Chistiakov D.A.,Moscow State University |
Chekhonin V.P.,Russian State Social University
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2012
Human aggression/impulsivity-related traits have a complex background that is greatly influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors. The relationship between aggression and anxiety is regulated by highly conserved brain regions including amygdala, which controls neural circuits triggering defensive, aggressive, or avoidant behavioral models. The dysfunction of neural circuits responsible for emotional control was shown to represent an etiological factor of violent behavior. In addition to the amygdala, these circuits also involve the anterior cingulated cortex and regions of the prefrontal cortex. Excessive reactivity in the amygdala coupled with inadequate prefrontal regulation serves to increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior. Developmental alterations in prefrontal-subcortical circuitry as well as neuromodulatory and hormonal abnormality appear to play a role. Imbalance in testosterone/serotonin and testosterone/cortisol ratios (e. g., increased testosterone levels and reduced cortisol levels) increases the propensity toward aggression because of reduced activation of the neural circuitry of impulse control and self-regulation. Serotonin facilitates prefrontal inhibition, and thus insufficient serotonergic activity can enhance aggression. Genetic predisposition to aggression appears to be deeply affected by the polymorphic genetic variants of the serotoninergic system that influences serotonin levels in the central and peripheral nervous system, biological effects of this hormone, and rate of serotonin production, synaptic release and degradation. Among these variants, functional polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) may be of particular importance due to the relationship between these polymorphic variants and anatomical changes in the limbic system of aggressive people. Furthermore, functional variants of MAOA and 5-HTT are capable of mediating the influence of environmental factors on aggression-related traits. In this review, we consider genetic determinants of human aggression, with special emphasis on genes involved in serotonin and dopamine metabolism and function. © 2011 Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan.
Lobanov A.S.,Russian State Social University
Scientific and Technical Information Processing | Year: 2013
The necessity and possibility of the development of the basic concepts of qualimetry, including assessment objects, quality, property, and quality management, are justified. The author offers specified definitions of these concepts. The quality and property concepts are considered and defined in applied and philosophical interpretations. It is proposed that one reject the integral quality concept that is used at present. © 2013 Allerton Press, Inc.
Sizov A.,Russian State Social University
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia | Year: 2015
Investigative and judicial errors along with expert mistakes are variation of errors in criminal trials. Often investigative and judicial mistakes are due to negligent attitude of investigators and trial to the requirements of the procedural form of the criminal procedure law, violation of the rights and legitimate interests of persons involved in the case. Of particular importance in eliminating a variety of investigative mistakes is judicial and medical examination. It is a tool of solution of specific issues of forensic medicine and is one of the types of forensic examination. The examination may be accompanied by inspection service, available to a specialist, and should be done in sequence: the part of the body not covered by clothing should be examined, then the clothes (if necessary), and then the rest of the body. If the examination is accompanied by inspection service, the Protocol on how to carry out all these activities is called the Protocol of examination and inspection service, a different Protocol on the inspection service should not exist. Medical examination of the suspect/accused is sometimes crucial. In this regard, unconditionally important is psychiatric examination, but sometimes, especially for children, assessment of somatic status may be crucial. Also sometimes of great investigative importance is identifying presence or absence of pathology of internal organs and predisposition of the suspect/accused. A great help in expert opinion can provide knowledge about the impact of diet and the effects of various drugs on the rheological parameters of human blood may be of great help in forming the expert's opinion.. It is difficult to overestimate accurate identification of genetic markers in the blood of an accused and the traces of blood on the items appearing in the case. Given the great advance of medical science, one should always use forensic medical examination during the investigation that allows. to minimize investigative and judicial mistakes based on its results.
Kolupaev R.V.,Russian State Social University
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014
This article explores the system of regional management of the investment attractiveness of industry. The author notes that managing the investment attractiveness of a region is, above all, about managing trends: creating the regulatory framework, establishing structural mechanisms, and initiating processes, the existence of which enables one to speak of a certain trend. The region will become attractive to the mass investor only when the real sector of the economy comes to be distinguished by the strategic orientation of activity, an optimum resource distribution structure, and the reliability of the management system. Based on the findings of the study, the author proposes a conceptual model for an integrated approach to ensuring sustainable regional management of the investment attractiveness of industry.
Shcherbakova A.I.,Russian State Social University
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014
The article tells about the philosophical analysis of music as artistic and aesthetic phenomenon that reveals difficult questions of life to the comprehending person. Music education is regarded as a tool to promote the penetration in the music space. This work investigates the music complexity and diversity as an art form, many approaches are presented that help the person to freely navigate the world of music. The author focuses on the problem of the interaction of music and music education as the two inextricably linked systems, their harmonious unity is a source of constant development and improvement of musical space, as well as artistic and aesthetic space of culture in general.
Makarova L.V.,Russian State Social University
Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya | Year: 2015
The article describes how well do Russians remember events of the World War II (known as Great Patriotic War in Soviet Union and Russia). The study highlights memories of key events that older generations share with younger people in private conversations. The author of the article singles out comparable war events and analyzes how much Russian youth know them. This aspect is particularly important as the people born after 1990th are the last generation having a chance to personally converse with witnesses of the war. The study has been conducted in two stages: during the first stage the pollees wrote about war events using testimonies shared by the eyewitnesses of the war. At the second stage these written texts were analyzed. Main sources of knowledge about war events were memories of family members, as well as conversations with school teachers and war veterans. The most frequently shared memories concern famine, losing loved ones, hard labor in the rear (especially child labor) and injuries. Surprisingly, a fair share of memories is related to hardships suffered under occupation and good treatment of occupied people by the Germans. The memory of war in younger peoples' minds is associated with highest display of human efforts: sharing scarce food, sacrificing one's life to save injured and Jews, brotherhood on the battlefield and love in life-long marriages. According to results of the study, almost all young Russians keep memory of the events of the World War II described by older generations. This memory does not contradict cultural memory or the ideas contained in official history textbooks. The only exception is the memory on Germans' behavior, but it is always related to particular individuals and does not change definition of war as a sacred act of defending the land from the fascist occupants. Personal memory of the youth is always emotional, the pollees could not help admiring and worshipping war generations. © 2015 r.
Medvedev I.N.,Russian State Social University
Voprosy Pitaniia | Year: 2016
Objective: To trace the development of disorders intravascular platelet activity in experimental form of the metabolic syndrome. The study included 61 rat male Wistar rats at the age of 2.5-3 months. Animals were divided into 2 groups: 32 rats were given free access to drink 10% solution of fructose for 8 weeks and 29 rats were the control group. The level of the total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HOLD cholesterol) and triglycerides were determined using colorimetric enzymatic method. The blood plasma content of endothelin-1 was determined by radioimmunoassay, thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1a - by ELISA. The total content of nitrogen oxide metabolites was revealed in blood. Intravascular platelet activity was assessed using phase contrast microscopy. In terms offructose load in rats simultaneously with the increase of body weight and the development of biochemical disorders that are characteristic for the metabolic syndrome, there comes a marked progressive increase in intravascular platelet activity [reduction of the number of discocytes from 81.0±0.1 to 61.3±0.2%, increase in the number of reactive platelets from 19.0±0.1 to 38.7±0.2%, an increase in the number of freely moving in the blood of small units from 2.4±0.0 to 14.6±0.1 per 100 free platelets, and of medium and large units (from 4 or more cells) from 0.1 ±0.03 to 2.3±0.06 per 100 free platelets], largely due to the increase (p<0.01) of the synthesis of thromboxane B2 (from 145.9±0.2 to 232.6±0.7 pg/ml), endothelin-1 (from 6.9±0.2 to 12.5±0.4 pg/ml) andreduction (p<0.01) of the generation of 6-keto- prostaglandin F1a (from 75.9±0.2 to 62.3±0.4 pg/ml), and the total amount of nitric oxide metabolites (from 27.9±0.3 to 23.2±0.1 mmol/l).
Chistiakov D.A.,Moscow State University |
Chekhonin V.P.,Russian State Social University
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are commonly used by normal and tumor cells for communication at long distances to exchange by complex molecular messages and deliver a variety of essential biomolecules. EVs (exosomes and microvesicles) released in large numbers by glioma cells represent a key mechanism of intercellular signaling. Tumor-derived EVs are produced to regulate all vital functions of tumor cells including growth, proliferation, migration, survival, malignancy, invasion, and resistance to host anti-tumor immunity and anti-cancer drugs. Glioma EVs were shown to carry a variety of biomolecules such as oncogenic growth factors, receptors, enzymes, transcription factors, signaling and immunomodulatory molecules, DNA of mutated and nonmutated oncogenes, RNA transcripts, and noncoding RNA including retrotransposons, vault RNA, and microRNAs. Glioma-derived EVs can be useful as a source of potential tumor-associated biomarkers essential for development and validation of new diagnostic and prognostic tools for glioma and glioblastoma. Tumor EVs are enriched with glioma antigens that could be helpful, for example, for development of new advanced anti-tumor immune vaccines based on autologous dendritic cells stimulated by tumor-specific antigens. © 2014, International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).
Sokolenko E.V.,Russian State Social University
Inorganic Materials | Year: 2014
IR absorption spectra of diamond nanoclusters are calculated by a semiempirical method (with PM3 parameterization), and the effects of cluster size, impurities, and native defects on the position and strength of absorption bands are examined. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Medvedev I.N.,Russian State Social University |
Nikishina N.A.,Russian State Social University
Advances in Gerontology | Year: 2011
The efficiency of attention processes and the reaction time to visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli have been studied in elderly people. A significant reduction in the efficiency of attention processes accompanied by significant changes in the mechanisms of perceptual functions has been found in elderly people compared with younger persons. In elderly people, a decrease in the basal level of reactivity of sensory areas accompanied by a change in the intrahemispheric relationship and predominance of the visual area of the left hemisphere as the "leading" analyzer has been identified. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.