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Russian Academy of Sciences, DuPont Company, Ovchinnikov, Bobkova, Medvinskaya, Samokhin and Nekrasov | Date: 2017-04-19

The present invention relates to the field of genetic engineering and medicine. Proposed is a method for treating neurodegenerative diseases and Alzheimers disease that includes the intranasal administration to a subject of a therapeutically effective amount of the YB-1 protein and/or active fragment and/or derivative thereof.


News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A new generation of higher-powered batteries for phones and cameras could result from ground-breaking research led by scientists at the University of Kent. Researchers from the University's School of Physical Sciences (SPS), working with scientists from other European institutions, formulated a recipe to increase the rate at which a solid material - an artificial mineral - can conduct charge. The team found that a phenomenon known as geometric frustration can be used in this process to increase the charge transport rate in the solid material in a way that is comparable with heating that material. Making use of this phenomenon, the team was able to 'tune' materials to be used in future batteries and fuel cells to speed up ionic conductivity. Lead researcher Dr Dean Sayle and his team in SPS found that geometric frustration broke up the regimented formation of atoms in the material, leading to a more disordered pattern. This disordered pattern allowed the charge to pass through the material at a much higher rate. Dr Sayle said: 'Disorder can be created by geometric frustration which might be understood as randomly giving two kinds of differently sized umbrellas to a regimented parade of people and telling them to put them up and come as close together as the size of the umbrellas allow. 'Naturally, this will lead to a destruction of the former formation towards a disordered formation exhibiting a large number of gaps. Similarly, we used geometric frustration to make the atoms disordered by mixing two differently sized atoms together which increased charge transport by 100,000'. As well as more powerful batteries, the new technique may lead to the development of new energy materials with zero- emissions. The paper, entitled Is Geometric Frustration-Induced Disorder a Recipe for High Ionic Conductivity? (Dean Sayle, Andre Duvel, Alan Chadwick, David Pickup, Silvia Ramos, Lewis Sayle, Emma Sayle, Thi Sayle, all University of Kent; Paul Heitjans, Leibniz Universita?t Hannover Germany; Pavel Fedorov, General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia; Gudrun Scholz, Humboldt-Universita?t zu Berlin Germany; Giannantonio Cibin, Diamond Light Source UK) is published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. See: http://pubs. For further information and image requests contact Martin Herrema at the University of Kent Press Office. News releases can also be found at http://www. Established in 1965, the University of Kent - the UK's European university - now has almost 20,000 students across campuses or study centres at Canterbury, Medway, Tonbridge, Brussels, Paris, Athens and Rome. It has been ranked: third for overall student satisfaction in the 2014 National Student Survey; 16th in the Guardian University Guide 2016; 23rd in the Times and Sunday Times University Guide 2016; and 22nd in the Complete University Guide 2015. In the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings 2015-16, Kent is in the top 10% of the world's leading universities for international outlook and 66th in its table of the most international universities in the world. The THE also ranked the University as 20th in its 'Table of Tables' 2016. Kent is ranked 17th in the UK for research intensity (REF 2014). It has world-leading research in all subjects and 97% of its research is deemed by the REF to be of international quality. Along with the universities of East Anglia and Essex, Kent is a member of the Eastern Arc Research Consortium. The University is worth £0.7 billion to the economy of the south east and supports more than 7,800 jobs in the region. Student off-campus spend contributes £293.3m and 2,532 full-time-equivalent jobs to those totals. In 2014, Kent received its second Queen's Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education.


News Article | May 19, 2017
Site: cerncourier.com

On its 50th anniversary, the world’s first underground lab built exclusively for science, the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in Russia, remains at the forefront of neutrino research. L’observatoire de neutrinos de la Baksan, en Russie, premier laboratoire souterrain du monde construit exclusivement à des fins scientifiques, fête en juin son cinquantième anniversaire. L’idée à l’origine de sa création, reprise ensuite par de nombreux autres laboratoires, était d’utiliser le sol et les roches pour protéger les installations des muons produits par les interactions des rayons cosmiques avec l’atmosphère, qui constituent le principal bruit de fond lors de la détection de neutrinos. L’expérience SAGE de Baksan et l’expérience GALLEX du Laboratoire national de Gran Sasso ont été les premières à détecter des neutrinos solaires et à confirmer le problème du déficit de neutrinos solaires. Aujourd’hui, l’observatoire de la Baksan demeure à la pointe en physique des neutrinos. De nouvelles expériences doivent bientôt être lancées, notamment BEST et le détecteur à scintillateur de grand volume de Baksan. On 29 June 1967, the Soviet government issued a document that gave the go-ahead to build a brand new underground facility for neutrino physics in the Baksan valley in the mountainous region of the Northern Caucasus. Construction work began straight away on the tunnels under the 4000 m-high peak of Mount Andyrchi that would contain the experimental halls, and 10 years later, the laboratory’s first neutrino telescope started operation. Today, a varied experimental programme continues at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, which is operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). And there is the promise of more to come. The detailed proposal for the Baksan Neutrino Observatory was put together by “the father of neutrino astronomy”, Moisei Markov, and his younger colleagues, Alexander Chudakov, George Zatsepin and Alexander Pomansky, together with many others. The decision to construct a dedicated underground facility rather than use an existing mine – something that had never been done before – gave the scientists the freedom to choose the location and the structure of their future laboratory to maximise its scientific output. Their proposal to house it in an almost horizontal tunnel under a steep mountain decreased the construction costs by a factor of six with respect to a mine, while maintaining higher safety standards. They selected Andyrchi – one of a series of peaks dominated by Europe’s highest mountain, Mount Elbrus (5642 m) – from many potential sites. The entrance to the laboratory tunnel is located in the valley below the peaks, which is well known to mountaineers, hikers and skiers, at an altitude of 1700 m. A small village called Neutrino was built to accommodate scientists and engineers working for the observatory, with office and laboratory buildings, some surface installations, living quarters and related infrastructure. The basic idea of underground neutrino detection is to use soil and rock to shield the installations from muons produced in cosmic-ray interactions with the atmosphere – the main background for neutrino detection. The underground complex at Baksan contains two interconnected tunnels (having two is a safety requirement) with laboratory halls situated at various distances along the tunnels, corresponding to different shielding conditions below the mountain. At the end of the 4 km-long tunnels, the flux of the muons is suppressed by almost 10 million times with respect to the surface. The first experiment to start at Baksan, back in 1973, was not however underground. The Carpet air-shower experiment completely covered an area of around 200 m2 with 400 liquid-scintillator detectors, identical to those of the first neutrino telescope “BUST” (see below). Its key task was a detailed study of the central part of air showers produced by cosmic particles in the atmosphere. One of its first results, based on the interpretation of shower sub-cores as imprints of jets with high transverse-momenta – born in the primary interactions of the cosmic rays – was on the production cross-section of these jets for leading-particle energies up to 500 GeV. This result was published earlier than the corresponding measurement at CERN’s Super Proton Synchrotron and confirmed predictions of quantum chromodynamics. Carpet’s discoveries of astrophysical importance included a puzzling giant flare in the Crab Nebula in 1989. The Baksan Underground Scintillator Telescope (BUST) started operation in 1977. A multipurpose detector, it is located in an artificial cavern with a volume of 12,000 m3 located 550 m from the tunnel entrance. The telescope is a four-level underground building 11.1 m high with a base area of 280 m2. The building, made of low-radioactivity concrete, houses 3180 detectors containing 330 tonnes of liquid scintillator. Sensitive to cosmic neutrinos with energies of dozens of MeV, the detector is well suited to the search for supernova neutrinos, and on 23 February 1987 it was one of four detectors in the world that registered the renowned neutrino signal from the supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The results obtained with the telescope have been used for cosmic-ray studies, searches for exotic particles (notably, magnetic monopoles) and neutrino bursts. Neutrinos with lower energies were the target of the Gallium–Germanium Neutrino Telescope, a pioneering device to search for solar neutrinos in the SAGE (Soviet–American Gallium Experiment) project. The first experiments to detect neutrinos from the Sun – Homestake in the US and Kamiokande II in Japan – registered neutrinos with energies of a few MeV, which are mainly produced in the decay of boron-8 and constitute less than 1% of the total solar-neutrino flux. These Nobel-prize-winning experiments revealed the solar-neutrino deficit, subsequently interpreted in terms of neutrino oscillations, the only firm laboratory indication so far for the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particle physics. However, to assess the problem fully, it was necessary to find out what happens with the bulk (86% of the total flux) of the solar neutrinos, which come from proton–proton (pp) fusion reactions and have energies below about 0.4 MeV. In 1965, Vadim Kuzmin proposed using the reaction 71Ga + ν  → 71Ge + e− to detect the low-energy solar neutrinos. This idea was implemented in two experiments: GALLEX in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory and SAGE at Baksan. SAGE, which has been in operation since 1986 and is led by Vladimir Gavrin, is located 3.5 km from the tunnel entrance, where the cosmic-ray muon flux is suppressed by a factor of several million. About 50 tonnes of liquid gallium are used as a target; amazingly, a special factory was built to produce this amount of gallium, which exceeded the total consumed by the Soviet Union at the time. A unique chemical technology was developed to allow about 15 germanium atoms to be extracted from the 50 tonnes of gallium every month. SAGE and GALLEX were the first experiments to detect solar pp neutrinos and to confirm the solar-neutrino deficit for the bulk of the flux. Combined with results from other experiments to subtract sub-leading contributions from other channels, SAGE found the solar pp neutrino flux to be 6.0±0.8 × 1010 cm–2 s–1. This agrees nicely with the solar-model prediction (taking into account neutrino oscillations) of 5.98±0.04 × 1010 cm–2 s–1 and the result has been confirmed by the 2014 measurement by Borexino, using a different method, which gives 6.6±0.7 × 1010 cm–2 s–1. The unique underground conditions at Baksan also allowed the creation of several ultra-low-background laboratories where, in addition to the natural shielding, materials with extremely low radioactivity were used in construction. There are three shielded chambers at different depths where rare nuclear processes have been searched for and a number of low-background experiments performed, including a precise measurement of the isotopic composition of the lunar soil delivered by the Luna-16, Luna-20 and Luna-24 spacecraft. Now 50, the Baksan Neutrino Observatory continues to probe the neutrino frontier. The scintillator telescope is still monitoring the universe for neutrino bursts, its almost 40 year exposure time setting stringent constraints on the rate of core-collapse supernova in the Milky Way. The non-observation of neutrinos associated with the gravitational-wave event of 15 September 2015, detected by the LIGO Observatory, puts a unique constraint on the associated flux of neutrinos with energies of 1–100 GeV, complementary to constraints from larger experiments at different energies. Calibration of the gallium solar-neutrino experiments, SAGE and GALLEX, with artificial neutrino sources has revealed the so-called gallium anomaly, which can be understood in terms of a new, sterile-neutrino state. A new experiment called the Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST), has been instigated to check the anomaly and thus test the sterile-neutrino hypothesis. This will be based on a 51Cr artificial neutrino source with an intensity of around 100 PBq, placed in the centre of a spherical gallium target of two concentric zones with equal neutrino mean-free-paths; any significant difference in the rate of neutrino capture in the inner and outer zones would indicate the existence of a sterile neutrino. CrSOX, a similar experiment with the Borexino detector at Gran Sasso, might become competitive with BEST but only in its full-scale configuration with the 400 PBq neutrino source. Reactor experiments would provide complementary information about a sterile antineutrino. BEST is now fully constructed and is awaiting the artificial neutrino source. Meanwhile, ultra-pure gallium is still used in the SAGE experiment, confirming the stability of the solar-neutrino flux over decades: fortunately, the Sun is not about to change its power output. Numerous experiments are being carried out in the low-background laboratory, thanks to a new experimental hall – Low Background Lab 3 on the figure above – located 3.67 km from the tunnel entrance (providing shielding equivalent of 4900 m of water). One of them searches for solar axions via their resonant reconversion on 83Kr, and this experiment has already resulted in the world’s best constraint on certain couplings of the hadronic axion. Among the surface-based experiments, the Carpet air-shower array is undergoing the most intense development. Equipped with a brand new muon detector with an area of 410 m2, this old cosmic-ray installation is starting a new life as a sophisticated sub-PeV gamma-ray telescope. A world-best sensitivity to the diffuse gamma-ray flux above 100 TeV, which could be achieved by the end of 2017, would be sufficient to decide between the galactic and extragalactic origin of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos detected by the IceCube neutrino observatory at the South Pole. Other experiments are also ready to produce interesting results. The Andyrchi air-shower array located on the slope of the mountain above BUST works in coincidence with the telescope, which serves as a muon detector with a 120 GeV threshold. A small gravitational-wave detector, OGRAN, capable of registering a galactic supernova, makes Baksan a true multi-messenger observatory. In addition, important interdisciplinary studies are taking place at the border with geophysics. They include not only deep-underground precise monitoring of seismic and magnetic parameters close to the sleeping volcano Elbrus, but also, for example, studies of atmospheric electricity and its relation to the cosmic-ray muon flux. Looking ahead, the Baksan Neutrino Observatory could host new breakthrough experiments. The many planned projects include a further upgrade of the Carpet array with the increase in both the surface-array and muon-detector areas for the purposes of sub-PeV gamma-ray astronomy; a new resonant-reconversion solar axion experiment with a sensitivity an order of magnitude better than the present one; and a circular laser interferometer – or Sagnac gyroscope – for geophysics and fundamental-physics measurements. However, the main project for the observatory is the Baksan Large-Volume Scintillator Detector (BLVSD, although the name of the experiment is yet to be fixed). This detector, currently at the R&D stage, should contain 10–20 kilotonnes of ultra-pure liquid scintillator and could be located at the end of the observatory tunnel. There, unused artificial caverns exist in which a Cl–Ar solar-neutrino experiment was originally planned, but was replaced by the SAGE Ga–Ge detector in a different cave. This large-volume detector should be able to detect not only neutrinos from a galactic core-collapse supernova, but also the composite neutrino background of numerous distant explosions, thus making it possible to study supernova neutrinos in the unlucky, but probable, case that no galactic explosion happens in the coming decades. In the opposite case, the large neutrino statistics from a nearby explosion would open up possibilities for a detailed study. For solar neutrinos, BLVSD would be capable of measuring the neutrino flux from the carbon–nitrogen–oxygen (CNO) fusion cycle in the Sun with a precision sufficient to discriminate between various solar models and therefore solve experimentally the present-day contradiction between results from helioseismology and those from chemical-composition studies of the solar surface. A primary target for BLVSD would be the study of geoneutrinos, which are produced in nuclear decays in the Earth’s interior. Clearly, the detector could also be used for a precise study of neutrino oscillations, in particular with a dedicated long-distance accelerator beam. BLVSD would join a global network of large-scale neutrino detectors, if created. Such joint operation would open possibilities to solve many interesting problems. It would allow, for instance, the inclusion of effects of the inhomogeneous structure of the Earth’s crust in geoneutrino studies, or the determination of the direction of a supernova that is obscured and visible only in neutrinos. The unique conditions at the Baksan observatory would also make the solo operation of BLVSD efficient. Not only do the existing infrastructure and experience allow for ultra-low-background experiments, but the geographical position in the Northern Caucasus guarantees a large distance from nuclear reactors. For geoneutrinos, estimates of the ratio of the signal counting-rate to the background from artificial reactors give a value around 5 for Baksan, compared to around 1.1 for Borexino and around 0.15 for KamLand. It is the low background that would allow a precise measurement of the solar CNO flux, which is barely possible in any of the currently operating experiments. The large-scale BLVSD project is still in its infancy, and numerous efforts in R&D, fundraising and construction are still to be made. The Baksan Neutrino Observatory is fully open for worldwide collaboration and co-operation, both in this and in other scientific projects. Happy birthday, Baksan.


News Article | May 16, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers from the Vavilov Institute of General Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (VIGG) and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) have established a catalog of mutations in 319 virulence genes of mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis. These genes encode proteins that suppress human immune response. Further analysis identified a set of three mutations which may enable mycobacteria to develop rapidly in an immunocompromised environment. The emerging strains of TB pathogens require new treatment approaches including the development of new genetically engineered vaccines that take into account both the immune status of a patient and the specific virulence features of a pathogen. The article was published in Genome Biology and Evolution (Oxford University Press, UK). According to the World Health Organization, TB remains one of the most dangerous human infectious diseases, causing over 1.8 million deaths annually. TB is caused by a bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Koch's bacillus. It is clear that HIV-positive individuals and patients with other immunodeficiency conditions are mainly at risk. More than 20 percent of TB cases are connected with smoking. TB is no longer a social disease: It affects members of all social strata. This change was caused by the stresses of modern life>M. tuberculosis has become increasingly resistant to both the environmental factors and antibiotics, which used to guarantee effective treatment. At the same time, the symptoms of TB have become less noticeable. The bacterium can remain in the host body for decades infecting other people. According to WHO statistics, one-third of the world's population is infected with TB. The most serious problem we are currently facing is drug resistant TB aggravated by the adaptation of new pathogenic strains to weakened immunity. Prof. Valery Danilenko of the Department of Biological and Medical Physics at MIPT, the head of the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology at VIGG, comments on the issue: "Humanity is trying to beat the disease with new drugs and innovative treatment methods, but we have -- tactically speaking -- already lost the battle. During the last 50 years of research, only one antibiotic with a novel type of action has been produced -- Bedaquiline. It has been in use for about two years now. However, mycobacteria have already developed mutations that make them resistant to that drug." New strains of drug-resistant bacteria with altered virulence have already sensed our weakness: They "know" if some of us have compromised immunity, and they are exploiting precisely this weakness by targeting immunodeficient patients. Bioinformatics and genetics help identify a dangerous strain of TB pathogens Researchers currently identify 7-8 major M. tuberculosis lineages (groups). They differ from one another in mutations in various genes. A genome can have from 300 to 1,000 of such lineage-specific mutations, or SNPs. The term SNP (pronounced "snip") means a mutation in a particular gene involving the substitution of only one nucleotide. If the mutation occurs in a functional part of a virulence gene, the protein encoded by that gene will trigger a different host immune response. This enables the pathogen to overcome host resistance mechanisms developed in childhood as a result of BCG (anti-TB) vaccination. Natalya Mikheecheva, a researcher at the Laboratory of Bacterial Genetics at VIGG with a bioinformatics degree from MIPT, explains: "We carried out research aimed at identifying the genes and mutations in them that allow mycobacteria to thrive in people with altered immune status including HIV-positive patients. We developed a catalog of SNPs in more than 300 virulence genes. Virulence was defined as the ability of a pathogen to cause disease, overcome host resistance via invasion and adhesion to host cells, and adapt to hostile environments, including immune response modulation." Each lineage was found to comprise dozens or even hundreds of sublineages, depending on the specific gene and the location of the mutation. Bioinformatics analysis conducted using software developed at MIPT's Department of Biological and Medical Physics (MIPT) revealed mutations specific to an epidemiologically dangerous sublineage within the Beijing-B0 lineage. The scientists used databases of sequenced and described genomes to track the spread of the epidemiologically dangerous B0/N-90 sublineage in Russia and the neighboring European countries Belarus, Moldova, and Sweden. To combat drug-resistant TB, an international consortium called TBResist was formed in 2008. Its members include leading experts in medicine, genetics, bioinformatics, etc. from the U.S., Sweden, Russia, the U.K., Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Taiwan, and other countries. Prof. Danilenko who led the research in Russia says: "Our work with the international consortium involved cooperating with our colleagues from South Africa and China to draft a project aimed at investigating the epidemiologically dangerous strain identified in our study. The project is currently being considered by expert communities of the three countries including the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. Our goal is to warn the international community and the health ministries of the BRICS countries of the impending danger. In the '80s, it was the HIV. We may well expect something similar from new mutated TB strains--it's a Pandora's box." Treatments that are available now can cure the disease within a year or two. However, we could see the emergence of mutant pathogens developing rapidly in certain population groups. With the flu, there is an established practice of making a new vaccine every year to counteract the latest mutated strain of influenza. But unlike the influenza virus, which only has several genes, M. tuberculosis has more than 300 virulence genes, each of them potentially subject to mutations. For the last 30 years, scientists all over the world have been trying to design a genetically engineered TB vaccine. To do this, only certain genes of the bacterium are used, not its whole genome. These genes are cloned to obtain their protein products, which are then used to vaccinate patients and monitor their immune response. There are, however, hundreds of M. tuberculosis sublineages. The research findings indicate that vaccines need to take into account such factors as the host's immune status and the presence in the pathogen of any of at least a dozen epidemiologically dangerous lineages with mutations in particular virulence genes. Prof. Danilenko drives the point home: "We detected mutations that may enable the bacteria to thrive by exploiting compromised immunity. From that point, it is basically analogous to the flu: We suggest that vaccines against specific TB lineages need to be developed using the genes identified through the bioinformatics analysis of hundreds of sequenced genomes. This will help us to find a basic approach that could inhibit the spread of the dangerous lineages. We have also developed diagnostic tests to identify such lineages." On April 13-14, an international academic and research conference titled "Current Methods of Comprehensive Health Care for TB-infected and HIV-positive Patients: Implementation, Development, Resources" was held in Yekaterinburg. The plenary session of the conference featured a report on "Genetically Engineered TB Vaccination: Current Research, Problems, and Prospects." Prof. Igor Krasilnikov, a recognized expert in vaccine development, talked about the plans of several Russian research and government organizations (Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations, the Ministry of Health, Federal Medical and Biological Agency, MIPT) based on new ideas and paradigms that have emerged over the last years.


KENT, 17-May-2017 — /EuropaWire/ — A new generation of higher-powered batteries for phones and cameras could result from ground-breaking research led by University scientists. Researchers from the University’s School of Physical Sciences (SPS), working with scientists from other European institutions, formulated a recipe to increase the rate at which a solid material – an artificial mineral – can conduct charge. The team found that a phenomenon known as geometric frustration can be used in this process to increase the charge transport rate in the solid material in a way that is comparable with heating that material. Making use of this phenomenon, the team was able to ‘tune’ materials to be used in future batteries and fuel cells to speed up ionic conductivity. Lead researcher Dr Dean Sayle and his team in SPS found that geometric frustration broke up the regimented formation of atoms in the material, leading to a more disordered pattern. This disordered pattern allowed the charge to pass through the material at a much higher rate. Dr Sayle said: ‘Disorder can be created by geometric frustration which might be understood as randomly giving two kinds of differently sized umbrellas to a regimented parade of people and telling them to put them up and come as close together as the size of the umbrellas allow. ‘Naturally, this will lead to a destruction of the former formation towards a disordered formation exhibiting a large number of gaps. Similarly, we used geometric frustration to make the atoms disordered by mixing two differently sized atoms together which increased charge transport by 100,000’. As well as more powerful batteries, the new technique may lead to the development of new energy materials with zero- emissions. The paper, entitled Is Geometric Frustration-Induced Disorder a Recipe for High Ionic Conductivity? (Dean Sayle, Andre Duvel, Alan Chadwick, David Pickup, Silvia Ramos, Lewis Sayle, Emma Sayle, Thi Sayle, all University of Kent; Paul Heitjans, Leibniz Universität Hannover Germany; Pavel Fedorov, General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia; Gudrun Scholz, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Germany; Giannantonio Cibin, Diamond Light Source UK) is published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.


Patent
GM Global Technology Operations LLC, Bilik and Russian Academy of Sciences | Date: 2017-05-10

Methods and systems for a vehicle cognitive radar are provided. The system includes a transmitter is configured to transmit a first plurality of transmittal signals for a cognitive radar system of a vehicle, the cognitive radar system having at least a first modality. An interface is configured to receive sensor data from one or more sensors having a second modality that is different from the first modality. A processor is coupled to the interface, and is configured to select an adjusted waveform for a second plurality of transmittal signals for the cognitive radar system using the sensor data.


Patent
Goshen, Harel and Russian Academy of Sciences | Date: 2017-03-22

A set for assembling a length and shape adjustable planter comprising (a) a plurality of elongate troughs being length customizable by cutting thereof; the elongate troughs having a longitudinal axis and a -inverted cross section; the elongate troughs interconnectable therebetween; (b) interconnecting members configured for interconnecting the elongate troughs in series; and (c) end members configured for mounting onto a free end of the elongate troughs. A surface of each trough at least partially is provided with a surface profile distributed over a length of the trough. The interconnecting members are securable on the surface profile.


Patent
GM Global Technology Operations LLC, Stainvas Olshansky, Bilik and Russian Academy of Sciences | Date: 2017-05-10

Methods and systems are provided for selectively analyzing radar signals of a radar system of a vehicle. A receiver is configured to receive a plurality of radar signals of a radar system of a vehicle. The interface is configured to obtain data from one or more sensors of the vehicle having a modality that is different from the radar system. The processor is coupled to the receiver and to the interface, and is configured to selectively analyze the plurality of radar signals based upon the data.


Dykman L.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Khlebtsov N.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Recent progress in understanding how size, shape, and surface properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) affect their uptake and intracellular fate is studied. The selective penetration of GNPs into cancer and immune cells and the interaction of GNPs with immune cell receptors is also studied. The cellular uptake of spherical GNPs is a receptor-mediated process, the effectiveness of which depends on the size of particles and on the density of ligand coating. Most experimental data accrued for colloidal gold particles confirm the existence of an optimal diameter range, whereas the specific optimal size for uptake may depend on cell type. With an increase in the particle aspect ratio, the effectiveness of GNP uptake into cells decreases; the exocytosis time may also decrease. GNP uptake into cells of the immune system activates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a finding that indicates directly that GNPs are immunostimulatory.


Dykman L.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Khlebtsov N.,Chernyshevsky Saratov State University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with controlled geometrical, optical, and surface chemical properties are the subject of intensive studies and applications in biology and medicine. To date, the ever increasing diversity of published examples has included genomics and biosensorics, immunoassays and clinical chemistry, photothermolysis of cancer cells and tumors, targeted delivery of drugs and antigens, and optical bioimaging of cells and tissues with state-of-the-art nanophotonic detection systems. This critical review is focused on the application of GNP conjugates to biomedical diagnostics and analytics, photothermal and photodynamic therapies, and delivery of target molecules. Distinct from other published reviews, we present a summary of the immunological properties of GNPs. For each of the above topics, the basic principles, recent advances, and current challenges are discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

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