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Allegri R.F.,Institute Neurologia Raul Carrea FLENI | Guekht A.,Russian National Research Medical University
Drugs of Today | Year: 2012

Dementia is the result of various cerebral disorders, leading to an acquired loss of memory and impaired cognitive ability. The most common forms are Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Neurotrophic factors are essential for the survival and differentiation of developing neurons and protecting them against damage under pathologic conditions. Cerebrolysin is a peptide preparation that mimics the pleiotropic effects of neurotrophic factors. Several clinical trials investigating the therapeutic efficacy of Cerebrolysin in AD and VaD have confirmed the proof of concept. The results of these trials have shown statistically significant and clinically relevant treatment effects of Cerebrolysin on cognitive, global and functional domains in mild to moderately severe stages of dementia. Doses of 10 and 30 mL were the most effective, but higher doses of up to 60 mL turned out to be most effective in improving neuropsychiatric symptoms, which become relevant at later stages of the disease. Combining treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors and Cerebrolysin indicated long-term synergistic treatment effects in mild to moderate AD. The efficacy of Cerebrolysin persisted for up to several months after treatment suggesting Cerebrolysin has not merely symptomatic benefits, but a disease-delaying potential. This paper reviews the clinical efficacy of Cerebrolysin in the treatment of dementia. Data were obtained from international, multicenter, randomized clinical trials performed in compliance with Good Clinical Practice and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) and subsequent revisions. Copyright © 2012 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved. Source

Abramochkin D.V.,Russian National Research Medical University | Vornanen M.,University of Eastern Finland
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -Part A : Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2014

KB-R7943 (2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)phenyl]ethyl]isothiourea) was developed as a specific inhibitor of the sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) with potential experimental and therapeutic use. However, in cardiomyocytes KB-R7943 also effectively blocks several K+ currents including the delayed rectifier, IKr, and background inward rectifier, IK1. In the present study we analyze the effects of KB-R7943 on the ATP-dependent potassium current (IKATP) recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp in ventricular cardiomyocytes from a mammal (mouse) and a fish (crucian carp). IKATP was induced by external application of a mitochondrial uncoupler CCCP (3×10-7M) and internal perfusion of the cell with ATP-free pipette solution. A weakly inwardly rectifying current with a large outward component, recorded in the presence of CCCP, was blocked with 10-5M glibenclamide by 56.1±4.6% and 56.9±3.6% in crucian carp and mouse ventricular myocytes, respectively. In fish cardiomyocytes IKATP was blocked by KB-R7943 with an IC50 value of 3.14×10-7M, while in mammalian cells IC50 was 2.8×10-6M (P<0.05). 10-5M KB-R7943 inhibited CCCP-induced IKATP by 99.9±0.13% and 97.5±1.2% in crucian carp and mouse ventricular myocytes, respectively. In crucian carp the IKATP is about an order of magnitude more sensitive to KB-R7943 than the background IK1, but in mammals IKATP and IK1 are almost equally sensitive to KB-R7943. Therefore, the ability of KB-R7943 to block IKATP should be taken into account together with INCX inhibition when investigating possible cardioprotective effects of this compound. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Khan O.,Wayne State University | Rieckmann P.,University of Bamberg | Boyko A.,Russian National Research Medical University | Selmaj K.,Medical University of Lodz | Zivadinov R.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2013

Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of glatiramer acetate (GA) 40mg administered 3× weekly (tiw) compared with placebo in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods This randomized, double-blind study was conducted in 142 sites in 17 countries. Patients with RRMS with at least 1 documented relapse in the 12 months before screening, or at least 2 documented relapses in the 24 months before screening, and an Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 5.5, were randomized 2:1 to receive either subcutaneous (sc) GA 40mg tiw (1ml) or placebo for 12 months. Results Of 1,524 patients screened, 1,404 were randomized to receive GA 40mg sc tiw (n = 943) or placebo (n = 461). Ninety-three percent and 91% of patients in the placebo and GA groups, respectively, completed the 12-month study. GA 40mg tiw was associated with a 34.0% reduction in risk of confirmed relapses compared with placebo (mean annualized relapse rate = 0.331 vs 0.505; p < 0.0001). Patients who received GA 40mg tiw experienced highly significant reduction (p < 0.0001) in the cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing T1 (44.8%) and new or newly enlarging T2 lesions (34.7%) at months 6 and 12. GA 40mg tiw was safe and well tolerated. The most common adverse events in the GA group were injection site reactions (35.5% with GA vs 5.0% with placebo). Interpretation GA 40mg sc tiw is a safe and effective regimen for the treatment of RRMS, providing the convenience of fewer sc injections per week. © 2013 American Neurological Association. Source

Bazykin G.A.,Russian National Research Medical University
Biology Letters | Year: 2015

The fitness landscape-the function that relates genotypes to fitness-and its role in directing evolution are a central object of evolutionary biology. However, its huge dimensionality precludes understanding of even the basic aspects of its shape. One way to approach it is to ask a simpler question: what are the properties of a function that assigns fitness to each possible variant at just one particular site-a single position fitness landscape-and how does it change in the course of evolution? Analyses of genomic data from multiple species and multiple individuals within a species have proved beyond reasonable doubt that fitness functions of positions throughout the genome do themselves change with time, thus shaping protein evolution. Here, I will briefly review the literature that addresses these dynamics, focusing on recent genome-scale analyses of fitness functions of amino acid sites, i.e. vectors of fitnesses of 20 individual amino acid variants at a given position of a protein. The set of amino acids that confer high fitness at a particular position changes with time, and the rate of this change is comparable with the rate at which a position evolves, implying that this process plays a major role in evolutionary dynamics. However, the causes of these changes remain largely unclear. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Alipieva K.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Korkina L.,Russian National Research Medical University | Orhan I.E.,Gazi University | Georgiev M.I.,Bulgarian Academy of Science
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2014

Phenylethanoid glycosides are naturally occurring water-soluble compounds with remarkable biological properties that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Verbascoside is a phenylethanoid glycoside that was first isolated from mullein but is also found in several other plant species. It has also been produced by in vitro plant culture systems, including genetically transformed roots (so-called 'hairy roots'). Verbascoside is hydrophilic in nature and possesses pharmacologically beneficial activities for human health, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic properties in addition to numerous wound-healing and neuroprotective properties. Recent advances with regard to the distribution, (bio)synthesis and bioproduction of verbascoside are summarised in this review. We also discuss its prominent pharmacological properties and outline future perspectives for its potential application. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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