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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: Fission-2012-6.0.1 | Award Amount: 1.45M | Year: 2013

The health effects of exposures to fallout from Soviet nuclear weapons testing among the residents living nearby the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan are not well investigated. There are reports with contradicting results coming from the studies conducted on two independent cohorts: historical and new. Both use different control groups and dosimetric methods. The two cohorts have a high probability of including the same individuals. There is a need to investigate possibilities to merge them in order to avoid duplication of efforts and resources for future studies of the health effects in these populations. The main objectives of our feasibility study include: developing and testing mechanisms for identification of cohort members in the two cohorts; identification and testing of data linkage mechanisms; determination of the outcomes that can be studied (cancer and non-cancer diseases); setting up and testing procedures for follow-up; identification of case ascertainment mechanisms and sources, depending on the outcome; characterization and validation of dose assessment methods used in the two cohorts; investigation of the feasibility to collect data on confounding factors; assessing the availability of biological samples and their potential use in the future. The project will bring together scientists from Europe, Kazakhstan and Japan with the aim of developing a proposal for a future prospective full scale epidemiological study to address the dose-effect relationship for both cancer and non-cancer effects from low to moderate chronic doses, if the feasibility is demonstrated. To achieve the overall objective it is proposed to set-up a consortium that have considerable experience in epidemiological studies on populations residing around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and/or who have been extensively involved in the low dose risk research. The group will include European and international scientists with expertise in epidemiology, dosimetry, radiation biology and clinical medicine. At the end of the project, a detailed report based on the results of the work conducted will be developed, critically reviewed by the External Advisory Board and recommendations for future research needs will be made, if feasible. Other populations exposed to low to moderate dose radiation like in Fukushima or elsewhere can benefit from the outcomes of studying the unique Semipalatinsk cohort and the results will contribute to a better understanding and quantification of radiation risks for low to moderate chronic doses. The proposed project is in line with the Strategic Research Agenda of MELODI.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2013-3.3.1 | Award Amount: 1.28M | Year: 2014

The IARC previously led an EU funded project Agenda for Research on Chernobyl Health (ARCH), the objective of which was to recommend a strategic health research agenda following the Chernobyl accident. The ARCH demonstrated that Chernobyl provides a unique opportunity to answer questions about radiation risks. The multidisciplinary group of experts strongly supported the need for well-designed and coordinated long-term studies. The new initiative emphasises the need to build partnerships with the three countries mainly affected, plus Japan, the USA and European countries in order to take the research agenda forward. The purpose is therefore to bring together both key scientific players and funding partners to decide on the research priorities and to seek sustainable funding for those priority areas. Work under this proposal will be divided into five closely integrated work packages (WPs): WP 1: Coordination and overall management WP 2: International collaboration and agreement on research programme 2.1: Setting up an International network of research institutes committed to long-term research on Chernobyl 2.2: Development of Chernobyl Research Programme and timetable WP 3: Assessment of Chernobyl research infrastructures 3.1: Evaluation of the cohorts of exposed populations suitable to form Chernobyl Life-span cohorts 3.2: Inventory of dosimetric approaches and existing databases 3.3: Inventory of stored biological samples WP 4: International collaboration on proposing funding mechanism WP 5: Agreement on coordinating structure and setting-up research framework The CO-CHER project has a potential to develop a sustainable plan for research into the health effects of the Chernobyl accident with optimal use of available resources. It is completely in line with the MELODI initiative for integrated, long term effort in low dose risk research. The coordination action will also open new collaborations outside existing European networks.

Bazanova O.M.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Vernon D.,Canterbury Christ Church University
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014

Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it.To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness.Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Archakov A.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Expert review of proteomics | Year: 2012

The international Human Proteome Project (HPP), a logical continuation of the Human Genome Project, was launched on 23 September 2010 in Sydney, Australia. In accordance with the gene-centric approach, the goals of the HPP are to prepare an inventory of all human proteins and decipher the network of cellular protein interactions. The greater complexity of the proteome in comparison to the genome gives rise to three bottlenecks in the implementation of the HPP. The main bottleneck is the insufficient sensitivity of proteomic technologies, hampering the detection of proteins with low- and ultra-low copy numbers. The second bottleneck is related to poor reproducibility of proteomic methods and the lack of a so-called 'gold' standard. The last bottleneck is the dynamic nature of the proteome: its instability over time. The authors here discuss approaches to overcome these bottlenecks in order to improve the success of the HPP.

Agol V.I.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2012

The capacity to injure infected cells is a widespread property of viruses. Usually, this cytopathic effect (CPE) is ascribed to viral hijacking of cellular resources to fulfill viral needs. However, evidence is accumulating that CPE is not necessarily directly coupled to viral reproduction but may largely be due to host defensive and viral antidefensive activities. A major part in this virus-cell interaction appears to be played by a putative host-encoded program with multiple competing branches, leading to necrotic, apoptotic, and, possibly, other types of cell suicide. Manifestations of this program are controlled and modulated by host, viral, and environmental factors. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Knyazev G.G.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Self-referential processing has been principally investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, understanding of the brain functioning is not possible without careful comparison of the evidence coming from different methodological domains. This paper aims to review electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of self-referential processing and to evaluate how they correspond, complement, or contradict the existing fMRI evidence. There are potentially two approaches to the study of EEG correlates of self-referential processing. Firstly, because simultaneous registration of EEG and fMRI has become possible, the degree of overlap between these two signals in brain regions related to self-referential processing could be determined. Second and more direct approach would be the study of EEG correlates of self-referential processing per se. In this review, I discuss studies, which employed both these approaches and show that in line with fMRI evidence, EEG correlates of self-referential processing are most frequently found in brain regions overlapping with the default network, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex. In the time domain, the discrimination of self- and others-related information is mostly associated with the P300 ERP component, but sometimes is observed even earlier. In the frequency domain, different frequency oscillations have been shown to contribute to self-referential processing, with spontaneous self-referential mentation being mostly associated with the alpha frequency band. © 2013 Knyazev.

Krylov V.N.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Advances in Virus Research | Year: 2014

Bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, being opportunistic pathogens, are the major cause of nosocomial infections and, in some cases, the primary cause of death. They are virtually untreatable with currently known antibiotics. Phage therapy is considered as one of the possible approaches to the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Difficulties in the implementation of phage therapy in medical practice are related, for example, to the insufficient number and diversity of virulent phages that are active against P. aeruginosa. Results of interaction of therapeutic phages with bacteria in different conditions and environments are studied insufficiently. A little is known about possible interactions of therapeutic phages with resident prophages and plasmids in clinical strains in the foci of infections. This chapter highlights the different approaches to solving these problems and possible ways to expand the diversity of therapeutic P. aeruginosa phages and organizational arrangements (as banks of phages) to ensure long-term use of phages in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Knyazev G.G.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Recent studies show that fronto-posterior electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power distribution is associated with personality. Specifically, extraversion is associated with an increase of spectral power in posterior cortical regions that overlap with the posterior default mode network (DMN) hub and a decrease of spectral power in anterior regions that overlap with the anterior DMN hub. Although there is evidence that dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved, psychological processes that underlie these associations remain unclear. I hypothesize that these processes may have something to do with spontaneous self-referential thoughts. Specifically, I hypothesize that in extraverts self-referential thoughts may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the anterior DMN hub. After spontaneous EEG registration, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire describing their thoughts during the registration. An item describing self-referential positive expectations (SRPE) was used to measure individual differences in the intensity of these processes. Source localization and independent component analyses were applied to EEG data to reveal oscillatory activity associated with the anterior and the posterior DMN hubs. Hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant interaction between extraversion scores and anterior vs. posterior DMN alpha activity in predicting individual differences in SRPE scores. In extraverts, high SRPE scores were associated with an increase of alpha power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they were associated with an increase of alpha power in the anterior DMN hub. Results are discussed in terms of differential involvement of the two DMN hubs in self-related reward processes in extraverts and introverts. © 2013 Knyazev.

Lukashev A.N.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2010

Picornaviruses are small non-enveloped positive strand RNA viruses that can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in humans and animals. Many of these viruses are highly diversified and globally prevalent. Natural recombination has been reported in most picornavirus genera and is a key genetic feature of these infectious agents. In several socially relevant picornavirus genera, such as enteroviruses, aphthoviruses, parechoviruses and cardioviruses, recombination, combined with dynamic global epidemiology, maintains virus species as a worldwide pool of genetic information. It can be suggested that on a short time scale recombination acts to promote virus diversity, and new recombinant forms of picornaviruses emerge frequently as 'snapshots' of this global pool. On a longer time scale, recombination maintains stability of a gene pool of a species by shuffling sequences and thus limiting divergence and speciation. This review covers existing evidence of recombination in most genera of the family Picornaviridae and possible implications for diagnostics, epidemiology and classification. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Goncharova N.D.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Frontiers in Endocrinology | Year: 2013

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a key role in adaptation to environmental stresses. Parvicellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus secrete corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) into pituitary portal system; CRH and AVP stimulate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release through specific G-protein-coupled membrane receptors on pituitary corticotrophs, CRHR1 for CRH and V1b for AVP; the adrenal gland cortex secretes glucocorticoids in response to ACTH. The glucocorticoids activate specific receptors in brain and peripheral tissues thereby triggering the necessary metabolic, immune, neuromodulatory, and behavioral changes to resist stress. While importance of CRH, as a key hypothalamic factor of HPA axis regulation in basal and stress conditions in most species, is generally recognized, role of AVP remains to be clarified. This review focuses on the role of AVP in the regulation of stress responsiveness of the HPA axis with emphasis on the effects of aging on vasopressinergic regulation of HPA axis stress responsiveness. Under most of the known stressors, AVP is necessary for acute ACTH secretion but in a context-specific manner. The current data on the AVP role in regulation of HPA responsiveness to chronic stress in adulthood are rather contradictory. The importance of the vasopressinergic regulation of the HPA stress responsiveness is greatest during fetal development, in neonatal period, and in the lactating adult. Aging associated with increased variability in several parameters of HPA function including basal state, responsiveness to stressors, and special testing. Reports on the possible role of the AVP/V1b receptor system in the increase of HPA axis hyperactivity with aging are contradictory and requires further research. Many contradictory results may be due to age and species differences in the HPA function of rodents and primates. © 2013 Goncharova.

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