Rutgers Food Innovation Center North

New Egypt, NJ, United States

Rutgers Food Innovation Center North

New Egypt, NJ, United States

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Karthikeyan J.S.,Rutgers University | Desai K.M.,Rutgers University | Salvi D.,Rutgers University | Bruins R.,Rutgers Food Innovation Center North | Karwe M.V.,Rutgers University
Food Research International | Year: 2015

Numerical simulation was carried out to predict the effect of external temperature conditions on thermal behavior of frozen US military rations, during storage and transportation. An army breakfast menu box containing beefsteaks, concentrated orange juice, peppers & onions, French toast, and Danishes, was selected for conducting this study. Thermo-physical properties of each food item were characterized using their composition and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Apparent heat capacity method was used to account for the latent heat of phase change during simulation of thawing and freezing. Numerically simulated results were experimentally validated using a gel-based model food system and the food items in the menu box. The average deviation between numerically predicted temperature and experimentally measured temperature for the model food system was approximately 1. °C and for the targeted food items the deviation ranged from 2. °C to 5. °C, depending on the food item. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Karthikeyan J.S.,Rutgers University | Desai K.M.,Rutgers University | Salvi D.,Rutgers University | Bruins R.,Rutgers Food Innovation Center North | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2015

Numerically simulated heat transfer model of frozen US military rations was combined with microbial kinetics to predict the microbial spoilage of the food products, during two possible temperature abuse scenarios. An army breakfast menu box containing five different food items was selected for conducting this research. One of the food item in the menu box, beefsteak, was chosen for detailed microbial study. A microbial predictive tool was used to identify and evaluate the kinetics of the most prone microorganism that can grow in a beefsteak. Numerical predictions suggested that the food items exposed to external temperatures ranging from 20. °C to 40. °C can be allowed to stay at those temperatures for maximum times of 28.7. h to 11.9. h, respectively. The food items can be allowed to stay inside the broken freezer for a maximum time of 186. h, to ensure microbial safety in the case of freezer failure. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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