Russian Hydrochemical Institute

Rostov-na-Donu, Russia

Russian Hydrochemical Institute

Rostov-na-Donu, Russia
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Gar'kusha D.N.,Southern Federal University | Fedorov Y.A.,Southern Federal University | Tambieva N.S.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2016

Empirical relationships between methane concentration and the rates of its oxidation and emission in the sediment-water-atmosphere system are computed using the experimental data and the data presented in the literature. For the Sea of Azov and the World Ocean the possibility is demonstrated of using the empirically derived formulae to compute the methane cycle elements in aquatic ecosystems. The comparability of methane volumes in the water column and bottom sediments as well as of those oxidized and released from water and sediments computed using these formulae, demonstrates the adequacy of the obtained formulae. It is shown that depending on morphological parameters of reservoirs of aquatic ecosystems and on their volume and area, the ratio of the amounts of methane that is oxidized and released to the atmosphere, changes as well as the rate of its turnover. © 2016, Allerton Press, Inc.

Nikanorov A.M.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Trofimchuk M.M.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute
Doklady Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

In order to study the effect of pollutants on intrabasin processes, a series of nature experiments has been made in natural model ecosystems (mesocosms). The intensity of photosynthetic production and organic matter destruction have been studied as generalized thermodynamical parameters of the state of the ecosystem. On the basis of the ratio between destruction and overall production, dynamical phase patterns have been built. Analysis has shown that the dynamics of the state of the ecosystem described by these parameters corresponds to general regularities of the evolution of the state of dissipative systems. Consequently, the destruction-to-production ratio can be considered as a thermodynamic criterion for assessment in the evolution of the state of water ecosystems. On the basis of this criterion, and with the help of the approach proposed, methods of ecological load normalization can be elaborated. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.

Gotovtsev A.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Danilov-Danilyan V.I.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Nikanorov A.M.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute
Water Resources | Year: 2012

Problems resulting from the disagreement between Russian and World practices in the organization of biological oxygen demand monitoring being in disagreement with the up-to-date theoretical and experimental achievements. Proposals are put forward aimed to improve the implementation of measure-ments of biological oxygen demand in water bodies and the mathematical processing of the measurement results. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Nikanorov A.M.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute | Khoruzhaya T.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Martysheva N.A.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2012

The analysis of ecological and toxicological conditions of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir and of trends of long-term variations of hydrochemical, hydrobiological, and biotesting parameters is carried out on the basis of long-term data of Roshydromet regular observations (1984-1991) and authors' studies (1990, 2006-2007). It is revealed that, according to the complex of chemical parameters, the water pollution level decreased by the end of the period and is relatively low at present, although the pollution is of stable nature and the toxic and carcinogenic compounds are discovered in the water and in bottom sediments. The most dangerous display of the reservoir eutrophication is a "bloom" of algae characterized by the prevalence of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) amounting to 100% of the total biomass in some samples; the species being able to discharge the toxins to the water (Aphanisomenon flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena flos-aquae) often prevail. During biotesting, the samples of water and bottom sediments in a number of cases exerted a toxic effect on the water organisms and, most likely, the toxicity increases with time. Although different parts of the reservoir differ considerably in ecological and toxicological parameters, an ecologically unfavorable situation emerged in the reservoir ecosystem due to the pollution, eutrophication, and toxicophication. © 2012 Allerton Press, Inc.

Nikanorov A.M.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2010

The present-day status of the national monitoring of the land surface water pollution is estimated; the key areas of its development and their scientific coverage by the methods and methodologies are under consideration. © 2010 Allerton Press, Inc.

Reznikov S.A.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute | Adzhiev R.A.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2015

Presented are the results of the studies that were carried out in 2013 and deal with the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (as compared with 1984 and 1988) and organochlorine compounds (OCCs) (as compared with 2006) in bottom sediments in the north of Lake Baikal. The total composition of polyaryl in bottom sediments is determined and the areas of concentration of different PAH homologues are detected. All these are done for the first time for the observational system in the north of the lake in the area of the Baikal-Amur Mainline impact. The moderate pollution of bottom sediments with PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene was registered only at the marginal filter in the Kichera River delta front. Increase in DDT and DDD metabolites is registered in pesticides. Presented characteristics of the current level of contamination of bottom sediments in the north of the lake can be used as environmental indices for the further monitoring. © 2015, Allerton Press, Inc.

Rozhkov Y.Ph.,State Nature Reserve Olekminsky | Kondakova M.Y.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

The study contains the results of forest monitoring at three levels: the forests condition assessment at the time of recording or mapping for this indicator, the seasonal changes assessment in the forests condition, mainly during the vegetation period and the evaluation of long-term changes in the values of the studied parameters on the example of the forests recovery after a fire. The use of two indices - NDVI and Image Difference in the boreal forests monitoring is treated. NDVI assesses the state of plant biomass and its productivity. The rate of Image Difference characterizes the optical density and allows estimate the density of the forest stand. In addition, by identifying Image Difference on summer and autumn pictures it can makes a distinction of different wood species, to divide forest areas, which consist of deciduous and coniferous species and larch which shedded needles at the end of the vegetation period. Therefore, it is possible to differentiate the pine, cedar, spruce forests on the one side and birch, larch, alder on the other side. The optical density of the forest decreases after the needles- and the leaf sheddings. Using the index Image Difference in estimates of long-term changes of the forest stand shows the trend of changes of the forest density and the tree species composition. The results of the analysis of the recovery process of the forest after a fire in the period from 1995 to 2009 showed how shoots of birch, larch and pine recover wastelands. © 2013 SPIE.

Nikanorov A.M.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute | Khoruzhaya T.A.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute
Geography and Natural Resources | Year: 2014

Long-term data from Rosgidromet and research results were used in comparing the chemistry condition of the southern reservoirs (Tsimlyansk, Proletarsk and Veselyi) to reveal that the ecologo-toxicological indices and characteristics of such intra-waterbody processes as pollution, eutrophication and toxification differ substantially. In the first place, the differences apply for the hydrochemical regime and mineralization as well as for individual biological indices. Common to the reservoirs are a stable (chronic) character of chemical contamination (in spite of its relatively low level), and a long-lasting presence of stable organochlorine pesticides in the composition of contamination, and a decline in biodiversity. The Tsimlyansk and Veselyi reservoirs show a similar seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton, and a predominance of blue-green algae in the phytoplankton community. An unfavorable factor for the ecosystem of the Tsimlyansk reservoir is represented by annually recurring water bloom, with a large-scale occurrence of toxic species of algae, and by an increase in toxicity of natural water (toxification). © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Nikanorov A.M.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute | Korotova L.G.,Russian Hydrochemical Institute
Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2013

Considered is the dynamics of pesticide content in surface water bodies of the Russian Federation during the long-term period. Demonstrated are the key directions of improving and optimizing observations of pesticide content in surface waters. Proposed is a priority list of pesticides recommended to be determined in water bodies of the country based on the known criteria of estimating the potential hazard of pesticides. © 2013 Allerton Press, Inc.

Presented is a description of the river flow and content of hardly (humic substances) and easily (the final product is methane) oxidizable organic matter in it in the water of lower reaches of the Don, Severskii Donets, and Mius rivers in 1995-2009. Considered are the climate change effects in the river catchment on the content of dissolved organic matter in the river flow of estuaries and the change in species composition and volumes of primary production in the coastal waters of seas in arid zones. The present paper is a part of the theoretical basis considering the "climate-land-water" relationships for the further development of practical techniques in the field of ecology. © 2012 Allerton Press, Inc.

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