Time filter

Source Type

Geras'kin S.A.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2016

Irradiation of plants and animals can result in disruption of ecological relationships between the components of ecosystems. Such effects may act as triggers of perturbation and lead to consequences that may differ essentially from expected ones based on effects observed at the organismal level. Considerable differences in ecology and niches occupied by different species lead to substantial differences in doses of ionizing radiation absorbed by species, even when they all are present in the same environment at the same time. This is especially evident for contamination with α-emitting radionuclides. Radioactive contamination can be considered an ecological factor that is able to modify the resistance in natural populations. However, there are radioecological situations when elevated radioresistance does not evolve or persist. The complexity and non-linearity of the structure and functioning of ecosystems can lead to unexpected consequences of stress effects, which would appear harmless if they were assessed within the narrower context of organism-based traditional radioecology. Therefore, the use of ecological knowledge is essential for understanding responses of populations and ecosystems to radiation exposure. Integration of basic ecological principles in the design and implementation of radioecological research is essential for predicting radiation effects under rapidly changing environmental conditions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

Geras'kin S.A.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Dikareva N.S.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Oudalova A.A.,National Research Nuclear University | Vasil'ev D.V.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Volkova P.Y.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology
Russian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2016

Long-term observations on Scots pine populations (2003–2012) were performed in areas of Bryansk region radioactively contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Throughout the observation period, the frequency of cytogenetic alterations in the root meristem of germinated seeds of pine trees from radioactively contaminated test sites significantly exceeded the control level. Seeds developing under chronic radiation exposure were characterized by high interannual variation in viability. The quality of the seeds and their resistance to additional γ-irradiation showed no definite relationship with the level of radioactive contamination in the site and the radiation dose absorbed by the generative organs of Scots pine. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Brechignac F.,CEA Cadarache Center | Oughton D.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Mays C.,Institute Symlog Of France | Barnthouse L.,LWB Environmental Services Inc. | And 25 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2016

This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. © 2016 The Authors. Source

Anisimov V.S.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Kochetkov I.V.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Dikarev D.V.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Anisimova L.N.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology | Korneev Y.N.,Russian Institute of Radiology and Agroecology
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2015

Purpose: The purposes of the paper are to estimate the inactivating power of soils in relation to radiologically important long-lived radionuclides 65Zn and 60Co and to develop methodological approaches for assessing effects of edaphic factors on the radionuclides mobility in the soil-plant system. Materials and methods: For the experimental studies, different soil samples were collected (16 soil types, classes, and subclasses). A model experiment was carried out in a greenhouse where barley plants were grown under controlled conditions for 2 weeks on soils artificially contaminated by 65ZnCl2 and 60CoCl2. The biological availability of stable “natural” Zn, which is an aggregate of stable nuclides, radionuclides 65Zn and 60Co, was determined using the concentration ratio (CR). The physical and chemical parameters of soil (pH, the sum of silt, and clay particles (<0.01 mm) content, Fe mobile, P mobile, humus content, a ratio of humic and fulvic acid carbon (CHA/CFA), contents of mobile forms of elements (Co, Zn)) were determined. Experimental data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results and discussion: An effort has been made to quantify the relationships between the parameters describing physical-chemical properties of soils and those that characterize 65Zn and 60Co bioavailability. A methodological approach has been used, which employs natural diversity of physical-chemical properties of different types and kinds of noncarbonate and carbonate soils in the European part of Russia, to find relevant relationships. The use of radioactive isotopes of trace elements provides an opportunity to predict the behavior of the technogenous origin metals in the soil-plant system. Conclusions: Methodological approach for estimation of soil characteristic contribution to common inactivating capacity in relation to radionuclide migration in the soil-plant system was suggested. On its basis, a scale of soil inactivating capacity can be developed. The derived results allow ranking of the selected physical-chemical parameters of soils by their influence on CR (65Zn or 60Co) value in barley. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Discover hidden collaborations