a very short proof which naturally arose as a motivating computation related to a certain crucial "associativity" property of an important class of vertex operator algebras. Very similar (somewhat forgotten) proofs had appeared by the 19-th century, of course without any motivation related to vertex operator algebras. Using this formula, we derive certain results, including especially the calculation of certain adjoint operators, of the classical umbral calculus. This is, roughly speaking, a reversal of the logical development of some standard treatments, which have obtained formulas for the higher derivatives of a composite function, most notably Faadi Bruno's formula, as a consequence of umbral calculus. We also show a connection between the Virasoro algebra and the classical umbral shifts. This leads naturally to a more general class of operators, which we introduce, and which include the classical umbral shifts as a special case. We prove a few basic facts about these operators.

Bielory L.,Rutgers University
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

The eye is probably the most common site for the development of allergic inflammatory disorders, because it has no mechanical barrier to prevent the impact of allergens such as pollen on its surface. Physicians in various specialties and subspecialties who provide some form of primary care frequently encounter various forms of inflammation of the anterior surface of the eye that present as "red eye." However, the eye is rarely the only target for an immediate allergic-type response. Typically, many patients have other combinations of allergic disorders, such as rhinoconjunctivitis, rhinosinusitis, asthma, urticaria, or eczema. Even so, ocular signs and symptoms can frequently be the most prominent features of the entire allergic response for which a patient visits his or her physician. An improved differential diagnosis provides the basis for improved treatment algorithms. Over the past 20 years, we have witnessed an astonishing growth in therapeutic advances, ranging essentially from derivatives of simple aspirin to various newly developed biologic immunomodulatory agents, utilizing implantable drug-delivery devices that exceed the safety and efficacy of those available for other organ systems, and resorting to advanced surgical techniques for the correction of sight-threatening, disease-related complications. Overall, with the expanding knowledge base, the intricacy of ocular inflammation appears to be becoming ever more manageable and, with the team approach between the primary care physician, the ophthalmologist, and the clinical allergist/immunologist, the new "immuno-ophthalmology" approach improves patient outcomes. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

Ricciardi A.,McGill University | Hoopes M.F.,Mount Holyoke College | Marchetti M.P.,St. Marys College | Lockwood J.L.,Rutgers University
Ecological Monographs | Year: 2013

A predictive understanding of the ecological impacts of nonnative species has been slow to develop, owing largely to an apparent dearth of clearly defined hypotheses and the lack of a broad theoretical framework. The context dependency of impact has fueled the perception that meaningful generalizations are nonexistent. Here, we identified and reviewed 19 testable hypotheses that explain temporal and spatial variation in impact. Despite poor validation of most hypotheses to date, evidence suggests that each can explain at least some impacts in some situations. Several hypotheses are broad in scope (applying to plants and animals in virtually all contexts) and some of them, intriguingly, link processes of colonization and impact. Collectively, these hypotheses highlight the importance of the functional ecology of the nonnative species and the structure, diversity, and evolutionary experience of the recipient community as general determinants of impact; thus, they could provide the foundation for a theoretical framework for understanding and predicting impact. Further substantive progress toward this goal requires explicit consideration of within-taxon and across-taxa variation in the per capita effect of invaders, and analyses of complex interactions between invaders and their biotic and abiotic environments. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

Hey J.,Rutgers University
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics | Year: 2010

Since Darwin first proposed that new species could arise without geographic separation, biologists have debated whether or not divergence occurs in the presence of gene exchange. Today we understand that new species can diverge while exchanging genes, depending on the strength of disruptive natural selection and the factors that affect the linkage relationships of genes under disruptive selection. This mode of diversificationdivergence with gene flowincludes sympatric speciation, in which gene exchange occurs since onset of divergence, and secondary contact following a period of geographic isolation, as well as all sorts of situations in which gene flow happens intermittently. In recent years, statistical tools have been developed that can reveal the action of gene flow during divergence. Isolation-with-migration (IM) models include parameters for population size, time of population separation, and gene exchange, and they have been used extensively to estimate levels of gene exchange. A survey of studies that have used these models shows that a plurality find little evidence of gene flow; however, many report nonzero gene exchange. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Samokhvalov A.,Rutgers University
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2011

Sulfur aromatic compounds, such as mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraalkyl-substituted thiophene, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, are the molecular components of many fossils (petroleum, oil shale, tar sands, bitumen). Structural units of natural, cross-linked heteroaromatic polymers present in brown coals, turf, and soil are similar to those of sulfur aromatic compounds. Many sulfur aromatic compounds are found in the streams of petroleum refining and upgrading (naphthas, gas oils) and in the consumer products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating fuels). Besides fossils, the structural fragments of sulfur aromatic compounds are present in molecules of certain organic semiconductors, pesticides, small molecule drugs, and in certain biomolecules present in human body (pheomelanin pigments). Photocatalysis is the frontier area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions initiated by absorption of photons by photocatalysts, that is, upon electronic rather than thermal activation, under "green" ambient conditions. This review provides systematization and critical review of the fundamental chemical and physicochemical information on heterogeneous photocatalysis of sulfur aromatic compounds accumulated in the last 20-30 years. Specifically, the following topics are covered: physicochemical properties of sulfur aromatic compounds, major classes of heterogeneous photocatalysts, mechanisms and reactive intermediates of photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds, and the selectivity of these reactions. Quantum chemical calculations of properties and structures of sulfur aromatic compounds, their reactive intermediates, and the structure of adsorption complexes formed on the surface of the photocatalysts are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Leichenko R.,Rutgers University
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2011

The notion of resilience is gaining increasing prominence across a diverse set of literatures on cities and climate change. Although there is some disagreement among these different literatures about how to define and measure resilience, there is broad consensus that: (1) cities must become resilient to a wider range of shocks and stresses in order to be prepared for climate change; and (2) efforts to foster climate change resilience must be bundled with efforts to promote urban development and sustainability. Emerging issues for future study highlight some of the challenges associated with practical application of resilience approaches. These include responding to equity concerns associated with uneven patterns of resilience both within and across cities, assessing the costs of implementing resilience strategies, and identifying options for harnessing the innovation potential in cities as a means to foster resilience and sustainability. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Okulicz-Kozaryn A.,Rutgers University
Scientometrics | Year: 2013

Scientific writing is about communicating ideas. Today, simplicity is more important than ever. Scientist are overwhelmed with new information. The overall growth rate for scientific publication over the last few decades has been at least 4.7 % per year, which means doubling publication volume every 15 years. I measure simplicity/readability with proportion of adjectives and adverbs in a paper, and find natural science to be the most readable and social science the least readable. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Podzorov V.,Rutgers University
MRS Bulletin | Year: 2013

Organic optoelectronics is an emerging field that exploits the unique properties of conjugated organic materials to develop new applications that require a combination of performance, low cost, light weight, and processability. For instance, disposable or wearable electronics, light-emitting diodes, smart tags, sensors, and solar cells all fall into this active area of research. Single crystals of conjugated organic molecules are, undoubtedly, the materials with the highest degree of order and purity among the variety of different forms of organic semiconductors. Electronic devices comprising these materials, such as single-crystal transistors and photoconductors developed during the last decade, are by far the best performers in terms of the fundamental parameters such as charge-carrier mobility, exciton diffusivity, concentration of defects, and operational stability. Extremely low density of defects and the resultant remarkable electrical characteristics of some of the organic single-crystal devices allow experimental access to the intrinsic charge transport properties not dominated by charge scattering and trapping. This enables basic studies of the physics of organic semiconductors, including examining the intrinsic structure-property relationship, thus providing a test bed for charge and energy transport theories. The goal of this issue of MRS Bulletin is to provide a broad overview of the state of the art of the field of organic semiconductor single-crystal materials, devices, and theory. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

Kalantari B.,Rutgers University
Discrete and Computational Geometry | Year: 2011

Given a complex polynomial p(z) with at least three distinct roots, we first prove that no rational iteration function exists where the basin of attraction of a root coincides with its Voronoi cell. In spite of this negative result, we prove that the Voronoi diagram of the roots can be well approximated through a high order sequence of iteration functions, the Basic Family, Bm(z), m≥2. Let θ be a simple root of p(z), V(θ) its Voronoi cell, and Am(θ) its basin of attraction with respect to Bm(z). We prove that given any closed subset C of V(θ), including any homothetic copy of V(θ), there exists m0 such that for all m≥m0, C is also a subset of Am(θ). This implies that when all roots of p(z) are simple, the basins of attraction of Bm(z) uniformly approximate the Voronoi diagram of the roots to within any prescribed tolerance. Equivalently, the Julia set of Bm(z), and hence the chaotic behavior of its iterations, will uniformly lie to within prescribed strip neighborhood of the boundary of the Voronoi diagram. In a sense, this is the strongest property a rational iteration function can exhibit for polynomials. Next, we use the results to define and prove an infinite layering within each Voronoi cell of a given set of points, whether known implicitly as roots of a polynomial equation, or explicitly via their coordinates. We discuss potential application of our layering in computational geometry. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Di Noia J.,William Paterson University | Byrd-Bredbenner C.,Rutgers University
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2014

Although low-income youth are likely to have low or less frequent fruit and vegetable intake, current understanding of the influences on intake in youth is limited. A systematic review of quantitative research on determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among low-income youth (i.e., persons aged <20 years) was conducted. The aims were to identify which determinants have been studied and which are consistently associated with intake. Fifty-eight papers published between 2003 and August 2013 were included. Across studies, 85 unique determinants were identified. Those best supported by evidence were race/ethnicity (with intake consistently higher among Hispanic as compared with African American and white youth), fruit and vegetable preferences, and maternal fruit and vegetable intake. For many potential determinants, the consistency of evidence could not be examined because of a lack of studies. Findings highlight racial/ethnic differences in fruit and vegetable intake and influences on intake that should be considered when designing dietary interventions for low-income youth. Further research on intake determinants in this at-risk population is needed to establish an evidence base to guide interventions. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

Kharitonov M.,Rutgers University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

Motivated by the recent experiment of Velasco Jr., we develop a mean-field theory of the interaction-induced antiferromagnetic (AF) state in bilayer graphene at charge neutrality point at arbitrary perpendicular magnetic field B. We demonstrate that the AF state can persist at all B. At higher B, the state continuously crosses over to the AF phase of the ν=0 quantum Hall ferromagnet, recently argued to be realized in the insulating ν=0 state. The mean-field quasiparticle gap is finite at B=0 and grows with increasing B, becoming quasilinear in the quantum Hall regime, in accord with the reported behavior of the transport gap. By adjusting the two free parameters of the model, we obtain a simultaneous quantitative agreement between the experimental and theoretical values of the key parameters of the gap dependence-its zero-field value and slope at higher fields. Our findings suggest that the insulating state observed in bilayer graphene in Ref. is antiferromagnetic (canted, once the Zeeman effect is taken into account) at all magnetic fields. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Brooks A.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Zolotov A.,Rutgers University | Zolotov A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We use high-resolution cosmological simulations of Milky Way (MW) mass galaxies that include both baryons and dark matter (DM) to show that baryonic physics (energetic feedback from supernovae and subsequent tidal stripping) significantly reduces the DM mass in the central regions of luminous satellite galaxies. The reduced central masses of the simulated satellites reproduce the observed internal dynamics of MW and M31 satellites as a function of luminosity. We use these realistic satellites to update predictions for the observed velocity and luminosity functions of satellites around MW-mass galaxies when baryonic effects are accounted for. We also predict that field dwarf galaxies in the same luminosity range as the MW classical satellites should not exhibit velocities as low as the satellites because the field dwarfs do not experience tidal stripping. Additionally, the early formation times of the satellites compared to field galaxies at the same luminosity may be apparent in the star formation histories of the two populations. Including baryonic physics in cold dark matter (CDM) models naturally explains the observed low DM densities in the MWs dwarf spheroidal population. Our simulations therefore resolve the tension between kinematics predicted in CDM theory and observations of satellites, without invoking alternative forms of DM. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Nikolov A.,Rutgers University | Talwar K.,Microsoft | Zhang L.,Microsoft
Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing | Year: 2013

We study trade-offs between accuracy and privacy in the context of linear queries over histograms. This is a rich class of queries that includes contingency tables and range queries and has been the focus of a long line of work. For a given set of d linear queries over a database x ∈ R N, we seek to find the differentially private mechanism that has the minimum mean squared error. For pure differential privacy, [5, 32] give an O(log2 d) approximation to the optimal mechanism. Our first contribution is to give an efficient O(log2 d) approximation guarantee for the case of (ε, δ)-differential privacy. Our mechanism adds carefully chosen correlated Gaussian noise to the answers. We prove its approximation guarantee relative to the hereditary discrepancy lower bound of [44], using tools from convex geometry. We next consider the sparse case when the number of queries exceeds the number of individuals in the database, i.e. when d > n = ∥x∥1. The lower bounds used in the previous approximation algorithm no longer apply - in fact better mechanisms are known in this setting [7, 27, 28, 31, 49]. Our second main contribution is to give an efficient (ε, δ)-differentially private mechanism that, for any given query set A and an upper bound n on ∥x∥1, has mean squared error within polylog(d,N) of the optimal for A and n. This approximation is achieved by coupling the Gaussian noise addition approach with linear regression over the ℓ1 ball. Additionally, we show a similar polylogarithmic approximation guarantee for the optimal ε-differentially private mechanism in this sparse setting. Our work also shows that for arbitrary counting queries, i.e. A with entries in {0, 1}, there is an ε-differentially private mechanism with expected error O ̃( √ n) per query, improving on the O ̃(n 2/3 ) bound of [7] and matching the lower bound implied by [15] up to logarithmic factors. The connection between the hereditary discrepancy and the privacy mechanism enables us to derive the first polylogarithmic approximation to the hereditary discrepancy of a matrix A. Copyright 2013 ACM.

This paper offers an overview and clarification of the ipseity-disturbance or self-disorder hypothesis regarding schizophrenia, with focus on some recent and recommended research and theoretical refinements. There is need to expand research and theorizing in several directions-in order to: 1, specify more precisely what is truly distinctive in the schizophrenia spectrum, 2, explore internal structure and explanatory potential of this purported disturbance of minimal- or core-self experience, 3, generate testable hypotheses concerning pathogenetic pathways and psychotherapeutic interventions.Comparative studies can make a crucial scientific contribution. Some recent, exploratory studies are described: published reports were examined for alterations of self-experience in conditions outside the schizophrenia spectrum-mania, psychotic depression, and depersonalization disorder-and in one unusual attitudinal stance: intense introspection (as refined in early 20th century psychological research). Remarkable similarities (e.g., alienation/reification of thoughts and bodily experiences, fading of self and world) as well as some important differences (e.g., absence, outside schizophrenia, of severe erosion of minimal self-experience or real confusion of self and other) in types of self-anomalies were found. These support but also refine the ipseity-disturbance model. Future research should treat self-experience as an independent variable, manipulating and measuring this dimension (in both schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic populations) to study its associations with anomalies of cognition, affect, expression, and neural functioning already identified in schizophrenia.The self-disorder model offers an integrative and dynamic view of schizophrenia congruent with recent trends in cognitive neuroscience and consistent with the heterogeneous, varying, and holistic nature of this enigmatic illness. © 2013.

Vu V.,Rutgers University
Random Structures and Algorithms | Year: 2011

Computing the first few singular vectors of a large matrix is a problem that frequently comes up in statistics and numerical analysis. Given the presence of noise, an exact calculation is hard to achieve, and the following problem is of importance: How much does a small perturbation to the matrix change the singular vectors? Answering this question, classical theorems, such as those of Davis-Kahan and Wedin, give tight estimates for the worst-case scenario. In this paper, we show that if the perturbation (noise) is random and our matrix has low rank, then better estimates can be obtained. Our method relies on high dimensional geometry and is different from those used in earlier papers. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Birnie D.P.,Rutgers University
Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science | Year: 2012

The Β′′-alumina structure is examined in detail and an analysis is presented of the three-dimensional integrity of the lattice. The layer structure that is responsible for the very high sodium conduction rate is the specific focus. Rigid layers that are derived from the cubic spinel structure are interleaved by more open honeycomb pathways where rapid ion diffusion takes place. The three-dimensional rigidity of the spinel block in this structure makes it possible to accurately quantify the conduction layer thickness based only on the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions, as suggested originally by Harbach [(1983), J. Mater. Sci. 18, 2437-2452]. His calculation is tested rigorously against the many single-crystal structure determinations that have been made on the Β′′-alumina family compounds and excellent correlation is found. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved.

Poulain A.J.,University of Ottawa | Barkay T.,Rutgers University
Science | Year: 2013

Identification of two genes involved in mercury methylation may help to develop biomarkers to track and manage mercury contamination in the environment.

The divergence of bonobos and three subspecies of the common chimpanzee was examined under a multipopulation isolation-with-migration (IM) model with data from 73 loci drawn from the literature. A benefit of having a full multipopulation model, relative to conducting multiple pairwise analyses between sampled populations, is that a full model can reveal historical gene flow involving ancestral populations. An example of this was found in which gene flow is indicated between the western common chimpanzee subspecies and the ancestor of the central and the eastern common chimpanzee subspecies. The results of a full analysis on all four populations are strongly consistent with analyses on pairs of populations and generally similar to results from previous studies. The basal split between bonobos and common chimpanzees was estimated at 0.93 Ma (0.68-1.54 Ma, 95% highest posterior density interval), with the split among the ancestor of three common chimpanzee populations at 0.46 Ma (0.35-0.65), and the most recent split between central and eastern common chimpanzee populations at 0.093 Ma (0.041-0.157). Population size estimates mostly fell in the range from 5,000 to 10,000 individuals. The exceptions are the size of the ancestor of the common chimpanzee and the bonobo, at 17,000 (8,000-28,000) individuals, and the central common chimpanzee and its immediate ancestor with the eastern common chimpanzee, which have effective size estimates at 27,000 (16,000-44,000) and 32,000 (19,000-54,000) individuals, respectively. © The Author 2009.

Current theses on the financialization of capitalism postulate a shift from investment in material growth to financial channels, with the implication that the extraction of value from the labour process is no longer the central locus of corporate profitability and that the antagonism between labour and capital in the accumulation process has been displaced by the tension between corporate managers and financial markets. This article challenges both claims of financialization and its political implications. Using an analysis of the oil industry in the US, focusing particularly on layoffs, I argue that, instead of inhibiting material accumulation, financialization signals a change in the form of investment that has led to the intensification of labour and its deepening subsumption under capital, transcending labour exploitation and extending the sovereignty of capital over the life of living labour. © 2013 Antipode Foundation Ltd.

Parnas J.,Copenhagen University | Sass L.A.,Rutgers University | Zahavi D.,Copenhagen University
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2013

Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the psychiatric object (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary operationalist epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, atheoretical definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind. © 2013 The Author.

Lynch R.,Rutgers University
Evolution and Human Behavior | Year: 2010

This study tests the folk psychological belief that we find things funny because we think they are true. Specifically, it addresses the relationship between implicit preferences and laughter. Fifty-nine undergraduate Rutgers University students (33 females and 26 males) from ethnically diverse backgrounds were videotaped while watching a white stand-up comedian for 30 min. Positive emotional expression associated with laughter was later scored using the facial action coding system (FACS). Computer-timed Implicit Association Tests (IATs) were used to measure a subject's implicit preferences for traditional gender roles and racial preferences (blacks vs. whites). Results show that participants laughed more in response to jokes that matched their implicit preferences (e.g., those with stronger implicit preferences for whites laughed more at racially charged material). Implications for the evolution of humor, and laughter as a hard-to-fake signal of preferences, are discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Henry S.A.,Cornell University | Kohlwein S.D.,University of Graz | Carman G.M.,Rutgers University
Genetics | Year: 2012

Due to its genetic tractability and increasing wealth of accessible data, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model system of choice for the study of the genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology of eukaryotic lipid metabolism. Glycerolipids (e.g., phospholipids and triacylglycerol) and their precursors are synthesized and metabolized by enzymes associated with the cytosol and membranous organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and lipid droplets. Genetic and biochemical analyses have revealed that glycerolipids play important roles in cell signaling, membrane trafficking, and anchoring of membrane proteins in addition to membrane structure. The expression of glycerolipid enzymes is controlled by a variety of conditions including growth stage and nutrient availability. Much of this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level and involves the Ino2-Ino4 activation complex and the Opi1 repressor, which interacts with Ino2 to attenuate transcriptional activation of UAS INO-containing glycerolipid biosynthetic genes. Cellular levels of phosphatidic acid, precursor to all membrane phospholipids and the storage lipid triacylglycerol, regulates transcription of UAS INO-containing genes by tethering Opi1 to the nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane and controlling itstranslocation into the nucleus, a mechanism largely controlled by inositol availability. The transcriptional activator Zap1 controls the expression of some phospholipid synthesis genes in response to zinc availability. Regulatory mechanisms also include control of catalytic activity of glycerolipid enzymes by water-soluble precursors, products and lipids, and covalent modification of phosphorylation, while in vivo function of some enzymes is governed by their subcellular location. Genome-wide genetic analysis indicates coordinate regulation between glycerolipid metabolism and a broad spectrum of metabolic pathways. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America.

Kagan L.,Rutgers University
Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals | Year: 2014

Subcutaneous injection is an important route of administration for therapeutic proteins that provides several advantages over other modes of parenteral delivery. Despite extensive clinical use, the exact mechanism underlying subcutaneous absorption of proteins is not completely understood, and the accuracy of prediction of absorption of biotherapeutics in humans remains unsatisfactory. This review summarizes a variety of models that have been developed for describing the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic proteins administered by subcutaneous injection, including single- and dual-pathway absorption models. Modeling of the lymphatic uptake and redistribution, absorption of monoclonal antibodies and insulin, and population analysis of protein absorption are discussed. The review also addresses interspecies modeling and prediction of absorption in humans, highlights important factors affecting the absorption processes, and suggests approaches for future development of mechanism-based absorption models. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Bromberg Y.,Rutgers University
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2013

Disease-causing aberrations in the normal function of a gene define that gene as a disease gene. Proving a causal link between a gene and a disease experimentally is expensive and time-consuming. Comprehensive prioritization of candidate genes prior to experimental testing drastically reduces the associated costs. Computational gene prioritization is based on various pieces of correlative evidence that associate each gene with the given disease and suggest possible causal links. A fair amount of this evidence comes from high-throughput experimentation. Thus, well-developed methods are necessary to reliably deal with the quantity of information at hand. Existing gene prioritization techniques already significantly improve the outcomes of targeted experimental studies. Faster and more reliable techniques that account for novel data types are necessary for the development of new diagnostics, treatments, and cure for many diseases. © 2013 Yana Bromberg.

Critical care units provide technologically sophisticated care to the sickest patients in the healthcare system. The contribution of iatrogenic factors, including administration of pharmacologic agents such as vasopressors, to pressure ulcer (PU) development in adult critical care patients is understudied, thus less understood, but may be an important PU risk factor to consider in the critical care population. Vasopressor agents are potent vasoconstrictors commonly administered to critical care patients to elevate mean arterial pressure to counteract the effects of inadequate tissue perfusion and hypoxia; they have reemerged over the past decade in contemporary intensive care units as important first-line drugs in the treatment of shock states. A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken in order to determine the level of evidence regarding the relationship between vasopressor agents (norepinephrine, epinephrine, phenylephrine, vasopressin, and dopamine) and PU development in adult critical care patients. Computerized databases of EBSCOCINAHL and OVID MEDLINE were searched for English-language publications from 2000 to the present using the following terms: pressure ulcer, vasopressor, norepinephrine, epinephrine, vasopressin, dopamine, phenylephrine, critical care and pressure ulcers; intensive care and pressure ulcers; and pressure ulcer risk factors. Ten studies were identified that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Statistically significant associations were reported between the broad category of vasopressor agents and PU development in seven studies. Of those, two identified a specific vasopressor agent (norepinephrine) as a significant predictor of PU development in this population. Empirical support for the broad category of vasopressors as a PU risk factor is increasing, and a small body of evidence is emerging to support the role of one specific vasopressor (norepinephrine) in PU development. Increased vigilance regarding PU risk in critical care patients receiving vasopressor agents may be warranted. However, studies are needed to examine the effects of individual vasopressor agents and dosage and duration thresholds, as well as empirical investigation regarding the synergistic effect of multiple vasopressor agents administered simultaneously, on PU development in this population. Finally, research is needed to further elucidate vasopressor use as an independent risk factor for PU development in this population.

Pietrzykowski A.Z.,Rutgers University
International Review of Neurobiology | Year: 2010

Alcoholism is a multifactorial disease of unclear molecular underpinnings. Currently, we are witnessing a major shift in our understanding of the functional elements of the genome, which could help us to discover novel insights into the nature of alcoholism. In humans, the vast majority of the genome encodes non-protein-coding DNA with unclear function. Recent research has started to unveil this mystery by describing the functional relevance of microRNAs, and examining which genes are regulated by non-protein-coding DNA. Here, I describe alcohol regulation of microRNAs and provide examples of microRNAs that control the expression of alcohol-relevant genes. Emphasis is put on the potential of microRNAs in explaining the polygenic nature of alcoholism and prospects of microRNA research and future directions of this burgeoning field. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

McGhee G.R.,Rutgers University
Interface Focus | Year: 2015

Limits in the evolution of biological form can be empirically demonstrated by using theoretical morphospace analyses, and actual analytic examples are given for univalved ammonoid shell form, bivalved brachiopod shell form and helical bryozoan colony form. Limits in the evolution of form in these animal groups can be shown to be due to functional and developmental constraints on possible evolutionary trajectories in morphospace. Future evolutionary- limit research is needed to analyse the possible existence of temporal constraint in the evolution of biological formon Earth, and in the search for the possible existence of functional alien life forms on Titan and Triton that are developmentally impossible for Earth life. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Tang Q.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Zhang X.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Zhang X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Francis J.A.,Rutgers University
Nature Climate Change | Year: 2014

The past decade has seen an exceptional number of unprecedented summer extreme weather events in northern mid-latitudes, along with record declines in both summer Arctic sea ice and snow cover on high-latitude land. The underlying mechanisms that link the shrinking cryosphere with summer extreme weather, however, remain unclear. Here, we combine satellite observations of early summer snow cover and summer sea-ice extent with atmospheric reanalysis data to demonstrate associations between summer weather patterns in mid-latitudes and losses of snow and sea ice. Results suggest that the atmospheric circulation responds differently to changes in the ice and snow extents, with a stronger response to sea-ice loss, even though its reduction is half as large as that for the snow cover. Atmospheric changes associated with the combined snow/ice reductions reveal widespread upper-level height increases, weaker upper-level zonal winds at high latitudes, a more amplified upper-level pattern, and a general northward shift in the jet stream. More frequent extreme summer heat events over mid-latitude continents are linked with reduced sea ice and snow through these circulation changes. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Kharitonov M.,Rutgers University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Motivated to understand the nature of the strongly insulating ν=0 quantum Hall state in bilayer graphene, we develop the theory of the state in the framework of quantum Hall ferromagnetism. The generic phase diagram, obtained in the presence of the isospin anisotropy, perpendicular electric field, and Zeeman effect, consists of the spin-polarized ferromagnetic (F), canted antiferromagnetic (CAF), and partially (PLP) and fully (FLP) layer-polarized phases. We address the edge transport properties of the phases. Comparing our findings with the recent data on suspended dual-gated devices, we conclude that the insulating ν=0 state realized in bilayer graphene at lower electric field is the CAF phase. We also predict a continuous and a sharp insulator-metal phase transition upon tilting the magnetic field from the insulating CAF and FLP phases, respectively, to the F phase with metallic edge conductance 2e2/h, which could be within the reach of available fields and could allow one to identify and distinguish the phases experimentally. © 2012 American Physical Society.

McMahon S.,Rutgers University | Banyard V.L.,University of New Hampshire
Trauma, Violence, and Abuse | Year: 2012

The bystander intervention approach is gaining popularity as a means for engaging communities in sexual assault prevention, especially on college campuses. Many bystander programs are teaching community members how to intervene without first assisting them to identify the full range of opportunities when they can intervene. In this article, the authors review the literature on sexual violence bystander intervention and present a conceptual framework that lays out a continuum of bystander opportunities ranging from reactive situations after an assault has occurred, to situations before an assault has occurred (posing high to low risk to victims), as well as proactive situations where no risk to the victim is present. The implications of this typology are discussed in the context of program development, evaluation, and further research. © SAGE Publications 2012.

Ollerton J.,University of Northampton | Winfree R.,Rutgers University | Tarrant S.,University of Northampton
Oikos | Year: 2011

It is clear that the majority of flowering plants are pollinated by insects and other animals, with a minority utilising abiotic pollen vectors, mainly wind. However there is no accurate published calculation of the proportion of the ca 352 000 species of angiosperms that interact with pollinators. Widely cited figures range from 67% to 96% but these have not been based on firm data. We estimated the number and proportion of flowering plants that are pollinated by animals using published and unpublished community-level surveys of plant pollination systems that recorded whether each species present was pollinated by animals or wind. The proportion of animal-pollinated species rises from a mean of 78% in temperate-zone communities to 94% in tropical communities. By correcting for the latitudinal diversity trend in flowering plants, we estimate the global number and proportion of animal pollinated angiosperms as 308 006, which is 87.5% of the estimated species-level diversity of flowering plants. Given current concerns about the decline in pollinators and the possible resulting impacts on both natural communities and agricultural crops, such estimates are vital to both ecologists and policy makers. Further research is required to assess in detail the absolute dependency of these plants on their pollinators, and how this varies with latitude and community type, but there is no doubt that plant-pollinator interactions play a significant role in maintaining the functional integrity of most terrestrial ecosystems. © 2011 The Authors. Oikos © 2011 Nordic Society Oikos.

Fairburn C.G.,University of Oxford | Wilson G.T.,Rutgers University
International Journal of Eating Disorders | Year: 2013

Treatment researchers expend their efforts identifying effective treatments, and for whom and how they work, but there are matters over and above these that are of concern when it comes to dissemination and implementation. These include the clinical range of the interventions concerned, the ease with which they can be learned, and their mode of delivery. It is these three topics, as they apply to the psychological treatment of eating disorders, that form the focus of this article. Alongside these considerations, we discuss how modern technology has the potential to transform both treatment and training. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Faoro L.,CNRS Theoretical and High Energy Physics | Ioffe L.B.,Rutgers University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

In a number of recent experiments with microwave high quality superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators an anomalously weak power dependence of the quality factor has been observed. We argue that this observation implies that the monochromatic radiation does not saturate the two level systems (TLS) located at the interface oxide surfaces of the resonator and suggests the importance of their interactions. We estimate the microwave loss due to interacting TLS and show that the interactions between TLS lead to a drift of their energies that result in a much slower, logarithmic dependence of their absorption on the radiation power in agreement with the data. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Mohlman J.,Rutgers University
Psychology and Aging | Year: 2012

Despite the prevalence of anxiety in later life, there are no published studies on treatment preferences of older adults for anxiety problems. The current study utilized a survey method to inquire about treatment preferences in three age group cohorts (N = 383; young-, middle-, and oldest-old) recruited from the community, as opposed to primary care. Participants were asked to imagine that they were suffering from anxiety that had become severe enough to interfere with daily activities and were seeking mental health treatment. Each was asked to first indicate their preference for pharmacological, psychological, or combined treatment. Those who chose psychological or combined treatment were then asked to indicate which specific psychotherapeutic intervention they preferred from a list of six possible choices and to indicate their preference for setting and format of treatment. The sample generally preferred psychotherapy to medication or combined treatment for help with anxiety, delivered either in a primary care, specialty mental health, or university setting. Furthermore, specific treatment and format preferences varied by age group. Some of the current results (e.g., preference for psychotherapy over medication) run counter to those obtained from studies of depression treatment preference in samples of similar age (e.g., preference for medication over psychotherapy; Gum et al., 2006). © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Stein T.P.,Rutgers University
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2013

Space flight is a new experience for humans. Humans adapt if not perfectly, rather well to life without gravity. There is a reductive remodeling of the musculo-skeletal system. Protein is lost from muscles and calcium from bones with anti-gravity functions. The observed biochemical and physiological changes reflect this accommodative process. The two major direct effects of the muscle loss are weakness post-flight and the increased incidence of low back ache pre- and post-flight. The muscle protein losses are compromised by the inability to maintain energy balance inflight. Voluntary dietary intake is reduced during space flight by ~20 %. These adaptations to weightlessness leave astronauts ill-equipped for life with gravity. Exercise, the obvious counter-measure has been repeatedly tried and since the muscle and bone losses persist it is not unreasonable to assume that success has been limited at best. Nevertheless, more than 500 people have now flown in space for up to 1 year and have done remarkably well. This review addresses the question of whether enough is now known about these three problems (negative energy balance, muscle loss and bone loss) for to the risks to be considered either acceptable or correctible enough to meet the requirements for a Mars mission. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Sukhdeo M.V.,Rutgers University
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies) focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles. © 2012 Sukhdeo; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Holt R.J.,Argonne National Laboratory | Gilman R.,Rutgers University
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2012

We provide a perspective on studies aimed at observing the transition between hadronic and quark-gluonic descriptions of reactions involving light nuclei. We begin by summarizing the results for relatively simple reactions such as the pion form factor and the neutral pion transition form factor as well as that for the nucleon and end with exclusive photoreactions in our simplest nuclei. A particular focus will be on reactions involving the deuteron. It is noted that a firm understanding of these issues is essential for unravelling important structure information from processes such as deeply virtual Compton scattering as well as deeply virtual meson production. The connection to exotic phenomena such as color transparency will be discussed. A number of outstanding challenges will require new experiments at modern facilities on the horizon as well as further theoretical developments. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Doucot B.,CNRS Theoretical and High Energy Physics | Ioffe L.B.,Rutgers University
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2012

We review the general notion of topological protection of quantum states in spin models and its relation with the ideas of quantum error correction. We show that topological protection can be viewed as a Hamiltonian realization of error correction: for a quantum code for which the minimal number of errors that remain undetected is N, the corresponding Hamiltonian model of the effects of the environment noise appears only in the Nth order of the perturbation theory. We discuss the simplest model Hamiltonians that realize topological protection and their implementation in superconducting arrays. We focus on two dual realizations: in one the protected state is stored in the parity of the Cooper pair number, in the other, in the parity of the flux number. In both cases the superconducting arrays allow a number of fault-tolerant operations that should make the universal quantum computation possible. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Phillips J.A.,Rutgers University
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2014

The increases in suicide among middle-aged baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964) in the United States since 1999 suggest a changing epidemiology of suicide. Using data from 1935 to 2010, this paper conducts age-period-cohort analyses to determine the impact of cohorts in shaping temporal patterns of suicide in the United States. The analysis demonstrates that age, period and cohort effects are all important in determining suicide trends. Net of age and period effects, the cohort pattern of suicide rates is U-shaped, with cohorts born between 1915 and 1945 possessing among the very lowest suicide rates. Suicide rates begin to rise with boomers and subsequent cohorts exhibit increasingly higher rates of suicide. The general pattern exists for both men and women but is especially pronounced among males. The average suicide rate over the entire period for males is about 28 per 100,000, 95% CI [27.4, 28.7]. For males born in 1930-34, the suicide rate is estimated to be 17.4 per 100,000, 95% CI [15.9, 18.8]; for males born between 1955 and 1959, the rate is essentially the same as the average for the period while for males born between 1985 and 1989, the suicide rate is estimated to be 37.8 per 100,000, 95% CI [33.1, 43.4]. The results dispute popular claims that boomers exhibit an elevated suicide rate relative to other generations, but boomers do appear to have ushered in new cohort patterns of suicide rates over the life course. These patterns are interpreted within a Durkheimian framework that suggests weakened forms of social integration and regulation among postwar cohorts may be producing increased suicide rates. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

ConspectusRedox-neutral methods for the functionalization of amine α-C-H bonds are inherently efficient because they avoid external oxidants and reductants and often do not generate unwanted byproducts. However, most of the current methods for amine α-C-H bond functionalization are oxidative in nature. While the most efficient variants utilize atmospheric oxygen as the terminal oxidant, many such transformations require the use of expensive or toxic oxidants, often coupled with the need for transition metal catalysts.Redox-neutral amine α-functionalizations that involve intramolecular hydride transfer steps provide viable alternatives to certain oxidative reactions. These processes have been known for some time and are particularly well suited for tertiary amine substrates. A mechanistically distinct strategy for secondary amines has emerged only recently, despite sharing common features with a range of classic organic transformations. Among those are such widely used reactions as the Strecker, Mannich, Pictet-Spengler, and Kabachnik-Fields reactions, Friedel-Crafts alkylations, and iminium alkynylations. In these classic processes, condensation of a secondary amine with an aldehyde (or a ketone) typically leads to the formation of an intermediate iminium ion, which is subsequently attacked by a nucleophile. The corresponding redox-versions of these transformations utilize identical starting materials but incorporate an isomerization step that enables α-C-H bond functionalization. Intramolecular versions of these reactions include redox-neutral amine α-amination, α-oxygenation, and α-sulfenylation. In all cases, a reductive N-alkylation is effectively combined with an oxidative α-functionalization, generating water as the only byproduct.Reactions are promoted by simple carboxylic acids and in some cases require no additives. Azomethine ylides, dipolar species whose usage is predominantly in [3 + 2] cycloadditions and other pericyclic processes, have been identified as common intermediates. Extension of this chemistry to amine α,β-difunctionalization has been shown to be possible by way of converting the intermediate azomethine ylides into transient enamines.This Account details the evolution of this general strategy and the progress made to date. Further included is a discussion of related decarboxylative reactions and transformations that result in the redox-neutral aromatization of (partially) saturated cyclic amines. These processes also involve azomethine ylides, reactive intermediates that appear to be far more prevalent in condensation chemistry of amines and carbonyl compounds than previously considered. In contrast, as exemplified by some redox transformations that have been studied in greater detail, iminium ions are not necessarily involved in all amine/aldehyde condensation reactions. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Carolini G.Y.,Rutgers University
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives. Water, sanitation, and hygiene challenges in the global south require analyses that capture more than urban-rural differences. A new taxonomy is required to help systematize and respond to basic sanitary needs. My aim was to test a new framework for understanding these concerns in periurban spaces. Methods. I conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with a randomized sample, stratified by settlement density, of mostly female-headed households in KaTembe, the largest municipal district of Maputo, Mozambique. The survey included questions on the adequacy, accessibility, and affordability of water, sanitation facilities, and waste management as well as awareness of illnesses and safe hygiene practices. Results. Despite being part of a capital city, KaTembe residents face a diverse mixture of sanitary challenges, as revealed through an analysis of adequacy, accessibility, affordability, and awareness issues. The interaction of these 4 lenses provides insight into residents' behaviors and the obstacles they face in securing adequate provisions. Conclusions. International water, sanitation, and hygiene studies continue to depend on urban-rural distinctions. However, an adequacy, accessibility, affordability, and awareness framework can improve the utility of their data.

Merians A.S.,Rutgers University
Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation | Year: 2011

Recovery of upper extremity function is particularly recalcitrant to successful rehabilitation. Robotic-assisted arm training devices integrated with virtual targets or complex virtual reality gaming simulations are being developed to deal with this problem. Neural control mechanisms indicate that reaching and hand-object manipulation are interdependent, suggesting that training on tasks requiring coordinated effort of both the upper arm and hand may be a more effective method for improving recovery of real world function. However, most robotic therapies have focused on training the proximal, rather than distal effectors of the upper extremity. This paper describes the effects of robotically-assisted, integrated upper extremity training. Twelve subjects post-stroke were trained for eight days on four upper extremity gaming simulations using adaptive robots during 2-3 hour sessions. The subjects demonstrated improved proximal stability, smoothness and efficiency of the movement path. This was in concert with improvement in the distal kinematic measures of finger individuation and improved speed. Importantly, these changes were accompanied by a robust 16-second decrease in overall time in the Wolf Motor Function Test and a 24-second decrease in the Jebsen Test of Hand Function. Complex gaming simulations interfaced with adaptive robots requiring integrated control of shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist and finger movements appear to have a substantial effect on improving hemiparetic hand function. We believe that the magnitude of the changes and the stability of the patient's function prior to training, along with maintenance of several aspects of the gains demonstrated at retention make a compelling argument for this approach to training.

Peakall R.,Australian National University | Smouse P.E.,Rutgers University
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

GenAlEx: Genetic Analysis in Excel is a cross-platform package for population genetic analyses that runs within Microsoft Excel. GenAlEx offers analysis of diploid codominant, haploid and binary genetic loci and DNA sequences. Both frequency-based (F-statistics, heterozygosity, HWE, population assignment, relatedness) and distance-based (AMOVA, PCoA, Mantel tests, multivariate spatial autocorrelation) analyses are provided. New features include calculation of new estimators of population structure: G' ST, G" ST, Jost's D est and F' ST through AMOVA, Shannon Information analysis, linkage disequilibrium analysis for biallelic data and novel heterogeneity tests for spatial autocorrelation analysis. Export to more than 30 other data formats is provided. Teaching tutorials and expanded step-by-step output options are included. The comprehensive guide has been fully revised. © The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press.

Basov D.N.,University of California at San Diego | Averitt R.D.,Boston University | Van Der Marel D.,University of Geneva | Dressel M.,University of Stuttgart | Haule K.,Rutgers University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

Studies of the electromagnetic response of various classes of correlated electron materials including transition-metal oxides, organic and molecular conductors, intermetallic compounds with d and f electrons, as well as magnetic semiconductors are reviewed. Optical inquiry into correlations in all these diverse systems is enabled by experimental access to the fundamental characteristics of an ensemble of electrons including their self-energy and kinetic energy. Steady-state spectroscopy carried out over a broad range of frequencies from microwaves to UV light and fast optics time-resolved techniques provides complimentary prospectives on correlations. Because the theoretical understanding of strong correlations is still evolving, the review is focused on the analysis of the universal trends that are emerging out of a large body of experimental data augmented where possible with insights from numerical studies. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Asefa T.,Rutgers University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

C-ing cellulose in a new light: The self-assembly of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) with tetraalkoxysilane produces a chiral nematic NCC-silica composite material, which upon carbonization, and then etching of the silica with dilute base solution produces a novel high surface area chiral nematic mesoporous carbon (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Goldstein S.,Rutgers University | Hara T.,Kyushu University | Tasaki H.,Gakushuin University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We prove two theorems concerning the time evolution in general isolated quantum systems. The theorems are relevant to the issue of the time scale in the approach to equilibrium. The first theorem shows that there can be pathological situations in which the relaxation takes an extraordinarily long time, while the second theorem shows that one can always choose an equilibrium subspace, the relaxation to which requires only a short time for any initial state. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Rokhlenko A.,Rutgers University
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2011

We found that the well-established Fowler-Nordheim-Schottky field emission theory needs to be revisited for strong electric fields F. The classical derivation of the electron tunneling probability through the triangular potential barrier is re-examined and specified. This probability is studied in the fields of arbitrary strength and found as a function with a maximum at some value of the field and decaying when F goes to zero and to ∞. The location and height of this maximum depend only on the ratio of the electron kinetic energy to the work function, but the maximum cannot be realized for real materials. A simple interpolation formula for all possible electric fields is given. The domain of validity of the standard Fowler-Nordheim approximation is shown to be very wide and evaluated in detail. By solving the Schrödinger equation with the help of a power series expansion of the electron wavefunction, the standard Schottky potential is shown to make the tunneling impossible. This can be fixed tentatively by replacing the image potential with a more realistic modification which eliminates its non-physical singularity. The power series method promises to find a wider application in the field emission theory. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Kaufman M.G.,Michigan State University | Fonseca D.M.,Rutgers University
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2014

Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

The high prevalence of mental illness and substance abuse disorders and their significant impact on disability, mortality, and other chronic diseases have encouraged new initiatives in mental health policy including important provisions of the Affordable Care Act and changes in Medicaid. This article examines the development and status of the behavioral health services system, gaps in access to and quality of care, and the challenges to implementing aspirations for improved behavioral and related medical services. Although many more people than ever before are receiving behavioral health services in the United States- predominantly pharmaceutical treatments-care is poorly allocated and rarely meets evidence-based standards, particularly in the primary care sector. Ideologies, finances, and pharmaceutical marketing have shaped the provision of services more than treatment advances or guidance from a growing evidence base. Among the many challenges to overcome are organizational and financial realignments and improved training of primary care physicians and the behavioral health workforce. © 2014 by Project HOPE - The People-to-People Health Foundation.

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is known for its role in promoting cell division and cellular differentiation in developing animals, but we know surprising little about what EGF does in vivo in mature adult animals. Here I review EGF signaling, emphasizing several recent studies that uncovered an unexpected role for EGF in promoting longevity and healthspan in mature adult C. elegans. EGF, acting through phospholipase C? and the IP3 receptor signaling, maintains pharyngeal and body wall muscle function in aging adults, and delays the accumulation of lipofuscin-enriched aging pigments within intestinal cells. EGF also acts through the Ras/ERK pathway to regulate protein homeostasis by promoting the expression of antioxidant genes, stimulating the activity of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS), and repressing the expression of small heat shock protein chaperones. The effects of EGF signaling on lifespan are largely independent of Insulin/IGF-like Signaling (IIS), as the effects of EGF signaling mutants on lifespan and heathspan are not affected by mutations in the DAF-2 insulin receptor or the DAF-16 FOXO transcription factor. Nevertheless, these two signal pathways have multiple points of overlap, coordination, and cross regulation. I propose that the IIS and EGF signaling pathways respond to environment and to developmental timing, respectively, so as to coordinate the appropriate physiological strategy that cells use to maintain protein homeostasis. © Rongo.

Lingel J.,Rutgers University
Information Society | Year: 2013

This article analyzes comments posted in response to articles and blog posts discussing Facebook's policies on the pages of deceased site members. These virtual discourses reflect the sociocultural importance of social media policies in everyday life that is increasingly a blend of online and offline interaction. The analysis reveals themes of contested ownership of online identities, resistance to unilateral institutional policies, and social media site users' complex relationship to the preservation of virtual content. As a still-evolving phenomenon, virtual grief elucidates wider cultural trends at work in the construction of identity and community online. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Juknevich J.E.,Rutgers University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2010

We consider the possibility that the Higgs boson can act as a link to a hidden sector in the context of pure-glue hidden valley models. In these models the standard model is weakly coupled, through loops of heavy messengers fields, to a hidden sector whose low energy dynamics is described by a pure-Yang-Mills theory. Such a hidden sector contains several metastable hidden glueballs. In this work we shall extend earlier results on hidden valleys to include couplings of the messengers to the standard model Higgs sector. The effective interactions at one-loop couple the hidden gluons to the standard model particles through the Higgs sector. These couplings in turn induce hidden glueball decays to fermion pairs, or cascade decays with multiple Higgs emission. The presence of effective operators of different mass dimensions, often competing with each other, together with a great diversity of states, leads to a great variability in the lifetimes and decay modes of the hidden glueballs. We find that most of the operators considered in this paper are not heavily constrained by precision electroweak physics, therefore leaving plenty of room in the parameter space to be explored by the future experiments at the LHC. © 2010 SISSA.

Seidel D.,Rutgers University
Synlett | Year: 2014

This account details the development of a dual-catalysis approach and its application to the kinetic resolution of amines and other enantioselective acyl-transfer reactions. Anion recognition is an essential design element of these processes, which are enabled by the combined action of an achiral 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) derivative and a chiral anion receptor catalyst. 1 Introduction 2 Kinetic Resolution of Amines 2.1 Benzylic Amines 2.2 Propargylic Amines 2.3 Allylic Amines 2.4 Benzylic Amines Revisited 2.5 Racemic Diamines 3 Desymmetrization of meso-Diamines 4 Miscellaneous Acyl Transfer Reactions 4.1 Steglich Reaction 4.2 Reactions of Isoquinolines with Azlactones 4.3 Acylation of Silyl Ketene Acetals 5 Conclusions. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York.

Torres E.B.,Rutgers University
Neurocase | Year: 2013

We provide objective metrics of sequential movements and study a young adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in relation to novice typical controls (TC) as they learned to perform beginners' martial-arts routines. We studied segments staged to hit an opponent simultaneously performed with supplemental segments. In TC instructed changes in speed had profound differential effects on the intended vs. supplemental segments that were absent in the ASD case. Moreover, the frequency-distribution of velocity and acceleration maxima in TC was well fitted by a Gamma distribution but in the ASD case the fit was exponential yielding uncannily precise motions with atypically low-range of spatio-temporal variability. © 2013 Copyright 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Li H.,Rutgers University
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2011

We develop a theory of φ-coordinated (quasi-) modules for a general nonlocal vertex algebra where φ is what we call an associate of the one-dimensional additive formal group. By specializing φ to a particular associate, we obtain a new construction of weak quantum vertex algebras in the sense of Li (Selecta Mathematica (New Series) 11:349-397, 2005). As an application, we associate weak quantum vertex algebras to quantum affine algebras, and we also associate quantum vertex algebras and φ-coordinated modules to a certain quantum βγ-system explicitly. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Montelione G.T.,Rutgers University
F1000 Biology Reports | Year: 2012

The Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) was established in 2000 by the National Institutes of General Medical Sciences with the long-term goal of providing 3D (three-dimensional) structural information for most proteins in nature. As advances in genomic sequencing, bioinformatics, homology modelling, and methods for rapid determination of 3D structures of proteins by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) converged, it was proposed that our understanding of the biology of protein structure and evolution could be greatly enabled by 'genomic-scale' protein structure determination. Over the past 12 years, the PSI has evolved from a testing bed for new methods of sample and structure production to a core component of a wide range of biology programs. © 2012 Faculty of 1000 Ltd.

Kusch T.,Rutgers University
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2015

Homologous recombination is required for reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome arms during meiosis. Only select meiotic recombination events become chromosomal crossovers; the majority of recombination outcomes are noncrossovers. Growing evidence suggests that crossovers are repaired after noncrossovers. Here, I report that persisting recombination sites are mobilized to the nuclear envelope of Drosophila pro-oocytes during mid-pachytene. Their number correlates with the average crossover rate per meiosis. Proteomic and interaction studies reveal that the recombination mediator Brca2 associates with lamin and the cohesion factor Pds5 to secure persistent recombination sites at the nuclear envelope. In Rad51-/- females, all persistent DNA breaks are directed to the nuclear envelope. By contrast, a reduction of Pds5 or Brca2 levels abolishes the movement and has a negative impact on crossover rates. The data suggest that persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks might correspond to crossovers, which are mobilized to the nuclear envelope for their repair. The identification of Brca2-Pds5 complexes as key mediators of this process provides a first mechanistic explanation for the contribution of lamins and cohesins to meiotic recombination. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Lee C.-S.,Yeungnam University | Elgammal A.,Rutgers University
International Journal of Computer Vision | Year: 2010

In this paper, we consider modeling data lying on multiple continuous manifolds. In particular, we model the shape manifold of a person performing a motion observed from different viewpoints along a view circle at a fixed camera height. We introduce a model that ties together the body configuration (kinematics) manifold and visual (observations) manifold in a way that facilitates tracking the 3D configuration with continuous relative view variability. The model exploits the low-dimensionality nature of both the body configuration manifold and the view manifold, where each of them are represented separately. The resulting representation is used for tracking complex motions within a Bayesian framework, in which the model provides a low-dimensional state representation as well as a constrained dynamic model for both body configuration and view variations. Experimental results estimating the 3D body posture from a single camera are presented for the HUMANEVA dataset and other complex motion video sequences. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Castner E.W.,Rutgers University | Margulis C.J.,University of Iowa | Maroncelli M.,Pennsylvania State University | Wishart J.F.,Brookhaven National Laboratory
Annual Review of Physical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Ionic liquids are subjects of intense current interest within the physical chemistry community. A great deal of progress has been made in just the past five years toward identifying the factors that cause these salts to have low melting points and other useful properties. Supramolecular structure and organization have emerged as important and complicated topics that may be key to understanding how chemical reactions and other processes are affected by ionic liquids. New questions are posed, and an active debate is ongoing regarding the nature of nanoscale ordering in ionic liquids. The topic of reactivity in ionic liquids is still relatively unexplored; however, the results that have been obtained indicate that distributed kinetics and dynamical heterogeneity may sometimes, but not always, be influencing factors. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Herrup K.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Herrup K.,Rutgers University
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2013

The process of cell division is highly complex. The DNA of the genome must be accurately replicated and segregated into two precisely equal portions; the cytoskeleton must be actively rearranged; and the cellular motor forces that allow the separation of the replicated chromosomes and the splitting of the mother cell into two daughters must be kept under strict spatial and temporal regulation. Not surprisingly for a process of this complexity, there is a wide range of proteins whose location and activity must be accurately controlled to ensure both efficiency and precision. Although the demands placed on these cell cycle proteins are high, once cells such as neurons differentiate they enter a long non-mitotic phase where evolution has conspired to repurpose many of these proteins, leading them to assume new and often unrelated cellular tasks. In neurons there is a wide range of non-cycling functions for these 'cell cycle' proteins and this review covers some of the best-known examples. There is little apparent logic to the second use, but the sheer number of examples suggests that there must be a significant evolutionary advantage to this repurposing strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

The excellent catalytic activity of metallic MoS2 edges for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) has led to substantial efforts towards increasing the edge concentration. The 2H basal plane is less active for the HER because it is less conducting and therefore possesses less efficient charge transfer kinetics. Here we show that the activity of the 2H basal planes of monolayer MoS2 nanosheets can be made comparable to state-of-the-art catalytic properties of metallic edges and the 1T phase by improving the electrical coupling between the substrate and the catalyst so that electron injection from the electrode and transport to the catalyst active site is facilitated. Phase-engineered low-resistance contacts on monolayer 2H-phase MoS2 basal plane lead to higher efficiency of charge injection in the nanosheets so that its intrinsic activity towards the HER can be measured. We demonstrate that onset potentials and Tafel slopes of ∼−0.1 V and ∼50 mV per decade can be achieved from 2H-phase catalysts where only the basal plane is exposed. We show that efficient charge injection and the presence of naturally occurring sulfur vacancies are responsible for the observed increase in catalytic activity of the 2H basal plane. Our results provide new insights into the role of contact resistance and charge transport on the performance of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheet catalysts for the HER. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group

Pohorecky L.A.,Rutgers University
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2010

Psychosocial stressors are known to alter ingestion of ethanol in humans and experimental animals. We evaluated the effect of novel acute stressors on ethanol ingestion of male triad-housed rats. Based on behavioral and body weight assessments triad members were designated as dominant, subdominant or subordinate rats, housed in triads designated as aggressive or non-aggressive triads. The triad-housed, and a group of single-housed rats, were sequentially subjected to three stressors (novel open field arena, elevated plus maze, and modified resident-intruder test) at 1-2. week intervals. Ethanol intake was measured for 21-h before and after each stressor. Prior to stressor exposure, ethanol intake of the triad-housed rats was higher than that of single-housed rats. In triads overall intake of ethanol was lower in dominant compared to non-dominant rats. The modified resident-intruder test decreased ethanol intake in non-dominant rats in aggressive triads, but increased its intake in non-aggressive triads. Since in non-dominant rats this stressor also increased ethanol preference but not total fluid intake, its effect on ethanol intake was specific. In non-dominant rats ethanol intake and preference declined after the elevated plus maze stressor, without an effect on total fluid intake, but water intake was increased only in the subdominant rats. Compared to triad-housed rats, single-housed rats were more resilient to the novel stressors. It can be concluded that novel acute stressors have specific effects on ethanol intake that are dependent on the subject's psychosocial stress level. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Shah C.,Rutgers University
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Communication and coordination are considered essential components of successful collaborations, and provision of awareness is a highly valuable feature of a collaborative information seeking (CIS) system. In this article, we investigate how providing different kinds of awareness support affects people's coordination behavior in a CIS task, as reflected by the communication that took place between them. We describe a laboratory study with 84 participants in 42 pairs with an experimental CIS system. These participants were brought to the laboratory for two separate sessions and given two exploratory search tasks. They were randomly assigned to one of the three systems, defined by the kind of awareness support provided. We analyzed the messages exchanged between the participants of each team by coding them for their coordination attributes. With this coding, we show how the participants employed different kinds of coordination during the study. Using qualitative and quantitative analyses, we demonstrate that the teams with no awareness, or with only personal awareness support, needed to spend more time and effort doing coordination than those with proper group awareness support. We argue that appropriate and adequate awareness support is essential for a CIS system for reducing coordination costs and keeping the collaborators well coordinated for a productive collaboration. The findings have implications for system designers as well as cognitive scientists and CIS researchers in general. © 2013 ASIS&T.

Smart M.J.,Rutgers University
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2014

The determinants of public opinion toward public transit is a little-researched topic, though a better understanding of what makes consumers willing to support transit may reveal which attributes of transit consumers value most. One determinant of people's willingness to support investments in mass transit may be the price of fuel for transit's principal competition, the private automobile. In this paper, I examine the relationship between the cost of gasoline and stated willingness to invest public money in mass transit improvements. I hypothesize that fuel price volatility-in addition to price itself-is a determinant of support for more mass transit funding, controlling for other factors. As the price of gasoline becomes more uncertain, the public should, all else equal, support investment in mass transportation, a form of transportation that may provide some measure of protection from the price of fuel. Results suggest a strong effect of price volatility on consumers' willingness to support transit expenditures. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Brooks A.,Rutgers University
Annalen der Physik | Year: 2014

Recent high-resolution simulations that include Cold Dark Matter (CDM) and baryons have shown that baryonic physics can dramatically alter the dark matter structure of galaxies. These results modify our predictions for observed galaxy evolution and structure. Given these updated expectations, it is timely to re-examine observational constraints on the dark matter model. A few observations exist that may indirectly trace dark matter, and may help confirm or deny possible dark matter models. Warm Dark Matter (WDM) and Self-Interacting Dark Matter (SIDM) are currently the favorite alternative models to CDM. Constraints on the WDM particle mass require it to be so heavy that WDM is nearly indistinguishable from CDM. The best observational test of SIDM is likely to be in the dark matter distribution of faint dwarf galaxies, but there is a lack of theoretical predictions for galaxy structure in SIDM that account for the role of baryons. © 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Xing J.,Rutgers University | Witherspoon D.J.,University of Utah | Jorde L.B.,University of Utah
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2013

Mobile elements comprise more than half of the human genome, but until recently their large-scale detection was time consuming and challenging. With the development of new high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, the complete spectrum of mobile element variation in humans can now be identified and analyzed. Thousands of new mobile element insertions (MEIs) have been discovered, yielding new insights into mobile element biology, evolution, and genomic variation. Here, we review several high-throughput methods, with an emphasis on techniques that specifically target MEIs in humans. We highlight recent applications of these methods in evolutionary studies and in the analysis of somatic alterations in human normal and tumor tissues. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Bunting S.F.,Rutgers University | Nussenzweig A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2013

Fusion genes that are caused by chromosome translocations have been recognized for several decades as drivers of deregulated cell growth in certain types of cancer. In recent years, oncogenic fusion genes have been found in many haematological and solid tumours, demonstrating that translocations are a common cause of malignancy. Sequencing approaches have now confirmed that numerous, non-clonal translocations are a typical feature of cancer cells. These chromosome rearrangements are often highly complex and contain DNA sequence from multiple genomic sites. The factors and pathways that promote translocations are becoming clearer, with non-homologous end-joining implicated as a key source of genomic rearrangements. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Case D.A.,Rutgers University
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2013

NMR chemical shifts are sensitive probes of structure and dynamics in proteins. Empirical models, based on a large database of measured shifts, take an input structure and provide increasingly accurate estimates of the corresponding shifts. Quantum chemical calculations can provide the same information, with greater generality but (currently) with less accuracy. These methods are now providing new ways to approach NMR structure determination, and new insights into the conformational dynamics of proteins. © 2013.

Bromberg Y.,Rutgers University
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Reduced costs and increased speed and accuracy of sequencing can bring the genome-based evaluation of individual disease risk to the bedside. While past efforts have identified a number of actionable mutations, the bulk of genetic risk remains hidden in sequence data. The biggest challenge facing genomic medicine today is the development of new techniques to predict the specifics of a given human phenome (set of all expressed phenotypes) encoded by each individual variome (full set of genome variants) in the context of the given environment. Numerous tools exist for the computational identification of the functional effects of a single variant. However, the pipelines taking advantage of full genomic, exomic, transcriptomic (and other) sequences have only recently become a reality. This review looks at the building of methodologies for predicting "variome"-defined disease risk. It also discusses some of the challenges for incorporating such a pipeline into everyday medical practice. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Buehler R.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Pucher J.,Rutgers University
Transportation | Year: 2012

This article analyzes the variation in bike commuting in large American cities, with a focus on assessing the influence of bike paths and lanes, which have been the main approach to increasing cycling in the USA. To examine the role of cycling facilities, we used a newly assembled dataset on the length of bike lanes and paths in 2008 collected directly from 90 of the 100 largest U. S. cities. Pearson's correlation, bivariate quartile analysis, and two different types of regressions were used to measure the relationship between cycling levels and bikeways, as well as other explanatory and control variables. Ordinary Least Squares and Binary Logit Proportions regressions confirm that cities with a greater supply of bike paths and lanes have significantly higher bike commute rates-even when controlling for land use, climate, socioeconomic factors, gasoline prices, public transport supply, and cycling safety. Standard tests indicate that the models are a good fit, with R 2 ranging between 0. 60 and 0. 65. Computed coefficients have the expected signs for all variables in the various regression models, but not all are statistically significant. Estimated elasticities indicate that both off-street paths and on-street lanes have a similar positive association with bike commute rates in U. S. cities. Our results are consistent with previous research on the importance of separate cycling facilities and provide additional information about the potentially different role of paths vs. lanes. Our analysis also revealed that cities with safer cycling, lower auto ownership, more students, less sprawl, and higher gasoline prices had more cycling to work. By comparison, annual precipitation, the number of cold and hot days, and public transport supply were not statistically significant predictors of bike commuting in large cities. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Khare S.D.,Rutgers University | Fleishman S.J.,Weizmann Institute of Science
FEBS Letters | Year: 2013

Recent years have seen the first applications of computational protein design to generate novel catalysts, binding pairs of proteins, protein inhibitors, and large oligomeric assemblies. At their core these methods rely on a similar hybrid energy function, composed of physics-based and database-derived terms, while different sequence and conformational sampling approaches are used for each design category. Although these are first steps for the computational design of novel function, crystal structures and biochemical characterization already point out where success and failure are likely in the application of protein design. Contrasting failed and successful design attempts has been used to diagnose deficiencies in the approaches and in the underlying hybrid energy function. In this manner, design provides an inherent mechanism by which crucial information is obtained on pressing areas where focused efforts to improve methods are needed. Of the successful designs, many feature pre-organized sites that are poised to perform their intended function, and improvements often result from disfavoring alternative functionally suboptimal states. These rapid developments and fundamental insights obtained thus far promise to make computational design of novel molecular function general, robust, and routine. © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Xie P.,Rutgers University
Journal of Molecular Signaling | Year: 2013

The tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R)-associated factor (TRAF) family of intracellular proteins were originally identified as signaling adaptors that bind directly to the cytoplasmic regions of receptors of the TNF-R superfamily. The past decade has witnessed rapid expansion of receptor families identified to employ TRAFs for signaling. These include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), T cell receptor, IL-1 receptor family, IL-17 receptors, IFN receptors and TGFβ receptors. In addition to their role as adaptor proteins, most TRAFs also act as E3 ubiquitin ligases to activate downstream signaling events. TRAF-dependent signaling pathways typically lead to the activation of nuclear factor-κBs (NF-κBs), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), or interferon-regulatory factors (IRFs). Compelling evidence obtained from germ-line and cell-specific TRAF-deficient mice demonstrates that each TRAF plays indispensable and non-redundant physiological roles, regulating innate and adaptive immunity, embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, stress response, and bone metabolism. Notably, mounting evidence implicates TRAFs in the pathogenesis of human diseases such as cancers and autoimmune diseases, which has sparked new appreciation and interest in TRAF research. This review presents an overview of the current knowledge of TRAFs, with an emphasis on recent findings concerning TRAF molecules in signaling and in human diseases. © 2013 Xie; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Guirado E.,Ohio State University | Schlesinger L.S.,Ohio State University | Kaplan G.,Rutgers University
Seminars in Immunopathology | Year: 2013

Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely human adapted and a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages (AMs) being the primary conduit of infection and disease. The outcome of primary infection is most often a latently infected healthy human host, in whom the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response. Such individuals can develop active TB later in life with impairment in the immune system. In contrast, in a minority of infected individuals, the host immune response fails to control the growth of bacilli, and progressive granulomatous disease develops, facilitating spread of the bacilli via infectious aerosols coughed out into the environment and inhaled by new hosts. The molecular details of the Mtb-macrophage interaction continue to be elucidated. However, it is clear that a number of complex processes are involved at the different stages of infection that may benefit either the bacterium or the host. Macrophages demonstrate tremendous phenotypic heterogeneity and functional plasticity which, depending on the site and stage of infection, facilitate the diverse outcomes. Moreover, host responses vary depending on the specific characteristics of the infecting Mtb strain. In this chapter, we describe a contemporary view of the behavior of AMs and their interaction with various Mtb strains in generating unique immunologic lung-specific responses. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Denef F.,Catholic University of Leuven | Moore G.W.,Rutgers University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We investigate degeneracies of BPS states of D-branes on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds. We develop a factorization formula for BPS indices using attractor flow trees associated to multicentered black hole bound states. This enables us to study background dependence of the BPS spectrum, to compute explicitly exact indices of various nontrivial D-brane systems, and to clarify the subtle relation of Donaldson-Thomas invariants to BPS indices of stable D6-D2-D0 states, realized in supergravity as "hole halos." We introduce a convergent generating function for D4 indices in the large CY volume limit, and prove it can be written as a modular average of its polar part, generalizing the fareytail expansion of the elliptic genus. We show polar states are "split" D6-anti-D6 bound states, and that the partition function factorizes accordingly, leading to a refined version of the OSV conjecture. This differs from the original conjecture in several aspects. In particular we obtain a nontrivial measure factor g-2 top e-K and find factorization requires a cutoff. We show that the main factor determining the cutoff and therefore the error is the existence of "swing states" - D6 states which exist at large radius but do not form stable D6-anti-D6 bound states. We point out a likely breakdown of the OSV conjecture at small gtop (in the large background CY volume limit), due to the surprising phenomenon that for sufficiently large background Kähler moduli, a charge ΛΓ supporting single centered black holes of entropy ~ Λ2S(Γ) also admits two-centered BPS black hole realizations whose entropy grows like Λ3 when Λ → ∞. © SISSA 2011.

Mekjian A.Z.,Rutgers University
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2013

The viscosity of nucleonic matter and in particular a neutron gas is studied both classically and in a quantum mechanical description. The collisions between particles are modeled as hard sphere scattering as a baseline for comparison and as scattering from an attractive square well potential. Properties associated with the unitary limit are developed which are shown to be approximately realized for a system of neutrons. The issue of near perfect fluid behavior of neutron matter is remarked on. Using some results from hard sphere molecular dynamics studies near perfect fluid behavior is discussed further. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Abdellatif M.,Rutgers University
Circulation Research | Year: 2012

The silencer information regulator (Sir) family of proteins has attracted much attention during the past decade due to its prominent role in metabolic homeostasis in mammals. The Sir1-4 proteins were first discovered in yeast as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +)-dependent deacetylases, which through a gene silencing effect promoted longevity. The subsequent discovery of a homologous sirtuin (Sirt) family of proteins in the mammalian systems soon led to the realization that these molecules have beneficial effects in metabolism-and aging-related diseases. Through their concerted functions in the central nervous system, liver, pancreas, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, they regulate the body's metabolism. Sirt1,-6, and-7 exert their functions, predominantly, through a direct effect on nuclear transcription of genes involved in metabolism, whereas Sirt3-5 reside in the mitochondrial matrix and regulate various enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid and urea cycles, oxidative phosphorylation, as well as reactive oxygen species production. An interesting aspect of the functionality of sirtuin involves their regulation by the circadian rhythm, which affects their function via cyclically regulating systemic NAD + availability, further establishing the link of these proteins to metabolism. In this review, we will discuss the relation of sirtuins to NAD + metabolism, their mechanism of function, and their role in metabolism and mitochondrial functions. In addition, we will describe their effects in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

It is shown how to resolve the apparent contradiction between the macroscopic approach of phase space and the validity of the uncertainty relations. The main notions of statistical mechanics are re-interpreted in a quantum-mechanical way, the ergodic theorem and the H-theorem are formulated and proven (without "assumptions of disorder"), followed by a discussion of the physical meaning of the mathematical conditions characterizing their domain of validity. © EDP Sciences, Springer-Verlag 2010.

Ghaznavi F.,University of Toronto | Evans A.,University of Toronto | Madabhushi A.,Rutgers University | Feldman M.,University of Pennsylvania
Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease | Year: 2013

Digital imaging in pathology has undergone an exponential period of growth and expansion catalyzed by changes in imaging hardware and gains in computational processing. Today, digitization of entire glass slides at near the optical resolution limits of light can occur in 60 s. Whole slides can be imaged in fluorescence or by use of multispectral imaging systems. Computational algorithms have been developed for cytometric analysis of cells and proteins in subcellular locations by use of multiplexed antibody staining protocols. Digital imaging is unlocking the potential to integrate primary image features into high-dimensional genomic assays by moving microscopic analysis into the digital age. This review highlights the emerging field of digital pathology and explores the methods and analytic approaches being developed for the application and use of these methods in clinical care and research settings. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

A comprehensive overview of advances in the synthesis of organoborane polymers for optical, electronic, and sensory applications, is presented. Study of conjugated main chain organoboron polymers obtained through hydroboration of 2,5-diethynylthiophene derivatives with BCl3/Et3SiH mixture showed that polymers are differently colored depending on the substituents on the alkynyl groups. Luminescent polymer gels prepared by hydroboration polymerization of MesBH2 showed the occurrence of partial gelation when the reaction is performed in relatively concentrated THF solution. Tin-boron exchange reactions are also studied as a potentially milder and more selective polymerization method showing that the polycondensation process occurs between a bifunctional haloborane and a ditin species.

Manning G.S.,Rutgers University
Soft Matter | Year: 2012

Poisson's ratio σ in linear elasticity theory is the ratio of the transverse compression of a rod to its longitudinal extension. For common macroscopic materials, σ is a positive quantity, implying that the rod becomes thinner when stretched. If the rod is a polyelectrolyte that bears a charge density above the threshold for counterion condensation, then the condensed layer of counterions should be regarded as an integral part of the rod. We show on a simple model that Poisson's ratio is then negative for high charge densities. For the charge density characteristic of DNA, the negative value found for σ is in approximate agreement with the negative value inferred from measurements of the bending and twisting moduli of DNA. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Mitrofanov O.,University College London | Harrington J.A.,Rutgers University
Optics Express | Year: 2010

Thin dielectric layers deposited on the inner surface of hollow cylindrical metallic waveguides for Terahertz (THz) waves reduce transmission losses below 1 dB/m. Impact of the dielectric layer on the waveguide dispersion is experimentally investigated by near-field mapping of guided short THz pulses at the input and the output of the waveguide. We obtain dispersion characteristics for the low-loss waveguide modes, the linearly-polarized HE11 mode and the TE01 mode, and compare the experimental results to the metallic waveguide dispersion. The additional dispersion due to the dielectric layer is found to be small for the HE11 mode and the phase velocity is primarily determined by the waveguide radius. © 2009 Optical Society of America.

Francis J.A.,Rutgers University
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2013

Summer precipitation in northern Europe has been above average for each of the past six years (2007-2012), a pattern that is unprecedented in over a century. During these same years, the summer Arctic sea-ice cover has averaged about 40% below its typical extent prior to the 1950s and set two new record minima. Could there be a connection? This is the question that motivated the new study by Dr James Screen, a Research Fellow at the University of Exeter, UK, that appears in this issue of ERL (2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 044015). Adding to the growing body of evidence linking rapid Arctic warming to changing weather patterns in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, he concludes that sea-ice loss and associated surface warming lead to large-scale circulation patterns that favor wet summers in northern Europe and dry summers along the northern Mediterranean. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Belden W.J.,Rutgers University | Dunlap J.C.,Jay C. Dunlap
Cell | Year: 2013

Age-related decline in mammalian circadian rhythm has been recognized for decades, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. In this issue of Cell, Chang and Guarente use brain-specific SIRT1 knockout mice and transgenic mice overexpressing SIRT1 to develop an enticing model for how SIRT1 helps maintain the robustness of the aging circadian clock. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Lorenzen J.A.,Rutgers University
Human Ecology Review | Year: 2012

This article explores the adoption and use of technology as part of an effort toward greener living. I draw on 45 indepth semi-structured interviews and participant observation of three groups who shape their consumption in various ways in order to address climate change and other environmental harms: green home owners, religious environmentalists, and voluntary simplifiers. I highlight divergent adoption practices, of innovative and ordinary technologies, within these three relevant social groups. Although differing in their approach (constitutive, strategic, and practical) all three groups construct or augment the green-ness and smart-ness of technology through their practices. I find that an intensive use of innovative technology, rather than avoiding a change in practices, cultivates equally intensive practices to support it. Thus green-ness is jointly produced by aspects inherent to technology design, as well as the ways users adopt technology through domestication practices in the interest of social change. This article also shows how domestication theory, the co-construction of users and technology, and an expanded definition of green technology may contribute to a reshaping of policy objectives and approaches. © Society for Human Ecology.

McCauley D.J.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Pinsky M.L.,Rutgers University | Palumbi S.R.,Stanford University | Estes J.A.,University of California at Santa Cruz | And 2 more authors.
Science | Year: 2015

Marine defaunation, or human-caused animal loss in the oceans, emerged forcefully only hundreds of years ago, whereas terrestrial defaunation has been occurring far longer. Though humans have caused few global marine extinctions, we have profoundly affected marine wildlife, altering the functioning and provisioning of services in every ocean. Current ocean trends, coupled with terrestrial defaunation lessons, suggest that marine defaunation rates will rapidly intensify as human use of the oceans industrializes. Though protected areas are a powerful tool to harness ocean productivity, especially when designed with future climate in mind, additional management strategies will be required. Overall, habitat degradation is likely to intensify as a major driver of marine wildlife loss. Proactive intervention can avert a marine defaunation disaster of the magnitude observed on land. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

When a graspable object's handle is oriented to the same side as the response hand, responses are quicker and more accurate than when it is oriented to the opposite side. This effect has been attributed to the affordance of the object's handle (Tucker & Ellis, 1998). Recent findings suggest this effect results instead from an abstract spatial response code (i.e., Simon effect; Cho & Proctor, 2010). However, the stimuli used in these previous studies differ in the amount of object and environmental depth information they contain, which may be critical to conveying an affordance. This information could explain these disparate findings as well as dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects. Four experiments demonstrate that the Simon effect results from the absence of this information, as in a silhouette, and the affordance effect results from its presence, as in a photograph. A fifth experiment confirmed that modifying information associated with the affordance, rather than the modification itself, produced the effects observed in the previous experiments. These findings support the following: (a) the internal details of an object and environmental depth can dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects, (b) this information is necessary to convey the object's graspable affordance, and (c) the outer shape of the object is not sufficient to elicit an affordance effect. These findings are discussed in relation to the theory of embodied cognition. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Peterson N.A.,Rutgers University
American Journal of Community Psychology | Year: 2014

Development of empowerment theory has focused on defining the construct at different levels of analysis, presenting new frameworks or dimensions, and explaining relationships between empowerment-related processes and outcomes. Less studied, and less conceptually developed, is the nature of empowerment as a higher-order multidimensional construct. One critical issue is whether empowerment is conceptualized as a superordinate construct (i.e., empowerment is manifested by its dimensions), an aggregate construct (i.e., empowerment is formed by its dimensions), or rather as a set of distinct constructs. To date, researchers have presented superordinate models without careful consideration of the relationships between dimensions and the higher-order construct of empowerment. Empirical studies can yield very different results, however, depending on the conceptualization of a construct. This paper represents the first attempt to address this issue systematically in empowerment theory. It is argued that superordinate models of empowerment are misspecified and research that tests alternative models at different levels of analysis is needed to advance theory, research, and practice in this area. Recommendations for future work are discussed. © 2014 Society for Community Research and Action.

Njau J.K.,University of California at Berkeley | Blumenschine R.J.,Rutgers University
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2012

Taphonomic analysis of the Olduvai Hominid (OH) 8 left foot from FLK NN Level 3 and the OH 35 left leg from FLK Level 22 (Zinjanthropus level) in Middle Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, indicates that both were fed upon by crocodiles. Both bear extensive tooth marking, including bisected tooth marks diagnostic of crocodylian feeding. The location of the bisected tooth marks on the distal tibia and the talus indicates disarticulation of the foot by crocodiles. The broken proximal ends of the tibia and fibula are more typical of feeding by a leopard-like carnivore, as is damage to the OH 7 mandible and parietals that are associated with and may derive from the same individual as OH 8. Previous work showing a close articulation of the foot and the leg has been used to suggest that the two specimens belong to the same individual despite deriving from sites separated by 200 m and slightly different stratigraphic levels according to previous work. The location and agent of tooth marking and the nature of gross damage do not refute this hypothesis, but the punctures on the talus and distal tibia differ in size and sharpness. Recent work shows that the stratigraphic discrepancy between OH 8 and OH 35 is greater than previously thought, refuting the single-individual hypothesis. Although seemingly unlikely, this denotes that two hominids represented by rarely found leg and foot elements both lost their left foot to crocodiles at nearby sites within a 6,000 year interval. We cannot determine if the hominids were preyed upon by crocodiles or mammalian carnivores. However, the carnivore damage to them and associated faunal remains suggests that high predation risk constrained hominid activities involving discard of the stone artifacts found at these sites. This finding is inconsistent with the interpretation of the sites as home bases or living floors. © 2011.

Worobey J.,Rutgers University
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Relative to work on nutrient intake and growth in infancy and toddlerhood, research on physical activity (PA) from birth to age 24 mo is limited. In this review, the developmental course of PA in infancy and toddlerhood is described, and the issues that surround its measurement are addressed. Of the variety of techniques that allow for gauging PA in infancy and toddlerhood, caregiver questionnaires, direct observations, and motion sensors have been used most frequently. Although each method has shown utility, the limitations of each are also acknowledged. In addition, the relation of early PA to nutrition and overweight in infants is considered. Despite the challenges to accurately monitoring early PA, its possible contribution to early excess weight gain should be recognized. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

Deka D.,Rutgers University
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2012

At commuter rail stations in many affluent suburban communities of New Jersey, non-residents are prohibited from parking or are charged a higher fee. This paper examines the impacts of non-resident parking restrictions on rail usage. It uses data from a large survey of commuter rail passengers, a detailed parking inventory of station parking lots, and data from the American Community Survey. It compares the catchment areas of stations and the likelihood of individuals boarding at stations with and without parking restrictions by using ordinary least squares, mixed regression, and logit models. It further examines the rail use propensity of communities when the nearest station prohibits non-resident parking by ordinary least squares and tobit models. The analyses show that, all else being equal, stations with non-resident parking restrictions have smaller catchment areas and passengers are less likely to use these stations compared to stations without restrictions. The implications are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Yang C.S.,Rutgers University | Hong J.,Seoul Womens University
Annual Review of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Tea, made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, Theaceae, has been used by humans for thousands of years, first as a medicinal herb and then as a beverage that is consumed widely. For the past 25 years, tea has been studied extensively for its beneficial health effects, including prevention of cancer, reduction of body weight, alleviation of metabolic syndrome, prevention of cardiovascular diseases, and protection against neurodegenerative diseases. Whether these effects can be produced by tea at the levels commonly consumed by humans is an open question. This review examines these topics and elucidates the common mechanisms for these beneficial health effects. It also discusses other health effects and possible side effects of tea consumption. This article provides a critical assessment of the health effects of tea consumption and suggests new directions for research in this area. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

This study provides insight into the postrelease performance of all former inmates with available data who were released from a prison in New Jersey in 2006 (N = 12,187). Three indicators of recidivism are considered: (a) an arrest for a new crime, (b) a conviction for a new crime, and (c) a technical parole violation. Individuals are categorized into groups according to the release mechanism that they experienced: discretionary parole, mandatory parole, or unconditional release. Multivariate analyses utilize Cox proportional hazards survival tests. Results indicate that after approximately 3 years of follow-up time, those released to supervision were generally less involved in new crimes when compared with those who were released unconditionally. However, a high proportion of those who were paroled recidivated shortly after release, and the predicted probability that a former inmate would recidivate did not substantially differ between release groups in the presence of statistical controls. © 2011 SAGE Publications.

Kumar A.,University of Manitoba | Kumar A.,Rutgers University
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

The need for early antimicrobial therapy is well established for life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections including meningitis and sepsis/septic shock. However, a link between the outcome of serious viral infections and delays in antiviral therapy is not as well recognized. Recently, with the occurrence of the influenza A/H1N1 pandemic of 2009, a large body of data regarding this issue has become available. Studies analysing data from this pandemic have consistently shown that delays in initiation of antiviral therapy following symptom onset are significantly associated with disease severity and death. Optimal survival and minimal disease severity appear to result when antivirals are started as soon as possible after symptom onset. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Wilson G.T.,Rutgers University
European Eating Disorders Review | Year: 2010

An addiction model of both eating disorders and obesity has received increasing attention in the popular and scientific literature. The addiction is viewed as a brain disease that must be directly targeted if treatment is to succeed. Evidence from laboratory feeding studies, epidemiology, genetic and familial research, psychopathological mechanisms, and treatment outcome research on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is inconsistent with the clinical validity or utility of the addiction model of eating disorders. Neurobiological research has shown commonalities in brain reward processes between obesity and substance abuse disorders. Yet emphasis on apparent similarities overlooks important differences between obesity and drug addiction. Interest in obesity as a brain disease should not detract from a public health focus on the 'toxic food environment' that is arguably responsible for the obesity epidemic and related nutrition-based chronic disease. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

Canfield D.E.,University of Southern Denmark | Glazer A.N.,University of California at Berkeley | Falkowski P.G.,Rutgers University
Science | Year: 2010

Atmospheric reactions and slow geological processes controlled Earth's earliest nitrogen cycle, and by ∼2.7 billion years ago, a linked suite of microbial processes evolved to form the modern nitrogen cycle with robust natural feedbacks and controls. Over the past century, however, the development of new agricultural practices to satisfy a growing global demand for food has drastically disrupted the nitrogen cycle. This has led to extensive eutrophication of fresh waters and coastal zones as well as increased inventories of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Microbial processes will ultimately restore balance to the nitrogen cycle, but the damage done by humans to the nitrogen economy of the planet will persist for decades, possibly centuries, if active intervention and careful management strategies are not initiated.

Lukyanov S.L.,Rutgers University | Lukyanov S.L.,Ld Landau Institute For Theoretical Physics
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2012

We construct a zero-curvature representation for a four-parameter family of non-linear sigma models with a Kalb-Ramond term. The one-loop renormalization is performed that gives rise to a new set of ancient and eternal solutions to the Ricci flow with torsion. Our analysis provides an explicit illustration of the role of the dilaton field for the renormalization of the non-linear sigma model. © 2012 .

Kopp R.E.,Rutgers University
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

To test a hypothesized faster-than-global sea level acceleration along the mid-Atlantic United States, I construct a Gaussian process model that decomposes tide gauge data into short-term variability and longer-term trends, and into globally coherent, regionally coherent, and local components. While tide gauge records indicate a faster-than-global increase in the rate of mid-Atlantic U.S. sea level rise beginning ∼1975, this acceleration could reflect either the start of a long-term trend or ocean dynamic variability. The acceleration will need to continue for ∼2 decades before the rate of increase of the sea level difference between the mid-Atlantic and southeastern U.S. can be judged as very likely unprecedented by 20th century standards. However, the difference is correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Gulf Stream North Wall indices, all of which are currently within the range of past variability. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Zhang T.,Rutgers University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2011

Given a large number of basis functions that can be potentially more than the number of samples, we consider the problem of learning a sparse target function that can be expressed as a linear combination of a small number of these basis functions. We are interested in two closely related themes: • feature selection, or identifying the basis functions with nonzero coefficients; • estimation accuracy, or reconstructing the target function from noisy observations. Two heuristics that are widely used in practice are forward and backward greedy algorithms. First, we show that neither idea is adequate. Second, we propose a novel combination that is based on the forward greedy algorithm but takes backward steps adaptively whenever beneficial. For least squares regression, we develop strong theoretical results for the new procedure showing that it can effectively solve this problem under some assumptions. Experimental results support our theory. © 2011 IEEE.

Zhang T.,Rutgers University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2011

This paper presents a new analysis for the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. It is shown that if the restricted isometry property (RIP) is satisfied at sparsity level O(k), then OMP can stably recover a k-sparse signal in 2-norm under measurement noise. For compressed sensing applications, this result implies that in order to uniformly recover a k-sparse signal in ℝ d, only O(k ln d) random projections are needed. This analysis improves some earlier results on OMP depending on stronger conditions that can only be satisfied with Ω(k 2 ln d) or Ω(k 1.6 ln d) random projections. © 2011 IEEE.

Graphene is already being used in a wide variety of applications including electronics, energy, sensing, and even bioapplications such as biosensors, drug delivery, stem cell differentiation, and cellular imaging. In terms of the synthesis of graphene-nanoparticle hybrids, numerous avenues are currently available for the preparation of hybrids composed of graphene-based nanomaterials and various nanoparticles. These include in situ and ex situ methods. However, the optimal method depends greatly on the requirements of the desired application. It should be noted that ex situ methods have also been used for cellular application, especially for stem cell differentiation as well as applications using graphene-encapsulated nanoparticles. electronic sensors wherein graphene-nanoparticle hybrids are applied to FET-based devices can currently achieve the highest sensitivity with a LOD in the attomolar range. Hybrid sensors that utilize optical mechanisms also have great promise as they can potentially allow for the detection of single molecules as well as the quantification of molecules in living cells in a nondestructive manner. graphene-nanoparticle hybrids have led to the enhancement of image contrast, cancer therapies, and stem cell differentiation.

Pulte D.,German Cancer Research Center | Brenner H.,Rutgers University
Oncologist | Year: 2010

Background. Therapy for head and neck cancers has evolved over the past decade, but few detailed analyses of recent developments in survival on the population level have been published. Methods. We use period analysis and modeled period analysis to disclose recent trends in survival in patients with head and neck cancer. Data are derived from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results limiteduse database. Results. A major, statistically significant improvement in survival was observed, with the overall 5-year relative survival rate going from 54.7% in 1992-1996 to 65.9% in 2002-2006. Subgroup analysis showed improvement in cancers of the oral cavity, tongue, tonsils, and nasopharynx, with the greatest improvements observed in tonsillar carcinoma (+22.2 percentage points) and carcinoma of the tongue (+14.4 percentage points). Further analysis of survival for oral cavity, tonsillar, and tongue carcinoma revealed improvements in survival at each stage and across all age groups except for patients aged ≥75 years, with the greatest improvement occurring in locally advanced disease and in patients aged 55-64 years for carcinoma of the tongue and tonsils and those aged 15-44 years for oral cavity cancers. Conclusions. Survival has substantially improved for head and neck cancer patients over the past decade. The greatest improvement was seen in tonsillar and tongue cancers. © AlphaMed Press.

Greenberg M.R.,Rutgers University
Energy Research and Social Science | Year: 2014

The paper defines trust as believing that a person(s) or organization(s) can be relied upon to accomplish objectives because they are competent and possess values and intentions that are consistent with all or part of the public. Section 3 discusses public trust of specific professions and organizations, including the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Department of Energy, and others in the energy field. Section 4 examines the importance of trust compared to risk perception and other drivers of public preferences. This section also shows that trust changes, almost always decreasing because of incidents and greater salience of negative information than positive information. It also considers the role of the media in amplifying mistrust, and it ends by considering the role of communications in building or reducing trust. Section 5 identifies six priority research topics. The two most important are case studies from Africa, Asia and South America, and more focus on non-nuclear energy sources, that is, coal, gas, and other forms, as well as waste management, and transportation processes.

Handley S.M.,Rutgers University | Benton Jr. W.C.,Ohio State University
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2012

Mediated power is often used by firms to control the behaviors or influence the decisions of other members of the value chain. Interestingly, significant contributions in the academic literature offer consistent evidence that the use of mediated power has a negative impact on the quality of inter-organizational relationships. Yet, there is a dearth of empirical research investigating the conditions under which the use of mediated power is more or less prevalent. Utilizing dyadic data collected on 102 outsourcing relationships, this study evaluates how the buying firm's dependence on the service provider, asserted importance of the outsourced activity, and difficulties with other inter-organizational control mechanisms are related to their reliance on mediated power. Results from our hierarchical regression analysis support the hypotheses that the use of mediated power is diminished when the buyer is currently more dependent on the service provider due to switching difficulties and the buyer has a higher expectation of future SUPPL.y market consolidation. Similar hypotheses regarding the effect of the strategic importance of the outsourced activity and entry barriers to the service provider's market were not supported. The results also support the hypothesis that the use of mediated power is more pronounced when the buyer experiences contract management difficulties, but the same is not true when the buyer has difficulty in monitoring the provider. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first empirical explanation of conditions which either attenuate or exacerbate the use of mediated power by outsourcing organizations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang H.,Rutgers University
INFORMS Journal on Computing | Year: 2013

A new method is proposed using a gradient-based zigzag search approach for multiobjective optimization (MOO) or vector optimization problems. The key idea of this method is searching around the Pareto front by applying an efficient local search procedure using the gradients of the objective functions. This local search zigzags along the Pareto surface guided by the gradients and iteratively returns the visited Pareto optima. Many continuous MOO problems have smooth objective functions and the set of the nondominated objective function values forms a regular surface in the image space. This fact motivates developing the zigzag search method for such relatively well-posed MOO problems. A simple implementation of this method, z-algorithm, is presented particularly for continuous bi-objective optimization (BOO) problems with well-connected Pareto optimal solutions. The efficiency of the z-algorithm is studied with a set of BOO problems and the algorithm performances are compared to those of a recently developed MOO algorithm, Pareto front approximation with adaptive weighted sum method. ©2013 INFORMS.

Miguez-Macho G.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Fan Y.,Rutgers University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2012

Observational studies across the Amazon report a common occurrence of shallow water table in lowland valleys and groundwater-surface water exchange from small headwater catchments to large floodplains. In this study, we assess groundwater's role in the Amazon surface water dynamics using a continental-scale coupled groundwater-surface water model (LEAF-Hydro-Flood) forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis, at 2km and 4min resolution over 11years (2000-2010). The simulation is validated with observed streamflow, water table depth and flooding extent. A parallel simulation without groundwater is conducted to isolate its effect. Our findings support the following hypotheses. First, in the headwater catchments, groundwater dominates streamflow; the observed variations in its dominance across the Amazon can be explained by the varying water table depth. Second, over large floodplains, there are two-way exchanges between floodwater and groundwater as infiltration in the wet season and seepage in the dry season, and the direction and magnitude are controlled by the water table depth. Third, the Amazon harbors large areas of wetlands that are rarely under floodwater and difficult to observe by remote sensing, but are maintained by a persistently shallow water table. Fourth, due to its delayed and muted response to rainfall, groundwater seepage persists in the dry season, buffering surface waters through seasonal droughts. Our simulations shed new lights on the spatial-temporal structures of the hidden subsurface hydrologic pathways across the Amazon and suggest possible mechanisms whereby groundwater actively participates in the Amazon water-carbon cycle such as CO2 outgassing from groundwater seeps and CH4 emission from groundwater-supported wetlands. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Handley S.M.,Rutgers University | Benton Jr. W.C.,Ohio State University
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2012

Service provider opportunism is widely noted as a principal risk with outsourcing. Indeed, economic theory regarding the factors which influence the outsourcing decision, treats opportunism as a core behavioral assumption. It is assumed that if given the opportunity, outsourcing providers will act in a self-serving manner despite the potentially negative impact it may have on their customer. Other researchers have suggested that opportunism is not an unwavering human behavior, but rather can be substantively influenced by the management practices which define the relationship. Building on these arguments, this study investigates the validity of these divergent positions. Hierarchical linear regression is used to examine dyadic data on 102 information technology, logistics, and other business process outsourcing relationships. We test a model which hypothesizes that the buying firm's reliance on different bases of inter-firm power will have differing effects on the risk of opportunism (shirking and poaching). These hypotheses are evaluated while concurrently examining the influence of exchange hazards (relationship-specific investments and technological uncertainty) on provider shirking and poaching. The results offer strong evidence that buyer reliance on mediated forms of power (i.e. rewards, coercive, legal legitimate) enhance the risk of both provider shirking and poaching, while non-mediated power (i.e. expert, referent) is associated with a diminished level of opportunistic behavior. Interestingly, relationship-specific investments have a significant effect on some forms of opportunistic behavior but not on other forms of opportunistic behavior. Technological uncertainty did not have a significant impact on provider opportunism. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Henderson G.C.,Rutgers University
Frontiers in Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Exercise training is generally a healthful activity and an effective intervention for reducing the risk of numerous chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This is likely both a result of prevention of weight gain over time and direct effects of exercise on metabolism of lipids and the other macronutrient classes. Importantly, a single bout of exercise can alter lipid metabolism and metabolic rate for hours and even into the day following exercise, so individuals who regularly exercise, even if not performed every single day, overall could experience a substantial change in their resting metabolism that would reduce risk for metabolic diseases. However, resting metabolism does not respond similarly in all individuals to exercise participation, and indeed gender or sex is a major determinant of the response of resting lipid metabolism to prior exercise. In order to fully appreciate the metabolic effects and health benefits of exercise, the differences between men and women must be considered. In this article, the differences in the effects of exercise on resting metabolic rate, fuel selection after exercise, as well as the shuttling of triglyceride and fatty acids between tissues are discussed. Furthermore, concepts related to sex differences in the precision of homeostatic control and sex differences in the integration of metabolism between various organs are considered. © 2014 Henderson.

Jantz R.C.,Rutgers University
Library and Information Science Research | Year: 2012

Through a series of structured interviews, university librarians at six institutions provided their perspectives on innovation in academic libraries. The literature on leadership styles and organizational change provides insight into the roles of these leaders in the innovation process. Leadership was cited by many researchers as being a critical factor for organizations to innovate. University librarians revealed a commitment to innovation, some distinctively nontraditional innovations, and a concern for how to encourage risk-taking behavior. Further insight into the innovation process was sought by interpreting the interview data within a larger theoretical context. Although leadership and management can foster innovation in a library, researchers have reported other factors that can influence the ability to innovate, including organizational aspects - size and complexity - and environmental factors. Beyond the organizational aspects, the individual and the norms of the profession appear to create a framework with certain boundaries, some of which may impact the ability to innovate. © 2011.

Tse D.N.C.,University of California at Berkeley | Yates R.D.,Rutgers University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2012

Despite considerable progress, the capacity region of fading broadcast channels with channel state known at the receivers but unknown at the transmitter remains unresolved. We address this subject by introducing a layered erasure broadcast channel model in which each component channel has a state that specifies the received signal levels in an instance of a deterministic binary expansion channel. We find the capacity region of this class of broadcast channels. The capacity achieving strategy assigns each signal level to the user that derives the maximum weighted expected rate. The outer bound is based on a channel enhancement that creates a degraded broadcast channel for which the capacity region is known. This same approach is then used to find inner and outer bounds to the capacity region of fading Gaussian broadcast channels. The achievability scheme employs a superposition of binary inputs. For intermittent additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels and for Rayleigh fading channels, the achievable rates are observed to be within 1-2 bits of the outer bound at high SNR. We also prove that the achievable rate region is within 6.386 bits/s/Hz of the capacity region for all fading AWGN broadcast channels. © 2012 IEEE.

Chhowalla M.,Rutgers University | Shin H.S.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Eda G.,National University of Singapore | Li L.-J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 2 more authors.
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2013

Ultrathin two-dimensional nanosheets of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are fundamentally and technologically intriguing. In contrast to the graphene sheet, they are chemically versatile. Mono- or few-layered TMDs-obtained either through exfoliation of bulk materials or bottom-up syntheses-are direct-gap semiconductors whose bandgap energy, as well as carrier type (n- or p-type), varies between compounds depending on their composition, structure and dimensionality. In this Review, we describe how the tunable electronic structure of TMDs makes them attractive for a variety of applications. They have been investigated as chemically active electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution and hydrosulfurization, as well as electrically active materials in opto-electronics. Their morphologies and properties are also useful for energy storage applications such as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

This article considers the continued relevance of law enforcement and social worker roles to probation officer practice, a central motif in community corrections scholarship. It also considers how these traditional functions are integrated into community-oriented supervision practices, increasingly emphasized in policy circles. Using Latent Class Analysis of data from a national community corrections survey, a four-class typology of probation officers was developed, based on their supervision practices. While classes vary according to the intensity of supervision, particularly in the engagement of third parties (family, community, and the police), there are no classes that correspond either to law enforcers or to social workers. Rather, officer classes are all “synthetic”—combining law enforcement and social work functions together in the same strategy. The analysis identifies a number of predictors of membership in more intensive supervision classes. These relate to ideological orientations, caseload characteristics, officer demographics, and agency progressiveness. © 2013, © 2013 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.

Jacob D.,Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics | Kotliar G.,Rutgers University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

We have studied the effect of dynamical correlations on the electronic structure of single Co adatoms on graphene monolayers with a recently developed method for nanoscopic materials that combines density-functional calculations with a fully dynamical treatment of the strongly interacting 3d electrons. The coupling of the Co3d shell to the graphene substrate and hence the dynamic correlations are strongly dependent on the orbital symmetry and the system parameters (temperature, distance of the adatom from the graphene sheet, and gate voltage). When the Kondo effect takes place, we find that the dynamical correlations give rise to strongly temperature-dependent peaks in the Co3d spectra near the Fermi level. Moreover, we find that the Kondo effect can be tuned by the application of a gate voltage. It turns out that the position of the Kondo peaks is pinned to the Dirac points of graphene rather than to the chemical potential. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Hupalo D.,Dartmouth College | Kern A.D.,Rutgers University
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Here, we describe the construction of a phylogenetically deep, whole-genome alignment of 20 flowering plants, along with an analysis of plant genome conservation. Each included angiosperm genome was aligned to a reference genome, Arabidopsis thaliana, using the LASTZ/MULTIZ paradigm and tools from the University of California-Santa Cruz Genome Browser source code. In addition to the multiple alignment, we created a local genome browser displaying multiple tracks of newly generated genome annotation, as well as annotation sourced from published data of other research groups. An investigation into A. thaliana gene features present in the aligned A. lyrata genome revealed better conservation of start codons, stop codons, and splice sites within our alignments (51% of features from A. thaliana conserved without interruption in A. lyrata) when compared with previous publicly available plant pairwise alignments (34% of features conserved). The detailed view of conservation across angiosperms revealed not only high coding-sequence conservation but also a large set of previously uncharacterized intergenic conservation. From this, we annotated the collection of conserved features, revealing dozens of putative noncoding RNAs, including some with recorded small RNA expression. Comparing conservation between kingdoms revealed a faster decay of vertebrate genome features when compared with angiosperm genomes. Finally, conserved sequences were searched for folding RNA features, including but not limited to noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes. Among these, we highlight a double hairpin in the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of the PRIN2 gene and a putative ncRNA with homology targeting the LAF3 protein. © 2013 The Author.

Dibernardo B.E.,Rutgers University
Aesthetic Surgery Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Cellulite is characterized by a thickened hypodermal fat layer, along with hypodermal fat lobules that extend upward into the dermis, expanding and stretching the fibrous septae that separate the fat lobules. Eventually, the septae sclerose, contract, and harden, holding the skin at an inflexible length while the surrounding tissue continues to expand. Objectives: The author evaluates the efficacy, safety, and duration of clinical benefit associated with a pulsed laser that delivers 1440-nm energy to the dermal-hypodermal interface for the treatment of cellulite. The changes in the dermal structure that affect the appearance of cellulite are also examined. Methods: Ten healthy women with cellulite on their thighs enrolled in a prospective Institutional Review Board-approved study conducted in the author's private plastic surgery clinic. Patients received a single treatment with a 1440-nm pulsed laser. Energy was delivered to the subdermal tissue through a fiber that was designed for side firing and enclosed in a cannula. Treatment addressed the thickened hypodermal fat layer, hypodermal fat lobules that extended upward into the dermis, and fibrous septae by thermal subcision. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47 years ± 5.4 years. Mean skin thickness (as shown by ultrasound) and skin elasticity were shown by objective measurements to increase significantly at one, three, six, and 12 months. Subjective physician and subject evaluations indicated improvement, high subject satisfaction, and minimal adverse effects. Conclusions: In this study, a single treatment with the 1440-nm pulsed laser improved the appearance of cellulite, an improvement that persisted through at least one year of follow-up with minimal adverse effects. Level of Evidence: 3 © 2011 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

Sellwood J.A.,Rutgers University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

The origin of spiral patterns in galaxies is still not fully understood. Similar features also develop readily in N-body simulations of isolated cool, collisionless disks, yet even here the mechanism has yet to be explained. In this series of papers, I present a detailed study of the origin of spiral activity in simulations in the hope that the mechanism that causes the patterns is also responsible for some of these features galaxies. In this first paper, I use a suite of highly idealized simulations of a linearly stable disk that employ increasing numbers of particles. While the amplitudes of initial non-axisymmetric features scale as the inverse square root of the number of particles employed, the final amplitude of the patterns is independent of the particle number. I find that the amplitudes of non-axisymmetric disturbances grow in two distinct phases: slow growth occurs when the relative overdensity is below 2%, but above this level the amplitude rises more rapidly. I show that all features, even of very low amplitude, scatter particles at the inner Lindblad resonance, changing the distribution of particles in the disk in such a way as to foster continued growth. Stronger scattering by larger amplitude waves provokes a vigorous instability that is a true linear mode of the modified disk. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Elzinga E.J.,Rutgers University | Kretzschmar R.,ETH Zurich
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2013

We used in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to study the impact of Cd(II) on the coordination of orthophosphate to the surface of hematite in the pH range 4.5-9.0, and at aqueous reactant concentrations below saturation with respect to Cd(II)-phosphate precipitates. In the absence of Cd(II), the orthophosphate surface speciation was pH dependent and dominated by two surface species assigned as monodentate monoprotonated complexes dominating at alkaline pH and additional formation of bidentate monoprotonated complexes at pH <8.0. Addition of aqueous Cd(II) raised the amount of orthophosphate adsorbed across the pH range, with promotive effects increasing with increasing pH. We observe the formation of two structurally distinct ternary Cd(II)-orthophosphate surface complexes which change proportion with pH. The IR spectra suggest stronger distortion of the orthophosphate tetrahedra involved in the ternary complexes formed at low pH relative to those formed at high pH, indicating differences in protonation state, surface coordination, and/or coordination to surface Cd(II) between the two ternary complexes. Over most of the pH range covered, the two ternary complexes are present simultaneously at the hematite surface, and co-exist with the two binary orthophosphate surface species, with the relative proportions of the various complexes varying with pH. The presence of Cd(II) thus not only raises the extent of orthophosphate adsorption but also the level of complexity of the orthophosphate surface speciation. These results imply that the simultaneous presence of divalent metals and orthophosphate significantly influences the solubility and speciation of these compounds in environmental settings even under conditions where precipitation of metal-phosphates does not occur. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Evans J.A.,Rutgers University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

Abstract: New physics signals containing five or more b-tagged jets, but without [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]T or leptons, could realistically be sitting within the current 8 TeV LHC data set without receiving meaningful constraints from any of the existing LHC searches at either ATLAS or CMS. This work provides several examples of simple, motivated models that yield final states containing many b-jets. To study the potential for uncovering new physics in these high b-jet multiplicity channels, this paper focuses on a natural supersymmetry scenario where each of the pair-produced stops decays to an on-shell chargino, which subsequently decays via an MFV-motivated, R-parity violating coupling. This gives rise to an eight-jet final state containing six b-quarks. Although no public measurements exist, estimates indicate that the standard model backgrounds in high b-jet multiplicity channels should be very small. To circumvent the background uncertainty, an asymmetric method is presented that utilizes two different techniques to conservatively exclude or to discover new physics in high b-jet multiplicity final states. © 2014, The Author(s).

Manning G.S.,Rutgers University
European Physical Journal E | Year: 2011

There is abundant experimental evidence suggesting the existence of attractive interactions among identically charged polyelectrolytes in ordinary salt solutions. The presence of multivalent counter-ions is not required. We review the relevant literature in detail and conclude that it merits more attention than it has received. We discuss also some recent observations of a low ionic strength attraction of negatively charged DNA to the region of a negatively charged glass nanoslit where the floor of the nanoslit meets the walls, again in the absence of multivalent ions. On the theoretical side, it has become clear that purely electrostatic interactions require the presence of multivalent counterions if they are to generate like-charge attraction. Any theory of like-charge attraction in the absence of multivalent counterions must therefore contain a non-electrostatic component. We point out that counterion condensation theory, which has predicted like-charge polyelectrolyte attraction in an intermediate range of distances in ordinary 1:1 salt conditions, contains both electrostatic and non-electrostatic elements. The non-electrostatic component of the theory is the modeling constraint that the counterions fall into two explicit populations, condensed and uncondensed. As reviewed in the paper, this physically motivated constraint is supported by strong experimental evidence. We proceed to offer an explanation of the nanoslit observations by showing in an idealized model that the line of intersection of two intersecting planes is a virtual polyelectrolyte. Since we have previously developed a counterion condensation theory of attraction of two like-charged polyelectrolytes, our suggestion is that the DNA is attracted to the virtual polyelectrolytes that may be located in the nanoslit where floor meets walls. We present the detailed calculations needed to document this suggestion: an extension of previous theory to the case of polyelectrolytes with like but not identical charges; the demonstration of counterion condensation on a plane with bare charge density greater than an explicitly exhibited critical value; a calculation of the free energy of the plane; a calculation of the interaction of a line charge polyelectrolyte with a like-charged plane; and the detailed demonstration that the line of intersection of two planes is a virtual polyelectrolyte. © EDP Sciences / Società Italiana di Fisica / Springer-Verlag 2011.

Pape H.-C.,Westfaelische Wilhelms University | Pare D.,Rutgers University
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2010

The last 10 years have witnessed a surge of interest for the mechanisms underlying the acquisition and extinction of classically conditioned fear responses. In part, this results from the realization that abnormalities in fear learning mechanisms likely participate in the development and/or maintenance of human anxiety disorders. The simplicity and robustness of this learning paradigm, coupled with the fact that the underlying circuitry is evolutionarily well conserved, make it an ideal model to study the basic biology of memory and identify genetic factors and neuronal systems that regulate the normal and pathological expressions of learned fear. Critical advances have been made in determining how modified neuronal functions upon fear acquisition become stabilized during fear memory consolidation and how these processes are controlled in the course of fear memory extinction. With these advances came the realization that activity in remote neuronal networks must be coordinated for these events to take place. In this paper, we review these mechanisms of coordinated network activity and the molecular cascades leading to enduring fear memory, and allowing for their extinction. We will focus on Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model and the amygdala as a key component for the acquisition and extinction of fear responses. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Rosen J.D.,Rutgers University
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2010

Health-conscious consumers have an interest in knowing if the extra money they spend on organic food is justified. The organic food industry, therefore, has a large financial interest in convincing the public that the food they sell is healthier, tastier, and better for the environment. One area that the industry has concentrated on is the supposed nutritional superiority of their product. The importance of this area to the organic food industry can be seen by the vehemence in which it has attacked and tried to discredit a recent, widely circulated report submitted to the British government that found no scientific evidence for claims that organic food is nutritionally superior to conventional food. Two nongovernment organizations, the Soil Assn. in the United Kingdom and the Organic Center in the United States have been heavily involved in the promotion of organic food. Both of these organizations exert a great deal of influence with the media, and hence with consumers, in both countries. An examination of some of their actions will be included in this article. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®.

Steinbrecher T.,Rutgers University | Labahn A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Cells contain a multitude of different chemical reaction paths running simultaneously and quite independently next to each other. This amazing feat is enabled by molecular recognition, the ability of biomolecules to form stable and specific complexes with each other and with their substrates. A better understanding of this process, i.e. of the kinetics, structures and thermodynamic properties of biomolecule binding, would be invaluable in the study of biological systems. In addition, as the mode of action of many pharmaceuticals is based upon their inhibition or activation of biomolecule targets, predictive models of small molecule receptor binding are very helpful tools in rational drug design. Since the goal here is normally to design a new compound with a high inhibition strength, one of the most important thermodynamic properties is the binding free energy ΔG0. The prediction of binding constants has always been one of the major goals in the field of computational chemistry, because the ability to reliably assess a hypothetical compound's binding properties without having to synthesize it first would save a tremendous amount of work. The different approaches to this question range from fast and simple empirical descriptor methods to elaborate simulation protocols aimed at putting the computation of free energies onto a solid foundation of statistical thermodynamics. While the later methods are still not suited for the screenings of thousands of compounds that are routinely performed in computational drug design studies, they are increasingly put to use for the detailed study of protein ligand interactions. This review will focus on molecular mechanics force field based free energy calculations and their application to the study of protein ligand interactions. After a brief overview of other popular methods for the calculation of free energies, we will describe recent advances in methodology and a variety of exemplary studies of molecular dynamics simulation based free energy calculations. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Handley S.M.,Rutgers University
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2012

The outsourcing of manufacturing activities and business processes has emerged as a prevalent business practice in many industries. Given this state, the lackluster performance of an alarmingly high proportion of outsourcing initiatives is somewhat surprising. In an effort to achieve aggressive cost savings objectives, many outsourcing engagements are associated with organizational resources being disposed of which can lead to a significant operational capability loss on the part of the outsourcing firm. Surprisingly little empirical research has dealt with the issues arising from this capability loss frequently associated with outsourcing. This study strives to address this void. Drawing on multiple theoretical perspectives, this study investigates the direct impact that capability loss has on outsourcing performance, and also the impact it has on the outsourcing firm's ability to effectively manage its relationship with the outsourcing provider. Results from our hierarchical regression analysis on 198 outsourcing initiatives suggest an inadequate capability evaluation up front can lead to a more substantive capability loss. Subsequently, we find that a more extensive capability loss has a direct negative effect on outsourcing performance. Prior studies have established the significant positive effect that developing a committed and cooperative relationship with the provider has on outsourcing performance. Our results corroborate these previous findings, and also demonstrate that capability loss inhibits the outsourcing firm's efforts to develop a committed and cooperative relationship with the outsourcing provider. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sellwood J.A.,Rutgers University
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2013

I use N-body simulations with two mass species of particles to demonstrate that disk galaxy simulations are subject to collisional relaxation at a higher rate than is widely assumed. Relaxation affects the vertical thickness of the disk most strongly, and drives the velocity ellipsoid to a moderately flattened shape similar to that observed for disk stars in the solar neighborhood. The velocity ellipsoid in simulations with small numbers of particles quickly approaches this shape, but shot noise also dominates the in-plane behavior. Simulations with higher, but reachable, numbers of particles relax slowly enough to be considered collisionless, allowing the in-plane dispersions to rise due to spiral activity without heating the vertical motions. Relaxation may have affected many previously published simulations of the formation and evolution of galaxy disks. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Protein function depends on both protein structure and amino acid (aa) sequence. Here we show that modular features of both structure and function can be quantified economically from the aa sequences alone for the small (40,42 aa) plaque-forming (aggregative) amyloid beta fragments. Some edge and center features of the fragments are predicted. Bioinformatic scales based on β strand formation propensities and the thermodynamically second order fractal hydropathicity scale based on evolutionary optimization (self-organized criticality) are contrasted with the standard first order physicochemical scale based on complete protein (water-air) unfolding. The results are consistent with previous studies of these physicochemical factors that show that aggregative properties, even of beta fragments, are driven primarily by near-equilibrium hydropathic forces. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Crane H.,Rutgers University
Journal of Statistical Physics | Year: 2013

We study both time-invariant and time-varying Gibbs distributions for configurations of particles into disjoint clusters. Specifically, we introduce and give some fundamental properties for a class of partition models, called permanental partition models, whose distributions are expressed in terms of the α-permanent of a similarity matrix parameter. We show that, in the time-invariant case, the permanental partition model is a refinement of the celebrated Pitman-Ewens distribution; whereas, in the time-varying case, the permanental model refines the Ewens cut-and-paste Markov chains (J. Appl. Probab. 43(3):778-791, 2011). By a special property of the α-permanent, the partition function can be computed exactly, allowing us to make several precise statements about this general model, including a characterization of exchangeable and consistent permanental models. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Based on an extended case study of a large-scale tomato farm in northern Limpopo province, the paper examines how the restructuring of agriculture transforms the sexual economy through shifts in the composition of labour and management practices on farms in this area. The employment of Zimbabwean migrants, rather than relatively permanent Venda families, suggests a potentially greater variety of people participating in the sexual economy. While families as units of employment have declined, black supervisors increasingly serve as a primary locus of coercion on the farm and in the sexual economy. The monetization of erstwhile paternalistic services places pressure on women to earn income however they can, including transactional sex. Contested interpretations over the causes of infant deaths on the farm, in the form of hygiene, blood-mixing and infanticide, provide an ethnographic framework for a deeper analysis of the sexual economy and its social effects. While the sexual economy presents opportunities for women to increase their income, it also exposes them to the risks of HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancies, resulting in contradictory implications for the status of women on farms. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Rudel T.K.,Rutgers University
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

For decades, the dynamics of tropical deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have defied easy explanation. The rates of deforestation have been lower than elsewhere in the tropics, and the driving forces evident in other places, government new land settlement schemes and industrialized agriculture, have largely been absent in SSA. The context and causes for African deforestation become clearer through an analysis of new, national-level data on forest cover change for SSA countries for the 2000-2005 period. The recent dynamic in SSA varies from dry to wet biomes. Deforestation occurred at faster rates in nations with predominantly dry forests. The wetter Congo basin countries had lower rates of deforestation, in part because tax receipts from oil and mineral industries in this region spurred rural to urban migration, declines in agriculture and increased imports of cereals from abroad. In this respect, the Congo basin countries may be experiencing an oil and mineral fuelled forest transition. Small farmers play a more important role in African deforestation than they do in southeast Asia and Latin America, in part because small-scale agriculture remains one of the few livelihoods open to rural peoples.

Chatterjee M.,Rutgers University
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2010

Megacities in developing countries are rapidly transforming places. Under the impetus of global change processes and consequent transformations at the environmental, social, cultural, political and economical scales; factors causing disasters and losses are changing every day. These changes are also altering society's ability to respond to hazard events. This paper examines the response of slum dwellers who are the most vulnerable and marginal section of urban population and often located in places with high hazard risk with less or no means to reduce the impact of flood events. Marginal population groups in megacities suffer the negative consequences of large scale global change processes and do not benefit from the risk mitigation strategies adopted by city authorities. The paper therefore argues that people living in informal settlements instead have to employ a combination of structural means and complex networks of assistance to recover from floods. Based on the results deduced from data collected with the help of household surveys in the slums of Mumbai, the study demonstrates the types of coping strategies used by slum dwellers and the changing characteristics of these mechanisms under the influence of global change processes in megacities. Furthermore, results show that capacity to respond is not equally distributed among slum dwellers due to underlying socio cultural divisions and emerging economic and political constraints. The paper concludes that to address existing discrepancies in urban societies and within slum settlements, flood mitigation strategies will have to be (1) more inclusive of marginal population (2) sensitive to the limitations and scope of old and new social structures and (3) incorporate innovative networks of support to deal with the consequences of global change. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

"Allied health" is a label used to describe part of the health workforce generally distinct from physicians, dentists, nurses, or pharmacists. However, the field lacks a single definition, and many disagree on which professions should be included under that rubric. Apart from challenges in developing an informative taxonomy, many allied health professions possess skill sets that may overlap with those of other professions. In addition, states have enacted scope-of-practice laws that may prevent allied health professionals from applying their skills in patient care. This article discusses how certain allied health professions are affected by varying scope-of-practice regulations. © 2013 Project HOPE - The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

Jan S.A.,Rutgers University
Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain increased 222% from 1992 to 2002. Opioid dependence has also increased significantly, leading to a burden on patients, employers, insurers, society, and the entire health care system. It is imperative that opioid dependence is addressed and treated properly, in order to return patients to being productive participants in the workplace and society. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of addiction, abuse, and dependence and identify risk factors for addiction. SUMMARY: Studies have shown that intensive use of opioids is associated with increased utilization of costly health care services, prolonged disability, and continued use of opioids, leading to abuse and dependence in many patients. While identifying patients at risk for developing opioid dependence is difficult, there are many risk stratification tools now available to practitioners, including the Opioid Risk Tool (ORT) or Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP). Understanding the differences between dependence, addiction, and tolerance is essential to managing patients on opioids. CONCLUSION: It is imperative that patients be properly managed when being treated for pain. Physicians and employers have to be able to identify patients at risk for opioid abuse or exhibiting symptoms of opioid abuse and know how to address their needs. Copyright © 2010, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. All rights reserved.

Xiao L.,Microsoft | Zhang T.,Rutgers University
SIAM Journal on Optimization | Year: 2013

We consider solving the ℓ1-regularized least-squares (ℓ1-LS) problem in the context of sparse recovery for applications such as compressed sensing. The standard proximal gradient method, also known as iterative soft-thresholding when applied to this problem, has low computational cost per iteration but a rather slow convergence rate. Nevertheless, when the solution is sparse, it often exhibits fast linear convergence in the final stage. We exploit the local linear convergence using a homotopy continuation strategy, i.e., we solve the ℓ1-LS problem for a sequence of decreasing values of the regularization parameter, and use an approximate solution at the end of each stage to warm start the next stage. Although similar strategies have been studied in the literature, there have been no theoretical analysis of their global iteration complexity. This paper shows that under suitable assumptions for sparse recovery, the proposed homotopy strategy ensures that all iterates along the homotopy solution path are sparse. Therefore the objective function is effectively strongly convex along the solution path, and geometric convergence at each stage can be established. As a result, the overall iteration complexity of our method is O(log(1/∈)) for finding an ∈-optimal solution, which can be interpreted as global geometric rate of convergence. We also present empirical results to support our theoretical analysis. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Salomon-Ferrer R.,University of California at San Diego | Case D.A.,Rutgers University | Walker R.C.,University of California at San Diego
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Molecular Science | Year: 2013

Molecular dynamics (MD) allows the study of biological and chemical systems at the atomistic level on timescales from femtoseconds to milliseconds. It complements experiment while also offering a way to follow processes difficult to discern with experimental techniques. Numerous software packages exist for conducting MD simulations of which one of the widest used is termed Amber. Here, we outline the most recent developments, since version 9 was released in April 2006, of the Amber and AmberTools MD software packages, referred to here as simply the Amber package. The latest release represents six years of continued development, since version 9, by multiple research groups and the culmination of over 33 years of work beginning with the first version in 1979. The latest release of the Amber package, version 12 released in April 2012, includes a substantial number of important developments in both the scientific and computer science arenas. We present here a condensed vision of what Amber currently supports and where things are likely to head over the coming years. Figure 1 shows the performance in ns/day of the Amber package version 12 on a single-core AMD FX-8120 8-Core 3.6GHz CPU, the Cray XT5 system, and a single GPU GTX680. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Etkina E.,Rutgers University
Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research | Year: 2010

This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge-PCK). The program has been in place for 7 years and has a steady production rate of an average of six teachers per year who remain in the profession. The main purpose of the paper is to provide information about a possible structure, organization, and individual elements of a program that prepares physics teachers. The philosophy of the program and the coursework can be implemented either in a physics department or in a school of education. The paper provides details about the program course work and teaching experiences and suggests ways to adapt it to other local conditions. ©2010 The American Physical Society.

Edery I.,Rutgers University | Edery I.,Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine
Genes and Development | Year: 2011

In this issue of Genes & Development, Abruzzi et al. (pp. 2374-2386) use chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) tiling array assays (ChIP-chip) to show that physical interactions between circadian (≅24-h) clock machineries and genomes are more widespread than previously thought and provide novel insights into how clocks drive daily rhythms in global gene expression. © 2011 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press ISSN 0890-9369/11.

Lenaerts A.,Colorado State University | Barry C.E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Dartois V.,Rutgers University
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2015

Tuberculosis (TB) lesions are extremely complex and dynamic. Here, we review the multiple types and fates of pulmonary lesions that form following infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the impact of this spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the bacteria they harbor. The diverse immunopathology of granulomas and cavities generates a plethora of microenvironments to which M. tuberculosis bacilli must adapt. This in turn affects the replication, metabolism, and relative density of bacterial subpopulations, and consequently their respective susceptibility to chemotherapy. We outline recent developments that support a paradigm shift in our understanding of lesion progression. The simple model according to which lesions within a single individual react similarly to the systemic immune response no longer prevails. Host-pathogen interactions within lesions are a dynamic process, driven by subtle and local differences in signaling pathways, resulting in diverging trajectories of lesions within a single host. The spectrum of TB lesions is a continuum with a large overlap in the lesion types found in latently infected and active TB patients. We hope this overview will guide TB researchers in the design, choice of read-outs, and interpretation of future studies in the search for predictive biomarkers and novel therapies. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Litvinov A.V.,Rutgers University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We consider a system of Integrals of Motion in conformal field theory related to the gl(2) Intermediate Long Wave equation. It interpolates between the system studied by Bazhanov, Lukyanov and Zamolodchikov and the one studied by the author and collaborators. We find Bethe anzatz equations for the spectrum of this system and its gl(n) generalizations. © SISSA 2013.

Sellwood J.A.,Rutgers University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2014

Disk galaxies evolve over time through processes that may rearrange both the radial mass profile and the metallicity distribution within the disk. This review of such slow changes is largely, though not entirely, restricted to internally driven processes that can be distinguished from evolution driven by galaxy interactions. It both describes our current understanding of disk evolution and identifies areas where more work is needed. Stellar disks are heated through spiral scattering, which increases random motion components in the plane, while molecular clouds redirect some fraction of the random energy into vertical motion. The recently discovered process of radial migration at the corotation resonance of a transient spiral mode does not alter the underlying structure of the disk, since it neither heats the disk nor causes it to spread, but it does have a profound effect on the expected distribution of metallicities among the disk stars. Bars in disks are believed to be major drivers of secular evolution through interactions with the outer disk and with the halo. Once the material that makes up galaxy disks is converted into stars, their overall angular momentum distribution cannot change by much, but that of the gas is generally far more liable to rearrangement, allowing rings and pseudobulges to form. While simulations are powerful tools from which we have learned a great deal, those of disks may suffer from collisional relaxation that requires some results to be interpreted with caution. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Mechanic D.,Rutgers University | Olfson M.,Columbia University
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2016

Provisions of the Affordable Care Act provide unprecedented opportunities for expanded access to behavioral health care and for redesigning the provision of services. Key to these reforms is establishing mental and substance abuse care as essential coverage, extending Medicaid eligibility and insurance parity, and protecting insurance coverage for persons with preexisting conditions and disabilities. Many provisions, including Accountable Care Organizations, health homes, and other structures, provide incentives for integrating primary care and behavioral health services and coordinating the range of services often required by persons with severe and persistent mental health conditions. Careful research and experience are required to establish the services most appropriate for primary care and effective linkage to specialty mental health services. Research providing guidance on present evidence and uncertainties is reviewed. Success in redesign will follow progress building on collaborative care and other evidence-based practices, reshaping professional incentives and practices, and reinvigorating the behavioral health workforce. Copyright ©2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Miller L.L.,Rutgers University
Theoretical Criminology | Year: 2013

Contemporary scholarship on punishment, politics and society generally treats democratic politics and crime policy as a dangerous mix. In this view, when crime comes onto democratic political agendas, it generates perverse political incentives that result in politicians pandering to and/or manipulating mass publics bent on harsh punishment. In this article, I argue that an examination of violent victimization complicates this conventional wisdom. Using violence as a framework, I challenge three fundamental assumptions about the relationship between democracy and crime. From there, I suggest how different democratic institutional arrangements might facilitate broader public participation in crime politics, and how that participation can lead to promoting less, rather than more punishment. © The Author(s) 2013.

Miller J.,Rutgers University | Maloney C.,Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania
Criminal Justice and Behavior | Year: 2013

This study examines practitioners' compliance and noncompliance with risk/needs assessment tools, using a national survey of frontline community corrections staff. Focusing on respondents required to complete tools and make decisions based on them, analysis showed that tools were mostly filled out when required, but decisions were not always based on the tool result. Latent class analysis suggests about half of the tool-using subgroup were "substantive" compliers who completed tools carefully and honestly and tended to use them for decision making. The remaining tool users were "formal" in their compliance: filling out the tools, but often making decisions that did not correspond with tool results, and in some cases even manipulating the information included in them. Multivariate analysis suggests that practitioners' belief in risk/needs tools, agency monitoring and training, perceptions of agency procedural justice, and agencies' projected confidence in their local risk/need tool may help explain patterns of compliance and noncompliance. © 2013 International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology.

Kim J.D.,Rutgers University
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

Oxidoreductases play a central role in catalysing enzymatic electron-transfer reactions across the tree of life. To first order, the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of these proteins are governed by protein folds associated with specific transition metals and ligands at the active site. A global analysis of holoenzyme structures and functions suggests that there are fewer than approximately 500 fundamental oxidoreductases, which can be further clustered into 35 unique groups. These catalysts evolved in prokaryotes early in the Earth's history and are largely responsible for the emergence of non-equilibrium biogeochemical cycles on the planet's surface. Although the evolutionary history of the amino acid sequences in the oxidoreductases is very difficult to reconstruct due to gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer, the evolution of the folds in the catalytic sites can potentially be used to infer the history of these enzymes. Using a novel, yet simple analysis of the secondary structures associated with the ligands in oxidoreductases, we developed a structural phylogeny of these enzymes. The results of this 'composome' analysis suggest an early split from a basal set of a small group of proteins dominated by loop structures into two families of oxidoreductases, one dominated by α-helices and the second by β-sheets. The structural evolutionary patterns in both clades trace redox gradients and increased hydrogen bond energy in the active sites. The overall pattern suggests that the evolution of the oxidoreductases led to decreased entropy in the transition metal folds over approximately 2.5 billion years, allowing the enzymes to use increasingly oxidized substrates with high specificity.

Reinfelder J.R.,Rutgers University
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2011

The accumulation of inorganic carbon from seawater by eukaryotic marine phytoplankton is limited by the diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO 2) in water and the dehydration kinetics of bicarbonate to CO 2 and by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase's (RubisCO) low affinity for its inorganic carbon substrate, CO 2. Nearly all marine phytoplankton have adapted to these limitations and evolved inorganic carbon (or CO 2) concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to support photosynthetic carbon fixation at the concentrations of CO 2 present in ocean surface waters (<10-30 μM). The biophysics and biochemistry of CCMs vary within and among the three dominant groups of eukaryotic marine phytoplankton and may involve the activity of external or intracellular carbonic anhydrase, HCO 3 - transport, and perhaps a C 4 carbon pump. In general, coccolithophores have low-efficiency CCMs, and diatoms and the haptophyte genus Phaeocystis have high-efficiency CCMs. Dinoflagellates appear to possess moderately efficient CCMs, which may be necessitated by the very low CO 2 affinity of their form II RubisCO. The energetic and nutrient costs of CCMs may modulate how variable CO 2 affects primary production, element composition, and species composition of phytoplankton in the ocean. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Klaassen C.D.,University of Kansas Medical Center | Aleksunes L.M.,University of Kansas Medical Center | Aleksunes L.M.,Rutgers University
Pharmacological Reviews | Year: 2010

Transporters influence the disposition of chemicals within the body by participating in absorption, distribution, and elimination. Transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC) comprise a variety of proteins, including organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 to 3, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTN) 1 to 3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1 to 7, various organic anion transporting polypeptide isoforms, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, peptide transporters (PEPT) 1 and 2, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 1 to 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to 3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters (MATE) 1 and 2, which mediate the uptake (except MATEs) of organic anions and cations as well as peptides and nucleosides. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), multidrug resistance proteins (MDR) 1 and 2, bile salt export pump, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 1 to 9, breast cancer resistance protein, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G members 5 and 8, are responsible for the unidirectional export of endogenous and exogenous substances. Other efflux transporters [ATPase copper-transporting β polypeptide (ATP7B) and ATPase class I type 8B member 1 (ATP8B1) as well as organic solute transporters (OST) α and β] also play major roles in the transport of some endogenous chemicals across biological membranes. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of these transporters (both rodent and human) with regard to tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and substrate preferences. Because uptake and efflux transporters are expressed in multiple cell types, the roles of transporters in a variety of tissues, including the liver, kidneys, intestine, brain, heart, placenta, mammary glands, immune cells, and testes are discussed. Attention is also placed upon a variety of regulatory factors that influence transporter expression and function, including transcriptional activation and post-translational modifications as well as subcellular trafficking. Sex differences, ontogeny, and pharmacological and toxicological regulation of transporters are also addressed. Transporters are important transmembrane proteins that mediate the cellular entry and exit of a wide range of substrates throughout the body and thereby play important roles in human physiology, pharmacology, pathology, and toxicology. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Miller J.,Rutgers University
British Journal of Criminology | Year: 2010

In 1999, the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry heavily criticized ethnic disparities in stop and search ('disproportionality'), triggering a national reform effort to make the tactic fairer and more effective. Analyses of searches under core powers using up to 12 years of annual data from 38 police force areas in England indicate that aggregate disparities showed no improvement following the reforms. However, this overall finding is heavily influenced by London and, to a lesser extent, Greater Manchester and West Midlands, which are out of step with most of the rest of the country. The average force showed reductions in disproportionality associated with the reforms, although did not see improvements in arrest rates of searches. Theoretical implications of the results are discussed. The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (ISTD). All rights reserved.2010 © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (ISTD). All rights reserved.

Donnelly R.P.,Therapeutic Proteins | Kotenko S.V.,Rutgers University
Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research | Year: 2010

The discovery and initial description of the interferon-λ (IFN-λ) family in early 2003 opened an exciting new chapter in the field of IFN research. There are 3 IFN-λ genes that encode 3 distinct but highly related proteins denoted IFN-λ1, -λ2, and -λ3. These proteins are also known as interleukin-29 (IL-29), IL-28A, and IL-28B, respectively. Collectively, these 3 cytokines comprise the type III subset of IFNs. They are distinct from both type I and type II IFNs for a number of reasons, including the fact that they signal through a heterodimeric receptor complex that is different from the receptors used by type I or type II IFNs. Although type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) and type III IFNs (IFN-λ) signal via distinct receptor complexes, they activate the same intracellular signaling pathway and many of the same biological activities, including antiviral activity, in a wide variety of target cells. Consistent with their antiviral activity, expression of the IFN-λ genes and their corresponding proteins is inducible by infection with many types of viruses. Therefore, expression of the type III IFNs (IFN-λs) and their primary biological activity are very similar to the type I IFNs. However, unlike IFN-α receptors which are broadly expressed on most cell types, including leukocytes, IFN-λ receptors are largely restricted to cells of epithelial origin. The potential clinical importance of IFN-λ as a novel antiviral therapeutic agent is already apparent. In addition, preclinical studies by several groups indicate that IFN-λ may also be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for other clinical indications, including certain types of cancer. Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Weis J.S.,Rutgers University
Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology | Year: 2010

Many crustaceans have been moved to new locations where they have caused ecological or economic problems, that is, have become invasive. This article focuses on the role of animal behavior in contributing to their success. Certain behaviors are particularly relevant, including (1) feeding: outcompeting native species for food or eating native species of concern; (2) predator avoidance: the invader may be more successful at avoiding predators than native species; (3) habitat: invasive species may displace natives from their habitat or may alter the environment; (4) aggressive behavior: may contribute to (1) or (3) above; (5) movements: if the invader undergoes extensive migrations, it can spread more rapidly; (6) plasticity: (learning) if the invader is "smarter" than native species, it may be more likely to outcompete them for habitat and/or food; and (7) reproduction (though not strictly reproductive behavior per se). These behaviors are discussed with respect to invasive crustaceans, including freshwater and marine examples. copy; 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Eda G.,Imperial College London | Chhowalla M.,Rutgers University
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

Graphene oxide (GO) holds tremendous potential for large-area electronics, high strength and conducting fillers in composites, and high-surface-area electrodes for energy storage. Graphene oxide for such applications will require manufacturing methods that are industrially compatible but also preserve its unique properties. Recent work by Korkut et al.describes a promising new scheme for continuous processing of colloidal suspension of GO into tapes that are meters long and tens of micrometers thick. Tapes of restacked graphene sheets exhibit graphite-like mechanical robustness and electrical conductivity but retain the high surface area and flexibility of graphene. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Von Hippel W.,University of Queensland | Trivers R.,Rutgers University
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2011

In this article we argue that self-deception evolved to facilitate interpersonal deception by allowing people to avoid the cues to conscious deception that might reveal deceptive intent. Self-deception has two additional advantages: It eliminates the costly cognitive load that is typically associated with deceiving, and it can minimize retribution if the deception is discovered. Beyond its role in specific acts of deception, self-deceptive self-enhancement also allows people to display more confidence than is warranted, which has a host of social advantages. The question then arises of how the self can be both deceiver and deceived. We propose that this is achieved through dissociations of mental processes, including conscious versus unconscious memories, conscious versus unconscious attitudes, and automatic versus controlled processes. Given the variety of methods for deceiving others, it should come as no surprise that self-deception manifests itself in a number of different psychological processes, and we discuss various types of self-deception. We then discuss the interpersonal versus intrapersonal nature of self-deception before considering the levels of consciousness at which the self can be deceived. Finally, we contrast our evolutionary approach to self-deception with current theories and debates in psychology and consider some of the costs associated with self-deception. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Apel R.,Rutgers University
Journal of Quantitative Criminology | Year: 2013

Objectives: A survey of empirical research concerning the determinants of an individual's perceptions of the risk of formal sanctions as a consequence of criminal behavior. The specific questions considered are: (1) How accurate is people's knowledge about criminal sanctions? (2) How do people acquire and modify their subjective probabilities of punishment risk? (3) How do individuals act on their risk perceptions in specific criminal contexts?Methods: Three broad classes of extant studies are reviewed. The first is the relationship between objective sanctions, sanction enforcement, and risk perceptions-research that includes calibration studies and correlational studies. The second is the relationship between punishment experiences (personal and vicarious) and change in risk perceptions, in particular, research that relies on formal models of Bayesian learning. The third is the responsiveness of would-be offenders to immediate environmental cues-a varied empirical tradition that encompasses vignette research, offender interviews, process tracing, and laboratory studies. Results: First, research concerning the accuracy of risk perceptions suggests that the average citizen does a reasonable job of knowing what criminal penalties are statutorily allowed, but does a quite poor job of estimating the probability and magnitude of the penalties. On the other hand, studies which inquire about more common offenses (alcohol and marijuana use) from more crime-prone populations (young people, offenders) reveal that perceptions are consistently better calibrated to actual punishments. Second, research on perceptual updating indicates that personal experiences and, to a lesser degree, vicarious experiences with crime and punishment are salient determinants of changes in risk perceptions. Specifically, individuals who commit crime and successfully avoid arrest tend to lower their subjective probability of apprehension. Third, research on the situational context of crime decision making reveals that risk perceptions are highly malleable to proximal influences which include, but are not limited to, objective sanction risk. Situational risk perceptions appear to be particularly strongly influenced by substance use, peer presence, and arousal level. Conclusions: The perceptual deterrence tradition is theoretically rich, and has been renewed in the last decade by creative empirical tests from a variety of social scientific disciplines. Many knowledge gaps and limitations remain, and ensuing research should assign high priority to such considerations as sampling strategies and the measurement of risk perceptions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Fan Y.,Rutgers University | Miguez-Macho G.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2011

Wetlands are ecosystems of important functions in the earth's climate system. Through relatively high evapotranspiration, they affect surface water and energy exchange with the atmosphere directly influencing the physical climate. Through CH4, CO2 and N2O fluxes, they regulate the biogeochemical cycles, indirectly influencing the physical climate. However, current models do not explicitly include the water table, present under all large and stable wetlands; model wetlands are identified as flat land with wet soil resulting from precipitation events. That is, the wetlands are only 'wetted' from above but not from below by the high water table. Furthermore, without the knowledge of the water table position, estimates of CH4 and other gases (e.g., CO2 and N2O) are poorly constrained. We present a simple hydrologic framework for simulating wetlands based on water table depth. A synthesis of hydrologic controls on wetlands highlights the key role that groundwater plays. It directly feeds wetlands, supports surface-water fed wetlands by maintaining a saturated substrate, and links land drainage to sea level by impeding drainage in lowlands. Forced by routine climate model output (precipitation-evapotranspiration-surface runoff), land topography, and sea level, we simulate the present-day water table in North America at the 1 km scale. We validate the simulation with water table observations and compare regions of shallow water table to mapped wetlands. Our results show that the framework captures the salient features of wetland distribution and extent at regional and continental scales, a direct result of large-scale groundwater convergence that nourishes the lowlands even in arid climates. The low requirement of forcing and computation make the framework easy to adopt in climate and earth system models for simulating wetland responses to climate and sea level change for the present, paleo reconstructions, and future projections. © 2010 The Author(s).

Ostermann M.,Rutgers University
Crime and Delinquency | Year: 2013

Studies that compare recidivism rates between parolees and unconditionally released inmates typically attach these statuses upon release, and then follow these groups until they either fail or meet the censor date. However, this method of identifying former inmates as parolees does not comport with how parolees are conceptualized by the agencies that supervise them. Parole boards identify parolees as released inmates whom they actively supervise. This study explores the relative impact of this strategy of attaching the parole status compared with the traditional strategy used throughout the recidivism literature. I use 3 years of postrelease data from all prisoners released from 2005 to 2007 in a highly populated state on the East Coast (N = 29,299). My findings indicate that after 3 years, parolees are predicted to recidivate at a 1% lower rate compared with unconditionally released inmates when the time of active supervision is not considered. However, parolees who are assigned supervision terms of at least 3 years evidence a predicted 8% lower recidivism rate when compared with unconditionally released inmates. These findings demonstrate that parole boards can be successful at isolating those under their active supervision from reengaging in criminal activities when compared with those who are not supervised post-release, but that parole does not have long-lasting rehabilitative effects. This lack of long-term impact is likely associated with a parole board's focus on offenses that occur solely during the course of active supervision that may create incentive to manage cases in such a way that undermines the pursuit of long-term rehabilitative goals in favor of working toward short-term successful discharges. © The Author(s) 2013.

Swarbrick M.A.,Rutgers University
Psychiatric Services | Year: 2013

People with lived experience ofmental illness have become leaders of an influential movement to help the mental health system embrace the notion of whole health and wellness in the areas of advocacy, policy, and care delivery.Wellnessoriented peer approaches delivered by peer-support whole-health specialists and wellness coaches can play an important role in integrated care models. This column examines the wellness definitions and peermodels and some specific benefits and tensions between the peer-oriented wellness approach and the medical model. These models can work in unison to improve health and wellness among people with mental and substance use disorders.

Piccoli B.,Rutgers University | Tosin A.,CNR Institute for applied mathematics Mauro Picone
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis | Year: 2011

This paper introduces a new model of pedestrian flow, formulated within a measure-theoretic framework. It consists of a macroscopic representation of the system via a family of measures which, pushed forward by some flow maps, provide an estimate of the space occupancy by pedestrians at successive times. From the modeling point of view, this setting is particularly suitable for treating nonlocal interactions among pedestrians, obstacles, and wall boundary conditions. In addition, the analysis and numerical approximation of the resulting mathematical structures, which are the principal objectives of this work, follow more easily than for models based on standard hyperbolic conservation laws. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Woronowicz K.,Rutgers University
Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2010

Although the primary photochemical events in the facultative photoheterotrophic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides are now well understood, comparatively little is known about how their photosynthetic apparatus is assembled. Here we present a proteomic analysis of the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) assembly process during adaptation to lowered light intensity, in which the size of the photosynthetic units is greatly expanded by addition of the light-harvesting 2 (LH2) peripheral antenna complex. When the isolated ICM-derived chromatophore vesicles were subjected to clear native gel electrophoresis (CNE), four pigmented bands appeared; the top and bottom bands contained the reaction center - light-harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complex and LH2 peripheral antenna, respectively, while the two bands of intermediate migration contained associations of the LH2 and core complexes. Proteomic analysis revealed a large array of other proteins associated with the CNE gel bands - in particular, several F(1)F(O)-ATP synthase subunits gave unexpectedly high spectral counts, given the inability to detect this coupling factor, as well as the more abundant cytochrome bc (1) complex, by atomic force microscopy. Significant levels of general membrane assembly factors were also found, as well as numerous proteins of unknown function including high counts for RSP6124 that were correlated with LH2 levels. When combined with further AFM and spectroscopic studies, these proteomic approaches are expected to provide a much-improved understanding of the overall assembly process.

Marzari N.,Theory and Simulation of Materials THEOS | Mostofi A.A.,Imperial College London | Yates J.R.,University of Oxford | Souza I.,University of the Basque Country | And 2 more authors.
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2012

The electronic ground state of a periodic system is usually described in terms of extended Bloch orbitals, but an alternative representation in terms of localized "Wannier functions" was introduced by Gregory Wannier in 1937. The connection between the Bloch and Wannier representations is realized by families of transformations in a continuous space of unitary matrices, carrying a large degree of arbitrariness. Since 1997, methods have been developed that allow one to iteratively transform the extended Bloch orbitals of a first-principles calculation into a unique set of maximally localized Wannier functions, accomplishing the solid-state equivalent of constructing localized molecular orbitals, or "Boys orbitals" as previously known from the chemistry literature. These developments are reviewed here, and a survey of the applications of these methods is presented. This latter includes a description of their use in analyzing the nature of chemical bonding, or as a local probe of phenomena related to electric polarization and orbital magnetization. Wannier interpolation schemes are also reviewed, by which quantities computed on a coarse reciprocal-space mesh can be used to interpolate onto much finer meshes at low cost, and applications in which Wannier functions are used as efficient basis functions are discussed. Finally the construction and use of Wannier functions outside the context of electronic-structure theory is presented, for cases that include phonon excitations, photonic crystals, and cold-atom optical lattices. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Hirschfield P.J.,Rutgers University | Piquero A.R.,Florida State University
Criminology | Year: 2010

Successful community reentry and the criminological impact of incarceration may depend in part on the attitudes (and consequent reactions) that prisoners encounter after release. Theories of social stigma suggest that such attitudes depend, in turn, on the levels of familiarity with the stigmatized group (the normalization thesis) as well as on the credibility and trust they accord to sanctioning agents (the legitimation thesis). To assess these two hypotheses, we present the first multivariate analysis of public attitudes toward ex-offenders. Data from a four-state, random-digit telephone survey of more than 2,000 individuals indicate that, net of controls, personal familiarity with ex-offenders may soften attitudes, whereas confidence in the courts may harden them. As expected, non-Hispanic Whites, conservatives, and southern residents hold more negative views of ex-offenders. Our findings lend indirect support to concerns that incarceration is becoming " normalized" , and we suggest strategies for reducing the stigma of incarceration. © 2010 American Society of Criminology.

Altan-Bonnet N.,Rutgers University | Balla T.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2012

Several RNA viruses have recently been shown to hijack members of the host phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4-kinase (PI4K) family of enzymes. They use PI4K to generate membranes enriched in phosphatidylinositide 4-phosphate (PtdIns4. P or PI4P) lipids, which can be used as replication platforms. Viral replication machinery is assembled on these platforms as a supramolecular complex and PtdIns4. P lipids regulate viral RNA synthesis. This article highlights these recent studies on the regulation of viral RNA synthesis by PtdIns4. P lipids. It explores the potential mechanisms by which PtdIns4. P lipids can contribute to viral replication and discusses the therapeutic potential of developing antiviral molecules that target host PI4Ks as a form of panviral therapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Birkenholtz T.,Rutgers University
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2013

Despite decades of water-supply development programs in the Global South, their effect on gendered access to water remains both unclear and contradictory. This paper addresses this lacuna by examining the expansion of a rural water-supply network aimed at reducing household water scarcity in the arid zone of Rajasthan, India. Specifically, the Indira Gandhi Canal was conceived and constructed during the green revolution to 'green the Thar Desert'. But now, through a complex network of reservoirs, treatment facilities, distribution centers, and supply pipelines, it connects much of rural and urban western Rajasthan to a drinking water-supply network. The paper examines the interaction of water-supply technologies, social power relations and dynamic socioecological change operating within these development processes. To do so it draws on household surveys, interviews with water users and government engineers, and participant observation with women and children water collectors. The paper finds that this ongoing water development project rendered the water provision landscape technical on the surface, but that uneven flows of water between villages and people reveal a more complex water provision landscape. The expansion of the network based on a technical reimagining of water supply has resulted in intervillage scarcity, intragender differential access, usurious private water markets, the abandonment and then the proposed rehabilitation of traditional water bodies, and urban water logging. In the conclusion I argue for a rethinking of water-supply development programs through a political ecology approach that focuses on the emergent capacities of water-supply technologies to redirect existing socioecological associations in unanticipated ways. Looking at the relationship between nature-society and technology may illuminate the possible ruptures in these associations and the ways that they may be rearticulated to produce less differentiating modes of accessing water. © 2013 Pion and its Licensors.

White E.,Cancer Institute of New Jersey | White E.,Johnson University | White E.,Rutgers University
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2012

Autophagy (also known as macroautophagy) captures intracellular components in autophagosomes and delivers them to lysosomes, where they are degraded and recycled. Autophagy can have two functions in cancer. It can be tumour suppressive through the elimination of oncogenic protein substrates, toxic unfolded proteins and damaged organelles. Alternatively, it can be tumour promoting in established cancers through autophagy-mediated intracellular recycling that provides substrates for metabolism and that maintains the functional pool of mitochondria. Therefore, defining the context-specific role for autophagy in cancer and the mechanisms involved will be important to guide autophagy-based therapeutic intervention. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Just M.L.,Rutgers University
Journal of the Medical Library Association | Year: 2012

Objectives: This literature review examines the effectiveness of literature searching skills instruction for medical students or residents, as determined in studies that either measure learning before and after an intervention or compare test and control groups. The review reports on the instruments used to measure learning and on their reliability and validity, where available. Finally, a summary of learning outcomes is presented. Methods: Fifteen studies published between 1998 and 2011 were identified for inclusion in the review. The selected studies all include a description of the intervention, a summary of the test used to measure learning, and the results of the measurement. Results: Instruction generally resulted in improvement in clinical question writing, search strategy construction, article selection, and resource usage. Conclusion: Although the findings of most of the studies indicate that the current instructional methods are effective, the study designs are generally weak, there is little evidence that learning persists over time, and few validated methods of skill measurement have been developed.

Ghertner D.A.,Rutgers University
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2014

This paper uses an analysis of key dynamics of sociospatial change in Indian cities to offer a sympathetic critique of recent efforts to extend gentrification theory into the Global South. Despite the postcolonial overtures of this new, Southern gentrification literature, the paper argues that the global search for gentrification risks following a diffusionist logic that either presumes a Euro-American template, or else so sheers gentrification of its analytical specificity that it loses both its explanatory power and its political potency. The paper shows that gentrification theory operates on four implicit presumptions, which fail to characterize the primary dynamics of urban change in India. These include: (1) the presumption that lower-class displacement is driven by a reinvestment of capital into disinvested spaces; (2) a property centrism; (3) an agnosticism on the question of extraeconomic force; and (4) the presumption that land from which lower classes are displaced finds a 'higher and better use'. A priori commitment to the gentrification analytic thus overlooks key features of urban change in contexts, like India, with property, planning, and legal systems different from the postindustrial geographies from which gentrification theory developed. The paper suggests that 'urban revolution', 'enclosures', and 'accumulation by dispossession', while equally abstract terms, more clearly allow for the comparative analysis of displacement. © 2014 Pion and its Licensors.

Horwitz A.V.,Rutgers University
Milbank Quarterly | Year: 2010

Context: During the 1950s and 1960s, anxiety was the emblematic mental health problem in the United States, and depression was considered to be a rare condition. One of the most puzzling phenomena regarding mental health treatment, research, and policy is why depression has become the central component of the stress tradition since then. Methods: This article reviews statistical trends in diagnosis, treatment, drug prescriptions, and textual readings of diagnostic criteria and secondary literature. Findings: The association of anxiety with diffuse and amorphous conceptions of "stress" and "neuroses" became incompatible with professional norms demanding diagnostic specificity. At the same time, the contrasting nosologies of anxiety and depression in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) extended major depressive disorder to encompass far more patients than any particular anxiety disorder. In addition, antidepressant drugs were not associated with the stigma and alleged side effects of the anxiolytic drugs. Conclusion: Various factors combined between the 1970s and the 1990s to transform conditions that had been viewed as "anxiety" into "depression." New interests in the twenty-first century, however, might lead to the reemergence of anxiety as the signature mental health problem of American society. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

Lobue V.,Rutgers University
Child Development Perspectives | Year: 2013

Fear is one of our most salient emotions, and one that is shared among humans and nonhumans alike. Traditional and modern views of how we acquire fear suggest that it is learned through conditioning or observation. However, an interesting aspect of human fears is that they are not all created equal-some fears are more likely to be experienced than others. In this article, I discuss some recent developmental research that sheds new light on why we are more likely to experience certain fears over others, and how attention and learning might work together to produce some of our most common fears and anxieties. © 2012 The Author. Child Development Perspectives © 2012 The Society for Research in Child Development.

Between 1930 and 2010 the share of single-person, or solo, households in the US increased from 6 per cent to almost 28 per cent, whereas the share of married-couple households decreased from 79 per cent to 49 per cent. Yet solo households have received little attention in urban planning and transport research. Given the significant increase of solo households in US cities, this study identifies the distinctive dwelling, moving and travel characteristics of the American solo households, and examines the reasons for their attraction to cities. It uses historical data from census Public Use Microdata Samples and recent national data from the American Housing Survey and the National Household Travel Survey. Descriptive statistics, basic statistical tests, binary logit models and Heckman sample selection models are used to examine various relationships. Some of the transport-related and environmental implications of the findings are discussed. © 2013 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

Vakifahmetoglu C.,Rutgers University
Advances in Applied Ceramics | Year: 2011

This paper reviews different methodologies for the fabrication of various ceramic one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (nanotubes/fibres/wires/belts, etc.) produced by using preceramic polymers. Diverse processing approaches together with a wide range of precursor types enable the fabrication of 1D nanostructures with varied morphology, composition, purity as well as yield. The strategies used are based on three different methods; starting with the utilisation of decomposition gases which are released upon pyrolysing the preceramic polymer precursors at high temperatures, with the absence or presence of a catalytic metal source. The second is the template modulated synthesis routes (i.e. infiltration of the polymeric precursor melt or solution inside a template porosity, polymer to ceramic conversion followed by the removal of the template), and the last strategy discussed is electrospinning. © 2011 Institute of Materials.

Phillips J.C.,Rutgers University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2013

We focus here on the scaling properties of small interspecies differences between red cone opsin transmembrane proteins, using a hydropathic elastic roughening tool previously applied to the rhodopsin rod transmembrane proteins. This tool is based on a non-Euclidean hydropathic metric realistically rooted in the atomic coordinates of 5526 protein segments, which thereby encapsulates universal non-Euclidean long-range differential geometrical features of water films enveloping globular proteins in the Protein Data Bank. Whereas the rhodopsin blue rod water films are smoothest in humans, the red cone opsins' water films are optimized for smoothness in cats and elephants, consistent with protein species landscapes that evolve differently in different contexts. We also analyze red cone opsins in the chromatophore-containing family of chameleons, snakes, zebrafish and goldfish, where short- and long-range (BLAST and hydropathic) amino acid (aa) correlations are found with values as large as 97%-99%. We use hydropathic aa optimization to estimate the maximum number Nmax of color shades that the human eye can discriminate, and obtain 10 6< Nmax<10 7, in good agreement with experiment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Shwom R.L.,Rutgers University
Environmental Politics | Year: 2011

Treadmill of production (TOP) theory and ecological modernization theory (EMT) are adapted to a middle-range theorization of energy politics, specifying the conditions that each theory would best apply to struggles over the energy system. It is hypothesized that EMT will prevail when there are high levels of public awareness of an issue, a record of past regulation, a threat of future regulation, and disunity of the business class; and that TOP power relations are more likely to prevail are low public consciousness, absence of past regulation, low threat of future regulation, and high levels of business unity. The usefulness of this contextualized approach is explored using a historical qualitative case study of the struggle in the United States to implement national mandatory and voluntary definitions of energy efficiency for home appliances. The implications of the findings are discussed in light of efforts to transform energy systems. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Reinfelder J.R.,Rutgers University
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2012

The concentration of carbon dioxide in seawater may affect phytoplankton physiology and ecology and their role in marine biogeochemical cycles. In order to assess the effects of CO 2 on the elemental composition of marine phytoplankon, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus quotas were measured in 4 species of marine phytoplankton acclimated to 150 to 1500 ppm CO 2 (5 to 50 μM) in semi-continuous cultures. Nitrogen quotas declined steeply with increasing CO 2 in the centric diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and T. weissflogii acclimated to 150 to 380 ppm (5 to 13 μM), but more slowly as the CO 2 increased from 380 to 1500 ppm (13 to 50 μM). Nitrogen demand varied little with CO 2 in the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, but was positively correlated with CO 2 over the range of 150 to 770 ppm in the prymnesiophyte Isochrysis galbana. Based on the nitrogen-CO 2 trends in centric diatoms, relief from carbon-nitrogen colimitation could lead to 2-fold larger cells as CO 2 increases from 150 to 380 ppm, but only 15% larger cells from 380 to 770 ppm CO 2. Phosphorus quotas in the 3 diatoms decreased as CO 2 increased from 150 to 380 ppm. As previously observed in these and other species, C:N, C:P, and N:P ratios increased with increasing CO 2, but the present results show that much of this variation was due to differences in nitrogen and phosphorus rather than carbon quotas. Marine phyto - plankton could provide a negative feedback against increasing CO 2 over the pCO 2 range of 150 to 380 ppm by supporting larger cells or higher biomass, but would support a smaller carbon sink as atmospheric CO 2 rises above 380 ppm. © Inter-Research 2012.

Marmorstein N.R.,Rutgers University
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2011

The goal of this study was to examine whether certain subtypes of major depressive episodes (MDEs)-defined by their particular constellations of symptoms-were more strongly associated with substance use disorders (SUDs), compared to other subtypes of MDEs. Participants were adults in the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample who met DSM criteria for at least one lifetime MDE (n = 1829). Diagnostic assessments were conducted using structured interviews. The following MDE subtypes were examined: atypical, psychomotor agitation, psychomotor retardation, melancholic, and suicidal. The results indicated that: (1) suicidal MDEs were associated with increased risk for all SUDs; (2) melancholic MDEs were associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorders; and (3) psychomotor agitation was associated with increased risk for alcohol dependence. These associations did not differ significantly by gender. Adjusting for age, the severity of the MDE, the age of onset of the first MDE, and psychiatric comorbidity did not substantially change the results. Supplemental analyses examining only diagnoses that occurred in the year prior to the assessment demonstrated a similar pattern (with MDEs characterized by psychomotor agitation being associated with drug use disorders as well). Exploratory order of onset analyses indicated that participants with lifetime MDEs and SUDs tended to report an MDE onset prior to the SUD onset, and those who experienced a suicidal MDE at some time in their lives were particularly likely to have had their first MDE prior to developing a SUD. Therefore, risk for lifetime SUDs differs according to the particular set of symptoms experienced during MDEs. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Scherrer K.,Rutgers University
Clinical Social Work Journal | Year: 2013

Working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals requires clinical social workers to demonstrate cultural competency with these populations. Although there are many common issues across these identities, bisexual individuals experience unique challenges that differ from lesbian and gay individuals. Bisexuality is sometimes misunderstood by heterosexual as well as lesbian and gay individuals, leading to experiences of marginalization from multiple sources. Moreover, clinical social workers may incorrectly assume that the treatment needs of bisexual individuals are the same as lesbian and gay individuals. This paper utilizes qualitative interviews with 45 bisexual-identified people to illuminate five prominent issues in clinical practice with bisexual people. They are: (a) biphobia, (b) practitioner attitudes about bisexuality, (c) identity development, (d) social relationships, and (e) sexual health. Findings illuminate clinical practice strategies that will facilitate culturally competent social work practice with this population. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Mischaikow K.,Rutgers University | Nanda V.,University of Pennsylvania
Discrete and Computational Geometry | Year: 2013

We introduce an efficient preprocessing algorithm to reduce the number of cells in a filtered cell complex while preserving its persistent homology groups. The technique is based on an extension of combinatorial Morse theory from complexes to filtrations. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Gilchrist A.,Rutgers University
Perception | Year: 2014

Illusions of lightness offer valuable clues to how lightness values are computed by the visual system. The traditional domain of lightness illusions must be expanded to include failures of constancy, as there is no distinction between these categories. Just as lightness is (relatively) constant in the face of changes in illumination level, so it is equally constant in the face of changes in background reflectance. Simultaneous lightness contrast, the most familiar lightness illusion, is fairly weak, and represents a failure of background-independent lightness constancy. It is argued that a combination of the highest-luminance rule of anchoring plus the Kardos idea of codetermination can account for most lightness illusions. Kardos suggested that the lightness value of a target surface is partly determined relative to the field of illumination (or framework) in which it is embedded, and partly relative to the neighboring field of illumination. Although Kardos did not apply his principle of codetermination to failures of background-independent constancy such as the simultaneous contrast illusion, this can be done rather easily by defining a framework as a perceptual group instead of identifying it strictly with an objective field of illumination. © 2014 a Pion publication.

Borisov L.A.,Rutgers University
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2013

We give a vertex algebra proof of the Berglund-Hübsch duality of nondegenerate invertible potentials. We suggest a way to unify it with the Batyrev-Borisov duality of reflexive Gorenstein cones. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lorenzen J.A.,Rutgers University
Environmental Politics | Year: 2014

At a time when the US public is deeply divided over how to address climate change, I investigate the way environmentally conscious actors attempt to recruit people to change their lifestyles and become more environmentally responsible. I draw on data from 45 interviews and participant observation with voluntary simplifiers, religious environmentalists, and green homeowners. Aware of the public's aversion to discussing contentious issues such as climate change, informants focus on changing practices while downplaying political ideas and engagements. This is part of a pragmatic lifestyle change strategy which unites several persuasive techniques that include tailoring appeals to particular audiences, making 'I feel' statements, being role models, highlighting financial rewards such as the 'win-win' proposition, and the rare environmental appeal. I discuss how informants manipulate the lack of public political talk to their advantage in order to reach a wider audience. In this case, avoiding politics is not only active but strategic. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Haule K.,Rutgers University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

We propose a continuum representation of the dynamical mean field theory, in which we were able to derive an exact overlap between the dynamical mean field theory and band structure methods, such as the density functional theory; double counting. The implementation of this exact double counting shows improved agreement between the theory and experiment in several correlated solids, such as the transition metal oxides and lanthanides. Previously introduced nominal double counting is in much better agreement with the exact double counting than the most widely used fully localized limit formula. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Bidle K.D.,Rutgers University | Vardi A.,Weizmann Institute of Science
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2011

Despite the critical importance of viruses in shaping marine microbial ecosystems and lubricating upper ocean biogeochemical cycles, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating phytoplankton host-virus interactions. Recent work in algal host-virus systems has begun to shed novel insight into the elegant strategies of viral infection and subcellular regulation of cell fate, which not only reveal tantalizing aspects of viral replication and host resistance strategies but also provide new diagnostic tools toward elucidating the impact of virus-mediated processes in the ocean. Widespread lateral gene transfer between viruses and their hosts plays a prominent role in host-virus diversification and in the regulation of host-virus infection mechanisms by allowing viruses to manipulate and 'rewire' host metabolic pathways to facilitate infection. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Wisthaler A.,University of Innsbruck | Weschler C.J.,Rutgers University | Weschler C.J.,Technical University of Denmark
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

This study has used proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for direct air analyses of volatile products resulting from the reactions of ozone with human skin lipids. An initial series of small-scale in vitro and in vivo experiments were followed by experiments conducted with human subjects in a simulated office. The latter were conducted using realistic ozone mixing ratios (≈15 ppb with occupants present). Detected products included monoand bifunctional compounds that contain carbonyl, carboxyl, or α-hydroxy ketone groups. Among these, three previously unreported dicarbonyls have been identified, and two previously unreported α-hydroxy ketones have been tentatively identified. The compounds detected in this study (excepting acetone) have been overlooked in surveys of indoor pollutants, reflecting the limitations of the analytical methods routinely used to monitor indoor air. The results are fully consistent with the Criegee mechanism for ozone reactingwith squalene, the singlemost abundantunsaturated constituent of skin lipids, and several unsaturated fatty acidmoieties in their free or esterified forms. Quantitative product analysis confirms that squalene is the major scavenger of ozone at the interface between room air and the human envelope. Reactions between ozone and human skin lipids reduce the mixing ratio of ozone in indoor air, but concomitantly increase the mixing ratios of volatile products and, presumably, skin surface concentrations of less volatile products. Some of the volatile products, especially the dicarbonyls, may be respiratory irritants. Some of the less volatile products may be skin irritants.

Smith R.K.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Hughes J.P.,Rutgers University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

Astrophysical shocks or bursts from a photoionizing source can disturb the typical collisional plasma found in galactic interstellar media or the intergalactic medium. The spectrum emitted by this plasma contains diagnostic that have been used to determine the time since the disturbing event, although this determination becomes uncertain as the elements in the plasma return to ionization equilibrium. A general solution for the equilibrium timescale for each element arises from the elegant eigenvector method of solution to the problem of a non-equilibrium plasma described by Masai and Hughes & Helfand. In general, the ionization evolution of an element Z in a constant electron temperature plasma is given by a coupled set of Z + 1 first-order differential equations. However they can be recast as Z uncoupled first-order differential equations using an eigenvector basis for the system The solution is then Z separate exponential functions, with the time constants given by the eigenvalues of the rate matrix. The smallest of these eigenvalues gives the scale of the slowest return to equilibrium independen of the initial conditions, while conversely the largest eigenvalue is the scale of the fastest change in the ion population. These results hold for an ionizing plasma, a recombining plasma, or even a plasma with random initial conditions, and will allow users of these diagnostics to determine directly if their best-fit result significantly limits the timescale since a disturbance or is so close to equilibrium as to include an arbitrarily long time. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Minko T.,Rutgers University
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2010

Unique properties of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer granted its wide use as a carrier for different nanotherapeutics. However, the role of HPMA in a drug delivery system is not limited solely to a carrier for an active payload. Detailed investigations revealed its deep influence on the molecular mechanisms of antitumor action of chemotherapeutic drugs bound to HPMA copolymer. Such influence involves changing the internalization and intracellular trafficking of an entire HPMA-drug complex, modifying the topography of the accumulation of delivered anticancer drug in the tumor and inside tumor cells, overcoming and suppression of existing drug resistance and preventing its de novo development, inhibition of cellular drug detoxification and intracellular repair mechanisms, affecting cell death signaling pathways and mechanisms of apoptosis and necrosis induction. The present review underlines the major mechanisms of the aforementioned effects leading to the substantial enhancement of cell death-inducing ability of conjugated anticancer drugs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Friedman W.J.,Rutgers University
Neuroscientist | Year: 2010

Neurons respond to numerous factors in their environment that influence their survival and function during development and in the mature brain. Among these factors, the neurotrophins have been shown to support neuronal survival and function, acting primarily through the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases. However, recent studies have established that the uncleaved neurotrophin precursors, the proneurotrophins, can be secreted and induce apoptosis via the p75 neurotrophin receptor, suggesting that the balance of secreted mature and proneurotrophins has a critical impact on neuronal survival or death. Epileptic seizures elicit increases in both proneurotrophin secretion and p75 NTR expression, shifting the balance of these factors toward signaling cell death. This review will discuss the evidence that this ligand-receptor system plays an important role in neuronal loss following seizures. © The Author(s) 2010.

Ventura A.K.,Drexel University | Worobey J.,Rutgers University
Current Biology | Year: 2013

The ability to perceive flavors begins in utero with the development and early functioning of the gustatory and olfactory systems. Because both amniotic fluid and breast milk contain molecules derived from the mother's diet, learning about flavors in foods begins in the womb and during early infancy. This early experience serves as the foundation for the continuing development of food preferences across the lifespan, and is shaped by the interplay of biological, social, and environmental factors. Shortly after birth, young infants show characteristic taste preferences: sweet and umami elicit positive responses; bitter and sour elicit negative responses. These taste preferences may reflect a biological drive towards foods that are calorie- and protein-dense and an aversion to foods that are poisonous or toxic. Early likes and dislikes are influenced by these innate preferences, but are also modifiable. Repeated exposure to novel or disliked foods that occurs in a positive, supportive environment may promote the acceptance of and eventually a preference for those foods. Alternatively, children who are pressured to eat certain foods may show decreased preference for those foods later on. With increasing age, the influence of a number of factors, such as peers and food availability, continue to mold food preferences and eating behaviors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ainsworth P.M.,Rutgers University
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics | Year: 2010

In recent years a doctrine known as ontic structural realism (OSR) has achieved a degree of notoriety, but many people remain confused as to what exactly the doctrine amounts. In this paper three main variants of OSR are defined and discussed: (i) OSR1, which is the view that relations are ontologically primitive but objects and properties are not; (ii) OSR2, which is the view that objects and relations are ontologically primitive but properties are not; (iii) OSR3, which is the view that properties and relations are ontologically primitive but objects are not. Proponents of OSR claim that it is a "naturalistic" metaphysics, arguing that metaphysical views that take objects and/or properties as ontologically primitive are undermined by contemporary physics. In this paper it is argued that OSR1 and OSR2 are themselves undermined by contemporary physics. On the other hand, it is also argued that considerations about the objects of quantum mechanics and general relativity do seem to suggest that we should abandon some of our "common-sense" metaphysical intuitions, and that OSR3 is one of the metaphysical views that is compatible with what these theories seem to tell us about fundamental ontology. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

For survey calibration, consider the situation where the population totals of auxiliary variables are known or where auxiliary variables are measured for all population units. For each situation, we develop design-efficient calibration estimators under rejective or high-entropy sampling. A general approach is to extend efficient estimators for missing-data problems with independent and identically distributed data to the survey setting. We show that this approach effectively resolves two long-standing issues in existing approaches: how to achieve design efficiency regardless of a linear superpopulation model in generalized regression and calibration estimation, and how to find a simple approximation in optimal regression estimation. Moreover, the proposed approach sheds light on several issues that seem not to be well studied in the literature. Examples include use of the weighted Kullback-Leibler distance in calibration estimation, and efficient estimation allowing for misspecification of a nonlinear superpopulation model. © 2013 Biometrika Trust.

Berman H.M.,Rutgers University
Protein Science | Year: 2012

In addition to being one of the early pioneers in protein crystallography, Carl Brändén made significant contributions to science education with his elegant and beautifully illustrated book Introduction to Protein Structure (Brändén and Tooze, New York: Garland, 1991). It is truly an honor to receive this award in their names. This award and the 40th anniversary of the Protein Data Bank (PDB; Berman et al., Structure 2012;20:391-396) have given me an opportunity to reflect on the various components that have contributed to building a resource for protein science and to try to quantify the impact of having PDB data openly available. © 2012 The Protein Society.

Shirokova N.,Rutgers University | Niggli E.,University of Bern
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology | Year: 2013

Dilated cardiomyopathy is a serious and almost inevitable complication of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, a devastating and fatal disease of skeletal muscle resulting from the lack of functional dystrophin, a protein linking the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Ultimately, it leads to congestive heart failure and arrhythmias resulting from both cardiac muscle fibrosis and impaired function of the remaining cardiomyocytes. Here we summarize findings obtained in several laboratories, focusing on cellular mechanisms that result in degradation of cardiac functions in dystrophy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Calcium Signaling in Heart". © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Winfree R.,Rutgers University
Basic and Applied Ecology | Year: 2013

The study of global environmental change and its effect on biodiversity and ecosystem function is at an exciting crossroads, at which ideas developed largely through theory and small-scale experiments are now being tested with ecosystem services as they are delivered to people in real-world landscapes. Pollinators and pollination are emerging as a model system for exploring these questions, which inherently required working large spatio-temporal scales. In this Invited View, I discuss current questions that are at the leading edge of this research. I first point out some surprising knowledge gaps in our understanding of pollinators' response to global change. I then outline several ways in which current understanding of the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship might be transformed by studies conducted at large spatio-temporal scales. Specifically, I propose two hypotheses that relate to the number of species required to saturate ecosystem function, and to the mechanisms through which biodiversity stabilizes ecosystem function over space or time. © 2013.

Gupta B.,Presidency University of India | Huang B.,Rutgers University
International Journal of Genomics | Year: 2014

Salinity is a major abiotic stress limiting growth and productivity of plants in many areas of the world due to increasing use of poor quality of water for irrigation and soil salinization. Plant adaptation or tolerance to salinity stress involves complex physiological traits, metabolic pathways, and molecular or gene networks. A comprehensive understanding on how plants respond to salinity stress at different levels and an integrated approach of combining molecular tools with physiological and biochemical techniques are imperative for the development of salt-tolerant varieties of plants in salt-affected areas. Recent research has identified various adaptive responses to salinity stress at molecular, cellular, metabolic, and physiological levels, although mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance are far from being completely understood. This paper provides a comprehensive review of major research advances on biochemical, physiological, and molecular mechanisms regulating plant adaptation and tolerance to salinity stress. © 2014 Bhaskar Gupta and Bingru Huang.

Tan Z.,Rutgers University
Biometrika | Year: 2011

Consider a conditional mean model with missing data on the response or explanatory variables due to two-phase sampling or nonresponse. Robins et al. (1994) introduced a class of augmented inverse-probability-weighted estimators, depending on a vector of functions of explanatory variables and a vector of functions of coarsened data. Tsiatis (2006) studied two classes of restricted estimators, class 1 with both vectors restricted to finite-dimensional linear subspaces and class 2 with the first vector of functions restricted to a finite-dimensional linear subspace. We introduce a third class of restricted estimators, class 3, with the second vector of functions restricted to a finite-dimensional subspace. We derive a new estimator, which is asymptotically optimal in class 1, by the methods of nonparametric and empirical likelihood. We propose a hybrid strategy to obtain estimators that are asymptotically optimal in class 1 and locally optimal in class 2 or class 3. The advantages of the hybrid, likelihood estimator based on classes 1 and 3 are shown in a simulation study and a real-data example. © 2011 Biometrika Trust.

Anemia prevalence is highest in preschool children, women of reproductive age, and women who are pregnant. While the etiology of anemia is multifactorial, iron deficiency is the most commonly recognized nutritional cause. Observational studies imply that supplementation with iron or iron-folic acid should be started early in pregnancy, if not before, in order to prevent low-birth-weight and preterm delivery. Despite this, findings from clinical trials, even those conducted during early pregnancy, are equivocal. Recent follow-up studies of children born to women supplemented with iron-folic acid suggest that mortality is decreased and that the infant's iron endowment reflects the mother's iron status during pregnancy. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

Carbone-Lopez K.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Miller J.,Rutgers University
Criminology | Year: 2012

Precocious adoption of adult roles and responsibilities at an early age often has been linked to substance abuse and criminal behavior. Yet, much of the existing research suggests that early offending behaviors induce precocious movement into adulthood; less attention has focused on the way in which early adoption of adult roles and responsibilities might itself contribute to the onset of offending. In the following article, we examine the cumulative impact of early transitions into adult roles and responsibilities on the onset of methamphetamine (MA) use. Through inductive analyses of interviews with women methamphetamine users, we identified a range of adult roles and responsibilities that women described as facilitating their initiation into MA use, including family caretaking, motherhood, independent living, and peer and romantic associations with adults. Such findings have theoretical implications for both life-course perspectives and feminist pathways research. They highlight the importance of attending to the timing and sequencing of experiences as well as highlight the gendered nature of these processes. © 2011 American Society of Criminology.

Hey J.,Rutgers University
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2010

A method for studying the divergence of multiple closely related populations is described and assessed. The approach of Hey and Nielsen (2007, Integration within the Felsenstein equation for improved Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in population genetics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 104:2785-2790) for fitting an isolation-with-migration model was extended to the case of multiple populations with a known phylogeny. Analysis of simulated data sets reveals the kinds of history that are accessible with a multipopulation analysis. Necessarily, processes associated with older time periods in a phylogeny are more difficult to estimate; and histories with high levels of gene flow are particularly difficult with more than two populations. However, for histories with modest levels of gene flow, or for very large data sets, it is possible to study large complex divergence problems that involve multiple closely related populations or species. © The Author 2009.

Sass L.,Rutgers University
Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology | Year: 2015

This article offers a revisionist interpretation of the relationship between phenomenology and post-structuralism through an analysis of the post-structuralists most influential at philosophy’s intersection with the ‘psy’ professions: Jacques Lacan and Michel Foucault. French structuralists and post-structuralists sharply criticized subjectivity as a domain of study (the ‘primacy of consciousness’) and notions of the ‘autonomous subject,’ arguing instead for the determining role of language and other semiotic systems. I discuss Heidegger’s role as a ‘vanishing mediator,’ an influence on both phenomenology and post-structuralism whose own focus on forms of being (the ontological dimension) undermines this assumed opposition. I discuss the relevance for phenomenology of Foucault’s ‘epistemes’ (in Order of Things) and of Lacan’s registers of Imaginary, Symbolic, and Real. Finally, I consider ways in which Foucault (in Discipline and Punish) and Lacan (on ethics and the ‘psychoanalytic act’) seem to accept elements of the traditional notion of the subject, including forms of freedom and responsibility, and the possibility of self-reflection. © 2015 by The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Migration by Odonata has been recorded sporadically for several centuries, but only recently have new technologies and a new wave of interest in these ancient insects sparked a concerted effort to understand the extent, behavioral mechanisms, adaptive significance, and ecological consequences of this phenomenon. Here I review our current knowledge of these sometimes spectacular flights, focusing on the few species in North America that are known to migrate more or less annually. One of these, the Common Green Darner, Anax junius, has been shown to traverse hundreds to thousands of kilometers from north to south during fall migration. Pantala flavescens (Wandering Glider) is plausibly inferred to make an overseas flight from India to East Africa with the Northeast Monsoon, although its migrations in North America are less well understood. Large scale movements of these and other species raises questions about population connectivity, ecosystem impacts, the nature and evolution of cues that initiate migration, and effects of climate change on these phenomena. © 2012 The Author(s).

Podzorov V.,Rutgers University
Nature Materials | Year: 2010

A large number of researchers participated in the 9th International Symposium on Functional π-Electron Systems (F-π-9) 2010, held at Georgia Tech in Atlanta, US, to discuss on the potential of conjugated organic multifunctional materials. The visitors and participants were able to gather significant information regarding the potential of these materials in terms of their useful functional capabilities and their level of performance when used in devices. Significant progress and versatility was achieved in the field due to the vast complexity of functional π-electron systems, ranging from simple small molecules to polymers and biomolecules, flexibility of chemical synthesis, and a multidisciplinary effort of chemists, physicists and engineers dealing with the most challenging problems from different angles.

Ostermann M.,Rutgers University
Justice Quarterly | Year: 2012

This study investigates whether inmates who are unconditionally released at the end of their sentence because they opt out of the parole process could potentially benefit from community supervision. This research was conducted in response to a recently passed law in the state of New Jersey that targets this group for a mandatory six-month term of parole. The study uses propensity scores to match this group to discretionarily released parolees in order to simulate random assignment. Results indicate that those who voluntarily forgo parole consideration are significantly less successful after release according to several measures of recidivism, including rearrests, reconvictions, and community tenure. However, between-group differences are small. Findings suggest that some form of supervision may be beneficial for this group, but likely not in the fashion that is explicated in the current law. © 2012 Copyright Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.

Singh Y.,Rutgers University | Murat P.,CNRS Molecular Chemistry Department | Defrancq E.,CNRS Molecular Chemistry Department
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

Synthetic oligonucleotides (ONs) are being investigated for various therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The interest in ONs arises because of their capability to cause selective inhibition of gene expression by binding to the target DNA/RNA sequences through mechanisms such as antigene, antisense, and RNA interference. ONs with catalytic activity (ribozymes and DNAzymes) against the target sequences, and ability to bind to the target molecules (aptamers), ranging from small molecules to proteins, are also known. Therefore ONs are considered potentially useful for the treatment of viral diseases and cancer. ONs also find use in the design of DNA microchips (a powerful bio-analytical tool) and novel materials in nanotechnology. However, the clinical success achieved so far with ONs has not been satisfactory, and the major impediments have been recognised as their instability against nucleases, lack of target specificity, and poor uptake and targeted delivery. Tremendous efforts have been made to improve the ON properties by either incorporating chemical modifications in the ON structure or covalently linking (conjugation) reporter groups, with biologically relevant properties, to ONs. Conjugation is of great interest because it can be used not only to improve the existing ON properties but also to impart entirely new properties. This tutorial review focuses on the recent developments in ON conjugation, and describes the key challenges in efficient ON conjugation and major synthetic approaches available for successful ON conjugate syntheses. In addition, an overview on major classes of ON conjugates along with their use in therapeutics, diagnostics and nanotechnology is provided. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

Grafals-Soto R.,Rutgers University
Geomorphology | Year: 2012

Sand fences are important human adjustments modifying the morphology of developed shores. The effects of sand fences on sediment transport and deposition in their initial stages have been well studied, but little is known about the effect of deteriorated sand fences that have become partially buried low scale barriers within the dune, potentially benefiting vegetation growth by protecting it from onshore stress. Data on vegetation, topography and fence characteristics were gathered at three dune sites in Ocean City, New Jersey on September 2007 and March 2008 to evaluate the effect of fences within the dune on vegetation distribution. Variables include: distance landward of dune toe, degree of sheltering from onshore stressors, net change in surface elevation (deposition or erosion), vegetation diversity and density, presence of remnant fence, and distance landward of fence. Results for the studied environment reveal that 1) vegetation diversity or density does not increase near remnant fences because most remnants are lower than average vegetation height and can not provide shelter; but 2) vegetation distribution is related to topographic variables, such as degree of sheltering, that are most likely the result of sand accretion caused by fence deployment. Fence deployment that prioritizes the creation of topographically diverse dunes within a restricted space may increase the diversity and density of the vegetation, and the resilience and value of developed dunes. Managers should consider the benefits of using sand fences on appropriately wide beaches to create a protective dune that is also diverse, functional and better able to adapt to change. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Hankin B.L.,University of Denver | Abela J.R.Z.,Rutgers University
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2011

Little is known about which risk factors longitudinally predict non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) during adolescence, a period when these self-injurious behaviors become alarmingly prevalent. We prospectively studied the rates, course, and longitudinal prediction of NSSI from early through middle adolescence with a community sample of 103 youth (ages 11-14) who were assessed for NSSI at baseline and 2 1/2 years later (94% retention; final N= 97). Multiple risk factors (temperament, cognitive and interpersonal vulnerabilities, stressors; youths' and mothers' depression) were examined as prospective predictors of NSSI over the 2 1/2 year follow-up. Analyses showed that 18% of youth engaged in NSSI over the 2 1/2-year follow-up; 14% for the first time. Distal risks (assessed at baseline) that differentiated youth who engaged in NSSI from those who did not included negative cognitive style and mothers' prior depression. Proximal factors (assessed 2 years after baseline) that differentiated NSSI from non-NSSI youth included stressors, depressive symptoms, poor relationship quality, excessive reassurance seeking, and mothers' onset of depression. Several of these factors predicted new engagement of NSSI over 2 1/2 years. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Wu L.-J.,Rutgers University
Translational Stroke Research | Year: 2014

Microglia, resident immune cells in the brain, contribute both to the damage and resolution of ischemic stroke. However, the mechanisms of microglia's detrimental or beneficial role in the disease are poorly understood. The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, rapidly removes protons from depolarized cytoplasm, and is highly expressed in the immune system. In the brain, Hv1 is selectively and functionally expressed in microglia but not neurons. Although the physiological function of microglial Hv1 is still not clear, Hv1 is one of major ion channels expressed in resting microglia. Under pathological conditions, microglial Hv1 is required for NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by providing charge compensation for exported electrons and relieving intracellular acidosis. In a mouse model of cerebral middle artery occlusion, Hv1 knockout mice are protected from ischemic damage, showing reduced NOX-dependent ROS production, microglial activation and neuronal cell death. Therefore, microglial Hv1 aids in NOX-dependent ROS generation, which subsequently induces neuronal cell death and a significant fraction of brain damage after ischemic stroke. These studies illuminate a critical role of microglial Hv1 in ischemic brain injury, providing a rationale for Hv1 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemic stroke. The current understanding of Hv1 in ischemic injury through NOX-dependent ROS production may serve as a common model to reveal the deleterious role of microglia in neurological diseases other than ischemic stroke, such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and neuropathic pain. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

This article addresses the emergence of echinocandin resistance among Candida species, mechanisms of resistance, factors that promote resistance and confounding issues surrounding standard susceptibility testing. Fungal infections remain a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality, especially among patients with underlying immunosupression. Antifungal therapy is a critical component of patient management for acute and chronic diseases. Yet, therapeutic choices are limited due to only a few drug classes available to treat systemic disease. Moreover, the problem is exacerbated by the emergence of antifungal resistance, which has resulted in difficult to manage multidrug resistant strains. Echinocandin drugs are now the preferred choice to treat a range of candidiasis. These drugs target and inhibit the fungal-specific enzyme glucan synthase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of a key cell wall polymer. Therapeutic failures involving acquisition of resistance among susceptible organisms like Candida albicans is largely a rare event. However, in recent years, there is an alarming trend of increased resistance among strains of Candida glabrata, which in many cases are also resistant to azole drugs. Echinocandin resistance is always acquired during therapy and the mechanism of resistance is well established to involve amino acid changes in "hot-spot" regions of the Fks subunits carrying the catalytic portion of glucan synthase. These changes significantly decrease the sensitivity of the enzyme to drug resulting in higher MIC values. A range of drug responses, from complete to partial refractory response, is observed depending on the nature of the amino acid substitution, and clinical responses are recapitulated in pharmacodynamic models of infection. The cellular processes promoting the formation of resistant Fks strains involve complex stress response pathways, which yield a variety of adaptive compensatory genetic responses. Stress-adapted cells become drug tolerant and can form stable drug resistant FKS mutations with continued drug exposure. A major concern for resistance detection is that classical broth microdilution techniques show significant variability among clinical microbiology laboratories for certain echinocandin drugs and Candida species. The consequence is that susceptible strains are misclassified according to established clinical breakpoints, and this has led to confusion in the field. Clinical factors that appear to promote echinocandin resistance include the expanding use of antifungal agents for empiric therapy and prophylaxis. Furthermore, host reservoirs such as biofilms in the gastrointestinal tract or intra-abdominal infections can seed development of resistant organisms during therapy. A fundamental understanding of the primary molecular resistance mechanism, along with cellular and clinical factors that promote resistance emergence, is critical to develop better diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies to overcome and prevent echinocandin resistance. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Yee C.-H.,Rutgers University | Balents L.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Physical Review X | Year: 2015

Motivated by the commonplace observation of Mott insulators away from integer filling, we construct a simple thermodynamic argument for phase separation in first-order doping-driven Mott transitions. We show how to compute the critical dopings required to drive the Mott transition using electronic structure calculations for the titanate family of perovskites, finding good agreement with experiment. The theory predicts that the transition is percolative and should exhibit Coulomb frustration.

Manning G.S.,Rutgers University
Biopolymers | Year: 2015

We examine twist-stretch coupling of unconstrained DNA using polyelectrolyte theory as applied to a line-charge model along with published data on the ionic-strength dependence of the twist angle. We conclude that twist-stretch coupling is negative: environmental changes that stretch free DNA, unconstrained by externally applied pulling or twisting forces, are accompanied by unwinding of the double helix. We also analyze a helical model and conclude that the observed unwinding of the DNA helix when ionic strength is decreased is driven by radial swelling of the helix. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 103: 223-226, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Welch M.,Rutgers University
Theoretical Criminology | Year: 2011

The analysis herein considers the dynamics of panopticism by developing further the concept of counter-surveillance-or counterveillance-whereby prison officials rather than the prisoners become the target of unwanted attention. While maintaining an interest in panoptic as well as synoptic theory, the article describes two counterveillant tactics deployed by Foucault and the Groupe d'Information sur les Prisons (GIP) in France during the 1970s. First, the GIP turned the prison inside out, in a manner of speaking, so as to publicly expose the harsh conditions of confinement. Second, the group set out to watch the watchers in an effort to hold certain prison administrators accountable for their unjust policies and practices. Implications of optical activism aimed at improving transparency in penal operations also are discussed alongside the limits of such protest.© The Author(s) 2011.

Mireles James J.D.,Rutgers University
Journal of Nonlinear Science | Year: 2013

We implement a semi-analytic scheme for numerically computing high order polynomial approximations of the stable and unstable manifolds associated with the fixed points of the normal form for the family of quadratic volume-preserving diffeomorphisms with quadratic inverse. We use this numerical scheme to study some hyperbolic dynamics associated with an invariant structure called a vortex bubble. The vortex bubble, when present in the system, is the dominant feature in the phase space of the quadratic family, as it encloses all invariant dynamics. Our study focuses on visualizing qualitative features of the vortex bubble such as bifurcations in its geometry, the geometry of some three-dimensional homoclinic tangles associated with the bubble, and the "quasi-capture" of homoclinic orbits by neighboring fixed points. Throughout, we couple our results with previous qualitative numerical studies of the elliptic dynamics within the vortex bubble of the quadratic family. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Greenfield E.A.,Rutgers University
Maturitas | Year: 2010

Despite prevention efforts worldwide, many children today continue to experience abuse within close relationships, and many adults carry with them histories of abuse. This narrative review focuses on the growing body of research regarding the long-term health consequences of child abuse. First, the review presents a brief introduction to the phenomenon of child abuse, as well as a discussion of theoretical approaches to describing processes through which child abuse can jeopardize later adult health. The review then provides an integrative summary of studies based on community samples that examine associations between physical, psychological, and sexual abuse in childhood and adult mental and physical health. The article concludes with a discussion of conceptualizing child abuse as a life-course social determinant of adult health for both clinical and public health purposes and calls for translational research that can inform efforts to promote the health of diverse individuals and populations with histories of child abuse. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dong S.,Nanjing Southeast University | Liu J.-M.,Nanjing University | Cheong S.-W.,Rutgers University | Ren Z.,University of Houston
Advances in Physics | Year: 2015

Multiferroics are those materials with more than one ferroic order, and magnetoelectricity refers to the mutual coupling between magnetism (spins and/or magnetic field) and electricity (electric dipoles and/or electric field). In spite of the long research history in the whole twentieth century, the discipline of multiferroicity has never been so highly active as that in the first decade of the twenty-first century, and it has become one of the hottest disciplines of condensed matter physics and materials science. A series of milestones and steady progress in the past decade have enabled our understanding of multiferroic physics substantially comprehensive and profound, which is further pushing forward the research frontier of this exciting area. The availability of more multiferroic materials and improved magnetoelectric performance are approaching to make the applications within reach. While seminal review articles covering the major progress before 2010 are available, an updated review addressing the new achievements since that time becomes imperative. In this review, following a concise outline of the basic knowledge of multiferroicity and magnetoelectricity, we summarize the important research activities on multiferroics, especially magnetoelectricity and related physics in the last six years. We consider not only single-phase multiferroics but also multiferroic heterostructures. We address the physical mechanisms regarding magnetoelectric coupling so that the backbone of this divergent discipline can be highlighted. A series of issues on lattice symmetry, magnetic ordering, ferroelectricity generation, electromagnon excitations, multiferroic domain structure and domain wall dynamics, and interfacial coupling in multiferroic heterostructures, will be revisited in an updated framework of physics. In addition, several emergent phenomena and related physics, including magnetic skyrmions and generic topological structures associated with magnetoelectricity will be discussed. The review is ended with a set of prospectives and forward-looking conclusions, which may inevitably reflect the authors' biased opinions but are certainly critical. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Phillips J.C.,Rutgers University
Protein and Peptide Letters | Year: 2012

Self-organized criticality (SOC) is a popular concept that has been the subject of more than 3000 articles in the last 25 years. The characteristic signature of SOC is the appearance of self-similarity (power-law scaling) in observable properties. A characteristic observable protein property that describes protein-water interactions is the water-accessible (hydropathic) interfacial area of compacted globular protein networks. Here we show that hydropathic power-law (size- or length-scale-dependent) exponents derived from SOC enable theory to connect standard Web-based (BLAST) short-range amino acid (aa) sequence similarities to long-range aa sequence hydropathic roughening form factors that hierarchically describe evolutionary trends in water - membrane protein interactions. Our method utilizes hydropathic aa exponents that define a non-Euclidean metric realistically rooted in the atomic coordinates of 5526 protein segments. These hydropathic aa exponents thereby encapsulate universal (but previously only implicit) non-Euclidean long-range differential geometrical features of the Protein Data Bank. These hydropathic aa exponents easily organize small mutated aa sequence differences between human and proximate species proteins. For rhodopsin, the most studied transmembrane signaling protein associated with night vision, analysis shows that this approach separates Euclidean short- and non-Euclidean long-range aa sequence properties, and shows that they correlate with 96% success for humans, monkeys, cats, mice and rabbits. Proper application of SOC using hydropathic aa exponents promises unprecedented simplifications of exponentially complex protein sequence-structure-function problems, both conceptual and practical. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Ehrenfeld J.G.,Rutgers University