Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Every cell reserves fatty acids in cytozol in drops of lipids in the form of non-polar triglycerides for itself and for oxidation in mitochondria. The specialized visceral fatty cells of omentum and adipocytes of subcutaneous fat are the cells absorbing saturated and mono unsaturated fatty acids inform of triglycerides in apoB-48 chylomicrons, apoB-100 lipoproteins of low and very low density. They deposit their physiological time and liberate fatty acids in intercellular medium in the form of polar unesterified fatty acids bound by albumin. According phylogenetic theory of general pathology, in biological function of trophology (nutrition) fatty cells sequentially implement biological reaction of exotrophy (external nutrition), deposition and endotrophy (internal nutrition). The humoral regulator of feedback in visceral fatty cells is leptin acting in autocrine way, in paracrin cenosises of cells and on the level of organism. The biological role of leptin is in preventing a) deposition of surplus amount of non-polar triglycerides in fatty cells; b) formation of endoplasmic "stress"; c) death of fatty cells in apoptosis way, formation of corpuscles of apoptosis and failure of biological function of endoecology; d) formation of biological reaction of inflammation in visceral fatty tissue; e) high level of unsaturated fatty acids in intercellular medium and J) development of metabolic syndrome. The leptin prevents aphysiological deposit of non-polar triglycerides in insulin-dependent cells that are not intended to deposit non-polar triglycerides and also in β-cells of islands. The main cause of high level of leptin in blood plasma is overeating of food physiological by content of nutrients. Source


Titov V.N.,Russian Cardiologic R and D Production Complex of Minzdrav of Russia
Klinichescheskaya Laboratornaya Diagnostika | Year: 2014

The decentralized system of resident macrophages phylogenetically is earlier and complement-depending one in every paracrin regulated cenosis of cells, intima of elastic type arteries. This system primarily utilizes protein macromolecules implementing biological reaction of transcytosis. The anatomically andfunctionally more perfect system of insulin-depended Kupffer macrophages in liver is centralized at the level of organism and is also intended to collect and utilize minor and protein biological "garbage ". The various peptides, humoral active mediators, fragments of plasmatic membranes, integral proteins of micro RNA in hydrophilic medium of blood plasma are forming under their physical chemical interaction micro-particles, micro-vesicles and exosomes. All of them, under effect of IgG, absorb phylogenetically late Kupffer macrophages. The consequent system of implementation of biologic function of endoecology includes biologic reaction of exocytosis at autocrin level; complement-depended macrophages in paracrin cenosises of cells; resident macrophages in intima of elastic type arteries with reaction of transcytosis; centralized Kupffer macrophages in liver in sinusoidal capillaries and Disse spaces without reaction of transcytosis. The difference of function of systems makes it possible to make a conception of the role of biologic function of endoecology in pathological processes. Therefore, an opportunity appears to evaluate diagnostic value of methods based on detection of amount and quality composition of micro particles of blood plasma. This can be useful in differential diagnostic of metabolic pandemics. Source


For billions years, two phylogenelically, functionally and regulatory different pools of fatty cells - visceral fatty acids and adipocytes-coexist in vivo. Their becoming occurred at different degrees of phylogenesis. The phylogenelically earlier pool of visceral fatty acids is meant to supply with fait)' acids-substrates for gaining energy' by those cells which implement biological function of nutrition (trophology), homeostasis, endoecology, biological function of adaptation and continuation of species. They have no receptors to phylogenelically later insulin. The adipocytes, later in phylogenesis, implement one biological function-the function of locomotion and they are as insulin-dependent as skeletal myocytes, cardiomyocytes, adipocytes and periportal hepatocytes. The difference in regulation is traced on all levels of "biological perfection " - autocrine (cellular) level, in humoral regulated paracrin cenosises of cells and on the level of organism. In biological function of trophology, paracrin cenosises of visceral fatty acids and adipocytes implement subsequently three biological reactions: exolrophy, deposit of fatty acids and endotrophy. In conditions of humoral regulation of three functionally different biological reactions in paracrin cenosises synthesis of so many humoral mediators is required. The humoral mediators of mechanism of feedback at autocrine level, in paracrin cenosises and at the level of organism are leptin of visceral fatty acids and adiponectin of adipocytes. At the level of organism, phylogenelically earlier paracrin cenosises of fatty cells are regulated by endocrine system. The phylogenelically later paracrin cenosises are regulated by insulin and nuclei of hypothalamus. The metabolic syndrome is a pathology of phylogenelically earlier insulin-independent visceral fatty acids. The obesity is a pathology of phylogenelically later pool of insulin-dependent adipocytes. Source


Titov V.N.,Russian Cardiologic R and D Production Complex of Minzdrav of Russia
Klinichescheskaya Laboratornaya Diagnostika | Year: 2014

The first function of carrier protein of cholesterol ethers in phylogenesis was passive transfer of polar diglycerides from lipoproteins of very low density to lipoproteins of very high density to proceed with hydrolysis. At the later degrees, carrier protein of cholesterol ethers initiated reverse transfer of polyenoic fatty acids from lipoproteins of very high density to lipoproteins of very low density inform of polyenoic ethers with spirit cholesterol. This occurrence became a stage of transfer and active absorption by cells polyenoic fatty acids using apoB-100 receptor endocytosis in lipoproteins of very low density. Later on, in phylogenesis under mutation of carrier protein of cholesterol ethers null cells began compensatory absorb polyenoic fatty acids in lipoproteins of very high density by force of apoE/A-1 endocytosis. In certain percentage of species of animals (primates, rabbits) and humans the cells absorb polyenoic fatty acids by force of apoB-100 endocytosis. In other species (rats and mice) the cells absorb polyenoic fatty acids through apoE/A=I receptors. In animals, under first receptor absorption of polyenoic fatty acids by cells it is easy to reproduce atherosclerosis and atheromatosis on the model of exogenous hypercholesterolemia and it is practically impossible in second case. The absence in vivo of lipoproteins of very high density and triple associate of lipoproteins of very high density + carrier protein of cholesterol ethers + lipoproteins of very low density is followed by increasing of spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of very high density and decreasing of content of spirit cholesterol-lipoproteins of very low density as risk factors of human atherosclerosis. This occurrence served as foundation for proposal to apply blockers of action of carrier protein of cholesterol ethers in patients with atherosclerosis. The main function of lipoproteins of very high density as of all lipoproteins is to transfer fatty acids to cells and only in second instance to transfer from all cells spirit cholesterol in the form of mono-ethers cholesterol. Only results of clinical studies will demonstrate the effectiveness of compensatory apoE/A-I receptor endocytosis of lipoproteins of very low density in comparison with physiological apoB-100 endocytosis. Source


Titov V.N.,Russian Cardiologic R and D Production Complex of Minzdrav of Russia
Klinichescheskaya Laboratornaya Diagnostika | Year: 2014

The insulin, to provide with energy the biologicalfunction of locomotion, formed: a) pool ofphylogenetically late insulin-dependent cells; b) highly productive vector variant of transfer of saturated and mono unsaturated fatty acids only to insulin-dependent cells; c) new variant of active absorption of substrates for acquiring energy by cells - apoE/B-100-receptor endocytosis; d) transformation of all endogenically synthesized palmitic saturated fatty acid in oleic mono saturated fatty acid and e) replacement of potentially ineffective palmitic variant of formation of energy in vivo with potentially high-performance oleic variant of metabolism of substrates for turning out of ATP. The insulin expressed synthesis of apoE glucose carrier 4 and stearyl-KoA-desaturase. These occurrences confirm that syndrome of insulin resistance primarily is the pathology of metabolism of fatty acids and only secondary the pathology metabolism of glucose. The multi-functional fatty cells of visceral areolar tissue and specialized adipocytes of subcutaneous fat depots are phylogenetically, regulatory and functionally different cells. They are formed under development of different biological functions: the first ones under realization of biological function of trophology and second ones under realization of biological function of locomotion. At the level oforganism, the mechanisms of hypothalamus-fatty cells feedback are realized by peptide leptin and in case of hypothalamus-adipocytes feedback - peptide adiponectin. The potential possibilities of mitochondria in synthesis of A TP are high and are conditioned only by amount of substrate of mitochondria acetyl-KoA. This shortage can be chronic as in cases of disorder of insulin function and palmitic variant of metabolism of substrates for acquiring energy by cells. The deficiency of acetyl-KoA can be acute as is the case of diabetic coma when surplus amount of ketonic bodies follows the expressed deficiency of acetyl-KoA formed from glucose and fatty acids. Can the intravenous injection of acetyl-KoA be effective under diabetic ketoacidosic coma?. Source

Discover hidden collaborations