Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology

Obninsk, Russia

Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology

Obninsk, Russia
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Geras'kin S.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Vasiliyev D.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Makarenko E.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Volkova P.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Kuzmenkov A.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2017

Over a period of 8 years (2007–2014), we were evaluating seed quality and morphological abnormalities in Scots pine trees affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The calculated dose rates for the trees at the study sites varied from background values at the reference sites to 40 mGy/year at the most contaminated site. We investigated whether radioactive contamination and/or weather factors could decrease the reproductive capacity or increase the frequency of morphological abnormalities of needles in pine trees. Scots pine seeds are characterized by high interannual variability of viability, which is largely determined by weather conditions. No consistent differences in reproductive capacity were detected between the impacted and reference populations. Brachyblasts with three needles were found only in the affected populations; however, their frequency was very low and only at the very border of significance at the p < 0.10 level. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Geras'kin S.A.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Dikareva N.S.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Oudalova A.A.,National Research Nuclear University | Vasil'ev D.V.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Volkova P.Y.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology
Russian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2016

Long-term observations on Scots pine populations (2003–2012) were performed in areas of Bryansk region radioactively contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Throughout the observation period, the frequency of cytogenetic alterations in the root meristem of germinated seeds of pine trees from radioactively contaminated test sites significantly exceeded the control level. Seeds developing under chronic radiation exposure were characterized by high interannual variation in viability. The quality of the seeds and their resistance to additional γ-irradiation showed no definite relationship with the level of radioactive contamination in the site and the radiation dose absorbed by the generative organs of Scots pine. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Oudalova A.A.,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI | Geras'Kin S.A.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Dikareva N.S.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Pyatkova S.V.,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2017

Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium-test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium-test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Geras'kin S.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Churyukin R.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Volkova P.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2017

The reactions of barley seeds (Nur and Grace varieties) in terms of the root and sprout lengths, germination and root mass were studied after γ-irradiation with doses in the range of 2–50 Gy. The dose range in which plants' growth stimulation occurs (16–20 Gy) was identified. It was shown that increased size of seedlings after irradiation with stimulating doses was due to the enhancing pace of development rather than an earlier germination. The activity of the majority of the enzymes studied increased in the range of doses that cause stimulation of seedlings development. The influences of the dose rate, the quality of seeds, their moisture and time interval between irradiation and initiation of germination on the manifestation of the effects of radiation were investigated. The experimental data on the effect of γ-irradiation on seedlings development were significantly better explained by mathematical models that take into account the hormetic effect. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Brechignac F.,CEA Cadarache Center | Oughton D.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Mays C.,Institute Symlog Of France | Barnthouse L.,LWB Environmental Services Inc. | And 25 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2016

This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. © 2016 The Authors.


PubMed | McMaster University, Institute Symlog Of France, Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 388 Church Street and 21 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental radioactivity | Year: 2016

This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment.


Geras'kin S.A.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2016

Irradiation of plants and animals can result in disruption of ecological relationships between the components of ecosystems. Such effects may act as triggers of perturbation and lead to consequences that may differ essentially from expected ones based on effects observed at the organismal level. Considerable differences in ecology and niches occupied by different species lead to substantial differences in doses of ionizing radiation absorbed by species, even when they all are present in the same environment at the same time. This is especially evident for contamination with α-emitting radionuclides. Radioactive contamination can be considered an ecological factor that is able to modify the resistance in natural populations. However, there are radioecological situations when elevated radioresistance does not evolve or persist. The complexity and non-linearity of the structure and functioning of ecosystems can lead to unexpected consequences of stress effects, which would appear harmless if they were assessed within the narrower context of organism-based traditional radioecology. Therefore, the use of ecological knowledge is essential for understanding responses of populations and ecosystems to radiation exposure. Integration of basic ecological principles in the design and implementation of radioecological research is essential for predicting radiation effects under rapidly changing environmental conditions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Anisimov V.S.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Kochetkov I.V.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Dikarev D.V.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Anisimova L.N.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Korneev Y.N.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2015

Purpose: The purposes of the paper are to estimate the inactivating power of soils in relation to radiologically important long-lived radionuclides 65Zn and 60Co and to develop methodological approaches for assessing effects of edaphic factors on the radionuclides mobility in the soil-plant system. Materials and methods: For the experimental studies, different soil samples were collected (16 soil types, classes, and subclasses). A model experiment was carried out in a greenhouse where barley plants were grown under controlled conditions for 2 weeks on soils artificially contaminated by 65ZnCl2 and 60CoCl2. The biological availability of stable “natural” Zn, which is an aggregate of stable nuclides, radionuclides 65Zn and 60Co, was determined using the concentration ratio (CR). The physical and chemical parameters of soil (pH, the sum of silt, and clay particles (<0.01 mm) content, Fe mobile, P mobile, humus content, a ratio of humic and fulvic acid carbon (CHA/CFA), contents of mobile forms of elements (Co, Zn)) were determined. Experimental data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results and discussion: An effort has been made to quantify the relationships between the parameters describing physical-chemical properties of soils and those that characterize 65Zn and 60Co bioavailability. A methodological approach has been used, which employs natural diversity of physical-chemical properties of different types and kinds of noncarbonate and carbonate soils in the European part of Russia, to find relevant relationships. The use of radioactive isotopes of trace elements provides an opportunity to predict the behavior of the technogenous origin metals in the soil-plant system. Conclusions: Methodological approach for estimation of soil characteristic contribution to common inactivating capacity in relation to radionuclide migration in the soil-plant system was suggested. On its basis, a scale of soil inactivating capacity can be developed. The derived results allow ranking of the selected physical-chemical parameters of soils by their influence on CR (65Zn or 60Co) value in barley. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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