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Smagin N.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Krutyansky L.M.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Zelenova Z.V.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Brysev A.P.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Acoustical Physics | Year: 2014

Acoustic absorption has been measured in a series of biological tissue specimens - porcine muscle, renal and fat tissues - by the standard insert-substitution method, as well as by ultrasonic phase conjugation. Comparison of the experimental results and revealed differences confirm the promise of using phase conjugate waves to measure acoustic losses in biological objects. It is demonstrated that in inhomogeneous tissues, the phase conjugation method makes it possible to obtain a more reliable estimate of dissipative losses. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Grigor'ev Y.G.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Sidorenko A.V.,Belarusian State University
Biophysics | Year: 2011

Development of the convulsive syndrome occurs during exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) during physiotherapy and under conditions of professional work. Some researchers believe that EMFs may have medical effects during the treatment of the epilepsy syndrome. Some publications have noted the development of epileptic convulsions in experiments using EMF exposures at various frequencies. Four conditions that may promote the development of convulsions upon EMF exposure are considered. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Makhacheva Kh.G.,P.A. College | Daykhes N.A.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency | Askhabova L.M.,Dagestan State Medical Academy
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii | Year: 2015

Overall introduction of the programme of audiologic screening of newborns, beginning with the first years of their life (at the level of maternity clinics), is one of the key aspects of adequate rehabilitation of patients with hearing loss and deafness. The authors analyzed the expected long-term effectiveness from introduction of the system of universal two-level audiologic screening of children, including recording of otoacoustic emission and short latency auditory evoked potentials. The expedience of early diagnosis of hearing disorders in newborns and children of the first year of life has been assessed and a comparative analysis of the strategies of performing audiologic screening of newborns and infants of the first year of life has been performed. The existing types of screening and the requirements for their administration are discussed in detail; and indicators of the quality of performing audiologic screening have been proposed. Source


Savel'Eva E.E.,Bashkir State Medical University | Kuznetsov A.O.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii | Year: 2015

The objective: Improvement of the quality of electroacoustic correction of hearing in infants suffering sensorineural hearing loss. Patients and methods: A group of 36 children aged 1 month to 5 years with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss of varied severity was clinically examined and observed in 2008-2011. The severity of hearing loss in children of the group was determined according to the findings of a complex audiological examination with the use of subjective and objective methods. Results: Recording of steady-state auditory evoked potentials to modulated tones (Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR) testing) successfully complements the examination of functions of the auditory analyzer in children, permitting to use even very loud stimuli. The clinical study showed that the specificity of the ASSR test is 96.7%, and sensitivity - 97.2%. On the other hand, thresholds of hearing have fluctuations at various frequencies in 18% of cases, which necessitates their rechecking and comparison with the results of other tests. The dynamic follow-up showed that if a hearing disorder was diagnosed before 6-12 months of age and early adequate rehabilitation begins, a child has a good level of speech development by 3 years of age. And vice versa, children whose hearing disorder was diagnosed at 12-24 months had delayed speech development by 3 years of age as compared with same-age peers. Conclusion: The use of ASSR testing successfully complements examination of the functions of the auditory analyzer in small children. In our opinion, frequency thresholds of the ASSR test should not be used for adjustment of hearing AIDS because of their variability and difference from data of tone audiometry. The results of a child's speech development depend on the correctness of the determined frequencies of auditory thresholds, early diagnosis of hearing loss, adequate correction of hearing, and paedagogic work. Source


Merkulov O.A.,Moscow State University | Garashchenko T.I.,Russian Federal Medical Biological Agency
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii | Year: 2013

The objective. To determine the possibility and effectiveness of a multidisciplinary approach to surgical treatment of neoplasms of the anterior and middle cranial fossae in children through endoscopic endonasal approach with the use of a computerassisted navigation system. Patients and methods. The study included 54 patients aged from 1 month to 18 years (mean age - 11 ± 6.62 years) with neoplasms of the anterior and middle cranial fossae. All the patients were operated for the first time through endoscopic endonasal approach: an endoscope was introduced to tumours of the anterior cranial fossa and the olfactory crest through a combined transnasal/transethmoidal «corridor»; to tumours of the Turkish saddle and the suprasellar cistern, and also to the upper third of the clivus - through transsphenoidal/transethmoidal «corridor». In planning operations, additional orientation was provided by the computer-assisted navigation system Vector Vision Compactsystem (BrainLab, USA). Results. The study showed that constructive specificities of endoscopes and improvement of orientation in the most important anatomic structures due to the use of navigation equipment ensured precise control over surgical instrument in narrow anatomic spaces and permitted to more carefully act on a pathological site. The average time of operative intervention was 248.6 ± 12.8 min. Complications developed in 9 (16.7%) patients. Intraoperative complications were registered in 3 of them (liquorrhea - in 2 and bleeding from the cavernous sinus - in 1 child). The post-operative period was complicated in 1 child by development of meningitis, and in 4 - by residual phenomena. Analysis of short-term results of the operative interventions showed regress of hormonal disorders in 50 (92.6%) patients with similar hormonal imbalance, and in 52 (96.2%) - decrease of ophthalmoneurological deficiency. Relapse of tumour occurred in 4 (7.4%) children. There were no lethal outcomes. Conclusion. As has been found, endoscopic endonasal surgery on the skull base is highly effective and safe for treatment of children with neoplasms of the anterior and middle cranial fossae. Modern computer-assisted navigation equipment permits to choose a more conservative variant of operative intervention. Source

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