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Garashchenko T.I.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Kirichenko I.M.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii | Year: 2016

The article discusses topical problems of treatment of acute and chronic sinusites, and chronic serous otites in children. One of the important links in the pathogenesis of these diseases is change of the properties of discharge, decrease of its fluidity, which results in its difficult outflow, accumulation of secretion and its suppuration. Inclusion of adequate mucoregulating drugs in the regimen of sinusitis treatment permits to improve the dynamics of discharge, regulate drainage function and ensure a faster and more stable regression of symptoms of disease, reduces the terms of treatment and prolongs the remission period. Drugs of the carbocisteine group, having simultaneously mucolytic and mucoregulating effects have good prospects in this respect. A two-week practice of using secretolytic drugs with mucoregulating action in 60 patients yielded a positive effect in 95% of children with acute sinusitis. In treatment of EOM patients (40 children) normalisation was recorded in 78% of cases, and statistically significant improvement of the otoscopic picture, audiogram and tympanogram, decrease or absence of subjective complaints-in 22%. The use of drugs from the carbocysteine group in treatment of acute and chronic sinusites, chronic serous otites in children accelerates recovery and prolongs remission of disease, decreases a risk for complications.


Sapozhnikov Ya.M.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Karpov V.L.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Kuznetsov A.O.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii | Year: 2016

The objectiveL To broaden the opportunities for diagnosing various kinds of conductive hearing loss during examination of patients, including during audiological screening. Patients and methods: Within the framework of the 1st stage of neonatal audiological screening 50 newborns (100 ears) aged 3-4 days were examined. Along with the classical screening procedure (recording of delayed evoked otoacoustic emission - DEOAE), simultaneously (without taking out a probe microphone from a baby's ear) broadband tympanometry was done using a portable tympanometer (Interacoustics, Denmark) for the first time in Russia. Results: In 48 newborns, DEOAE was recorded on both sides, 22 (44%) infants had a type A tympanogram, 15 (30%) - type E and 11 (22%) - type Àd. In two newborns (4 ears - 4%) DEOAE was absent. In one of them type A tympanogram was recorded on both sides, which makes it possible to suspect sensorineural heating loss, in the second - type B tympanogram on the side with negative otoacoustic emission, which might be caused by the conductive component. The study continues, the authors plan to increase the sample and to perform dynamic examination of patients in deaf and hard-of-hearing units/centres selected after the 2nd stage of audiological screening. Conclusion: Broadband tympanometry supplementing record of DEOAE at the 1st stage of audiological screening of newborns and first year infants enhances the opportunities of diagnosing conductive hearing loss. The obtained results permit to recommend the use of broadband tympanometry at the 2nd stage of audiological screening of newborns to diagnose conductive hearing loss and also for examination of premature newborns.


Grigor'ev Y.G.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Sidorenko A.V.,Belarusian State University
Biophysics | Year: 2011

Development of the convulsive syndrome occurs during exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) during physiotherapy and under conditions of professional work. Some researchers believe that EMFs may have medical effects during the treatment of the epilepsy syndrome. Some publications have noted the development of epileptic convulsions in experiments using EMF exposures at various frequencies. Four conditions that may promote the development of convulsions upon EMF exposure are considered. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


PubMed | Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency and Belarusian State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine | Year: 2016

Myeloperoxidase, heme enzyme of azurophilic granules in neutrophils, is released into the extracellular space in the inflammation foci. In neutrophils, it stimulates a dose-dependent release of lactoferrin (a protein of specific granules), lysozyme (a protein of specific and azurophilic granules), and elastase (a protein of azurophilic granules). 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide, a potent inhibitor of peroxidase activity of myeloperoxidase, produced no effect on neutrophil degranulation. Using signal transduction inhibitors (genistein, methoxyverapamil, wortmannin, and NiCl2), we demonstrated that myeloperoxidase-induced degranulation of neutrophils resulted from enzyme interaction with the plasma membrane and depends on activation of tyrosine kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), and calcium signaling. Myeloperoxidase modified by oxidative/halogenation stress (chlorinated and monomeric forms of the enzyme) lost the potency to activate neutrophil degranulation.


Kurdyukov I.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Rodionov G.,Academy Lebedev St | Radilov A.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Babakov V.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) are natural bioscavengers of organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the human body, which can determine individual sensitivity to organophosphate toxicity. Interindividual differences in activity of PON1 (catalytic bioscavenger) and substrate specificity are strongly associated with the substitution of two amino acids: Leu/Met (L/M) at position 55 (rs854560) and Gln/Arg (Q/R) at position 192 (rs662). In the case of BCHE (stoichiometric bioscavenger) substitution, Ala/Thr (A/T) at position 539 produces the so-called "K-variant" of the enzyme (rs1803274). Threonine allele is often co-inherited with an atypical BCHE allele (rs1799807). The atypical variant of BCHE displays a lower affinity for cholinesterase inhibitors. Genotyping rs662 and rs1803274 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) by high-resolution melting (HRM) is facilitated by the nucleotide substitution A>G (G>A), which resulted in a changed number of hydrogen bonds in the PCR product and, consequently, shifted T m. In the case of rs854560, genotyping is complicated by the nucleotide substitution T>A, which has no significant effect on the T m of the PCR product. An addition of a small quantity of LL homozygote DNA into the reaction mixture before PCR discriminates the three genotypes by the melt curves due to different amounts of heteroduplexes formed in the LM and MM samples. HRM analysis can be applied for genotyping human rs854560, rs662, and rs1803274 SNPs. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Smagin N.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Krutyansky L.M.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Zelenova Z.V.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Brysev A.P.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Acoustical Physics | Year: 2014

Acoustic absorption has been measured in a series of biological tissue specimens - porcine muscle, renal and fat tissues - by the standard insert-substitution method, as well as by ultrasonic phase conjugation. Comparison of the experimental results and revealed differences confirm the promise of using phase conjugate waves to measure acoustic losses in biological objects. It is demonstrated that in inhomogeneous tissues, the phase conjugation method makes it possible to obtain a more reliable estimate of dissipative losses. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Savel'Eva E.E.,Bashkir State Medical University | Kuznetsov A.O.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii | Year: 2015

The objective: Improvement of the quality of electroacoustic correction of hearing in infants suffering sensorineural hearing loss. Patients and methods: A group of 36 children aged 1 month to 5 years with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss of varied severity was clinically examined and observed in 2008-2011. The severity of hearing loss in children of the group was determined according to the findings of a complex audiological examination with the use of subjective and objective methods. Results: Recording of steady-state auditory evoked potentials to modulated tones (Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR) testing) successfully complements the examination of functions of the auditory analyzer in children, permitting to use even very loud stimuli. The clinical study showed that the specificity of the ASSR test is 96.7%, and sensitivity - 97.2%. On the other hand, thresholds of hearing have fluctuations at various frequencies in 18% of cases, which necessitates their rechecking and comparison with the results of other tests. The dynamic follow-up showed that if a hearing disorder was diagnosed before 6-12 months of age and early adequate rehabilitation begins, a child has a good level of speech development by 3 years of age. And vice versa, children whose hearing disorder was diagnosed at 12-24 months had delayed speech development by 3 years of age as compared with same-age peers. Conclusion: The use of ASSR testing successfully complements examination of the functions of the auditory analyzer in small children. In our opinion, frequency thresholds of the ASSR test should not be used for adjustment of hearing AIDS because of their variability and difference from data of tone audiometry. The results of a child's speech development depend on the correctness of the determined frequencies of auditory thresholds, early diagnosis of hearing loss, adequate correction of hearing, and paedagogic work.


Garashchenko T.I.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Boykova N.E.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii | Year: 2013

Tonsillites and tonsillopharyngites are a polyetiologic group of diseases of the upper respiratory tract characterized by similar clinical signs. The problem of administering startup therapy in tonsillopharyngitis is conditioned by the necessity of choosing between the use of systemic and local antibacterial therapy, which should be based on the etiology of the process. Since in 70% of cases, the causative agents of tonsillites and tonsillopharyngites are viruses, in case of ruling out the group A streptococcal etiology of disease, treatment might be restricted to administration of topical antiseptics. The article presents data about the criteria of administering various groups of antibacterial medications, and also about modern possibilities of symptomatic therapy in this group of diseases.


Manovitskaya A.V.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency
Voprosy Pitaniia | Year: 2011

Study on the influence of taurines (Dibicor) on metabolic indicators in patients with of metabolic syndrome showed improvement in carbohydrate metabolism and lipid profile in patients with type 2 pancreatic diabetes.


Savel'Eva E.I.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Gustyleva L.K.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency
Russian Journal of General Chemistry | Year: 2014

The data on properties and existence forms of Russian poisonous substance VX (RVX) in environmental objects are presented. Hydrolysis of RVX with excessive amount of water in acidic medium as well as autocatalytic hydrolysis with equimolar amount of water were investigated. It was shown that in the first case destruction of RVX proceeded slower with more diverse composition of the products. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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