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Rabiei K.,Shahrekord University | Polyakov A.,All Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | Khodambashi M.,Shahrekord University | Sharafova O.,All Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Crops | And 3 more authors.
Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin | Year: 2010

Experiments were carried out for optimization of conditions for morphogenic callus production and regeneration of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using four cultivars cultivated in Iran. Hypocotyl segments were put on media supplemented with 0.2 mg•L-1 2,4-D for callus initiation and proliferation. Small portions of callus (25 mg) were cut and transferred to new media with different concentrations of 2,4-D including 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mg•L -1. MS (Murashige & Skoog 1962) and MSm (Masuda et al. 1981) media were used in the experiments to identify the differences between these two media according to callus, embryoid and plantlet production.Obtained results showed that low level of 2,4-D (0.2 mg•L-1) was more effective in morphogenic callus production although higher amounts of it (0.5 mg•L-1 and 1 mg•L-1) caused more callus growth. Kinetin in concentration of 0.1 mg•L-1 was more effective for regeneration than BAP used in concentration 1 mg•L-1 especially according to embryoid production. MSm medium was more useful than MS for callus production and regeneration of carrot plantlets. Among tested cultivars Nantes Improved had more capability to produce viable plantlets. © Copyright by RIVC.

Razumova O.V.,Russian State Agrarian University | Alexandrov O.S.,Russian State Agrarian University | Divashuk M.G.,Russian State Agrarian University | Sukhorada T.I.,Krasnodar Lukyanenko Research Institute of Agriculture | Karlov G.I.,Russian State Agrarian University
Protoplasma | Year: 2015

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L., 2n = 20) is a dioecious plant. Sex expression is controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system consisting of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes XY for males and XX for females. Genetically monoecious hemp offers several agronomic advantages compared to the dioecious cultivars that are widely used in hemp cultivation. The male or female origin of monoecious maternal plants is unknown. Additionally, the sex chromosome composition of monoecious hemp forms remains unknown. In this study, we examine the sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp using a cytogenetic approach. Eight monoecious and two dioecious cultivars were used. The DNA of 210 monoecious plants was used for PCR analysis with the male-associated markers MADC2 and SCAR323. All monoecious plants showed female amplification patterns. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the subtelomeric CS-1 probe to chromosomes plates and karyotyping revealed a lack of Y chromosome and presence of XX sex chromosomes in monoecious cultivars with the chromosome number 2n = 20. There was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected. The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the genetic basis of sex expression in plants. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Wien

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