Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism

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Moscow, Russia

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Yakushkin A.V.,Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism | Akimov E.B.,Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism | Andreev R.S.,Institute of Developmental Physiology Russian Academy of Education | Kalenov Y.N.,Institute of Developmental Physiology Russian Academy of Education | And 3 more authors.
Human Physiology | Year: 2014

An attempt was made to test the hypothesis that regular physical activity at the anaerobic threshold can stimulate an increase in the amount of brown or beige body fat, which can manifest itself in increased lactate utilization during exercise and increased reactivity in response to acute regional cooling. The methods used in the study included the ramp test; regional acute cold exposure; measurement of gas exchange; lactate and glucose in the blood; heart rate; heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration variability at rest and during standard functional tests; infrared thermal imaging; and statistical methods of analysis of results. Training of ten physically active volunteers (7 males and 3 females) on a treadmill at a speed corresponding to 75-80% of personal maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) for 30 min 3 times per week at a fixed ambient temperature of 21-22°C for 6 weeks resulted in a significant (from 19 to 39%) increase in exercise duration in the ramp test, whereas VO2max changed, on average, only slightly. The increase in the anaerobic threshold power was associated with a sharp slowdown in the accumulation of lactate during the ramp test. The lactate utilization rate during the recovery period, on the contrary, increased. In general, work efficiency during test load significantly increased. Noticeable changes in the condition and responses to the standard functional tests of the autonomic system were not found, as judged by the heart rate variability, blood pressure, and respiration variability at rest and during orthostatic tests and imposed breathing rhythm. The functional response of the body to acute cold exposure (1-min cooling of the feet in ice water) did not change after a cycle of training, both in terms of metabolism (oxygen consumption, etc.) and the skin temperature dynamics in the areas of most probable location of brown adipose tissue (BAT). These data do not confirm our previous hypothesis (2010) about the function of BAT as a universal homeostatic instrument in the body. Probably, if the formation of the beige adipose tissue is stimulated by physical activity and hormone irisin, produced by muscles, this tissue is involved in lactate utilization but is not involved in the thermoregulatory responses. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


Son'kin V.D.,Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism
Human Physiology | Year: 2015

The article is an attempt of a theoretical analysis of the most important physiological laws of ontogeny and their applicability to the process of adaptation to physical exercise as a result of sports training. The hypothesis of this analysis is that the basic physiological principles (laws) of the organism development can be used in the construction of sports training. Indeed, for the long-term adaptation are important principles of heterochrony and of periodization, while other systemic patterns that are typical for ontogeny cannot be observed in the process of adaptation to exercise or have some specific features of manifestation. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.


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Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism | Entity website


Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism | Entity website


Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism | Entity website

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