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Tollerup K.E.,University of California at Davis | Rucker A.,Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Shearer P.W.,Oregon State University
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Fruit orchards in New Jersey are usually isolated from neighboring farms and diversified, often containing separate plantings of peach (Prunus spp.) and apple (Malus spp.). These crops can suffer significant damage from oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). This study evaluated the effect of managing G. molesta by using sex pheromonebased mating disruption applied to both peaches and apples (whole-farm mating disruption) rather than treating either crop alone. In year 1 of the experiment, G. molesta mating disruption applied to the adjacent peach and apple blocks provided better control than treating peaches or apples alone. During year 2, treating these adjacent blocks or only treating apples controlled G. molesta equally well. G. molesta populations were so low at the end of year 2 that mating disruption was not applied against this pest during year 3. This allowed us to determine whether applying mating disruption for two consecutive years controlled G. molesta well enough that it eliminated the need mating disruption for three consecutive years. The mean cumulative number of G. molesta captured in plots where both peaches and apples had been treated did not exceed two moths per trap in the third year of this experiment. In contrast, G. molesta capture rebounded during August in peaches and apples that had not been treated with mating disruption the previous 2 yr. Implications for managing G. molesta by using mating disruption as a "whole-farm" tactic as well applying it for two consecutive years and not a third year are discussed. © 2012 Entomological Society of America. Source


Lee D.-H.,Gachon University | Nielsen A.L.,Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Leskey T.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Insect Behavior | Year: 2014

The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a highly polyphagous and mobile pest causing crop damage aggregated at the perimeters of crop fields. Understanding the dispersal biology of H. halys is critical for the development of reliable monitoring and management strategies. In this study, dispersal ecology of H. halys nymphs was studied under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, horizontal and vertical walking capacity was quantified for mobile nymphal stages (i.e., 2nd through 5th instars) and compared with adults. There was a significant difference in the horizontal distance moved by H. halys among the life stages tested. Third instars exhibited significantly greater walking distances compared with adults; horizontal walking distances by other nymphal stages were not significantly different from adults. A similar pattern was observed from vertical climbing tests of H. halys. Third and 4th instars climbed significantly greater distances compared with 2nd instars and adults, while distances climbed by 5th instars were intermediate. In the field, the walking distance of 3rd and 5th instar nymphs on mowed grass was quantified based on direct observation of individuals for 30 min. Under these conditions, 5th instars moved nearly two-fold greater distances compared with 3rd instars, but surface temperature affected both nymphal stages similarly. Shorter bouts of movement were common at surface temperatures below 25 °C, whereas individuals showed longer walking distances above 25 °C. In mark-release-recapture studies, 4th and 5th instars were released and recaptured in traps baited with attractive pheromonal-based stimuli to estimate dispersal rates under field conditions. When insects were released 5 m from traps, both instars were first recaptured within 2 h after release, with the recapture rates of 54 and 69 % for 4th and 5th instars over 24 h, respectively. When insects were released 20 m from traps, 4th and 5th instars were first recaptured in less than 5 h, with the recapture rates of 27 and 51 %, respectively. The results of this study indicate that H. halys nymphs have strong dispersal capacity with which populations can easily move among host plants and other attractive stimuli at farmscape levels. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Fry W.E.,Cornell University | McGrath M.T.,Cornell University | Zitter T.A.,Cornell University | McLeod A.,Stellenbosch University | And 16 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

The tomato late blight pandemic of 2009 made late blight into a household term in much of the eastern United States. Many home gardeners and many organic producers lost most if not all of their tomato crop, and their experiences were reported in the mainstream press. Some CSAs (Community Supported Agriculture) could not provide tomatoes to their members. In response, many questions emerged: How did it happen? What was unusual about this event compared to previous late blight epidemics? What is the current situation in 2012 and what can be done? It's easiest to answer these questions, and to understand the recent epidemics of late blight, if one knows a bit of the history of the disease and the biology of the causal agent, Phytophthora infestans. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society. Source


Heckman J.R.,Rutgers University | Wyenandt C.A.,Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center | Provance-Bowley M.,Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center
Journal of Sustainable Agriculture | Year: 2011

When municipal shade tree leaves (MCST-leaf) are used as mulch the residues impact soil fertility for crops in the rotation. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), grown near Pittstown, New Jersey, using leaf mulch, was followed in the next year by sweet corn (Zea mays L.) and by a fall-seeded rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop. A 15 cm layer of MCST-leaf mulch adds an estimated 448 kg ha -1 of N organically bound within 45 Mg ha -1 of leaf dry matter. Because of the high C/N ratio, little of this N becomes available in the first growing season as was apparent from the N immobilization and N deficiency temporarily observed when the land was initially cropped to pumpkin. Sweet corn ear size was increased on amended soil compared to unamended soil. Crop responses with both sweet corn and rye indicated that significant amounts of nitrogen became plant available from leaf mulch decomposition. Leaf mulch improves soil fertility for several years after incorporation but in ways not apparent through soil nitrate testing. Besides enhanced N nutrition, sweet corn ear size on MCST-leaf amended soil may be related to other improvements in soil quality such as increased water holding capacity. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Lee J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Shearer P.W.,Oregon State University | Barrantes L.D.,Washington State University | Beers E.H.,Washington State University | And 16 more authors.
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), an invasive pest of small and stone fruits, has been recently detected in 39 states of the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Europe. This pest attacks ripening fruit, causing economic losses including increased management costs and crop rejection. Ongoing research aims to improve the efficacy of monitoring traps. Studies were conducted to evaluate howphysical trap features affect captures of D. suzukii.We evaluated five colors, two bait surface areas, and a top and side position for the fly entry point. Studies were conducted at 16 sites spanning seven states and provinces of North America and nine crop types. Apple cider vinegar was the standard bait in all trap types. In the overall analysis, yellow-colored traps caught significantly more flies than clear, white, and black traps; and red traps caught more than clear traps. Results by color may be influenced by crop type. Overall, the trap with a greater bait surface area caught slightly more D. suzukii than the trap with smaller area (90 vs. 40cm2). Overall, the two traps with a side-mesh entry, with or without a protective rain tent, caught more D. suzukii than the trap with a top-mesh entry and tent. © 2013 Entomological Society of America. Source

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