Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
News Article | June 26, 2017
The presentation will also focus on best practices and lessons learned through the implementation of a rapid sterility test method for Apligraf®, a cell-based commercial product from Organogenesis. Apligraf is an FDA-approved Class III medical device indicated for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers and venous leg ulcers. "Ensuring sterility for a cell-based therapy can be challenging as the time required to perform a conventional sterility test may exceed the product's shelf life," said Pitkin. "As companies strive to adopt these new technologies, they must ensure through validation that these new rapid detection technologies are appropriate for their intended use and are capable of maintaining a high level of sterility assurance that is at least equivalent to the conventional 14-day USP sterility method." Pitkin has more than 20 years of experience in the field of biotechnology, including the development of Quality System programs for autologous and allogeneic cellular therapies, biologic/device combination products, and for xenotransplantation. Pitkin holds a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences from the Research Institute of Influenza, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, and is Regulatory Affairs certified. About Organogenesis Inc. Headquartered in Canton, Massachusetts, Organogenesis Inc. is a global leader in regenerative medicine, offering a portfolio of bioactive and acellular biomaterials products in advanced wound care and surgical biologics, including orthopedics and spine. Organogenesis' versatile portfolio is designed to treat a variety of patients with repair and regenerative needs. For more information, visit www.organogenesis.com. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/organogenesis-shares-best-practices-for-rapid-sterility-detection-techniques-for-cell-based-therapies-at-future-cell-therapy-commercialization-summit-300479786.html
News Article | June 29, 2017
Bioquark, Inc., (http://www.bioquark.com) a life sciences company focused on the development of novel bio-products for regeneration, disease reversion, and healthy aging, and Moscow based, Lakmus LLC, a diversified investment company with business interests in pharmacies, restaurants, and real estate, announced a multi-disciplinary research collaboration with the FSBI Zakusov Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (http://www.academpharm.ru/), and the Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (http://www.infran.ru/), to jointly study the pharmacotherapeutic longevity enhancement properties of its combinatorial regenerative biologic candidates. “We are very excited about this continued collaboration with Lakmus,” said Ira S. Pastor, CEO, Bioquark Inc. “The disciplined development of our combinatorial biologic candidates (Bioquantines) for healthy longevity enhancement, represents another important step in our continued evolution as a company focused on a broad range of therapeutic products and services in the regenerative healthcare space.” Throughout the 20th century, natural products formed the basis for a majority of all pharmaceuticals, biologics, and consumer healthcare products used by patients around the globe, generating trillions of dollars of wealth. However, many scientists believe we have only touched the surface with what the natural world, and its range of organisms, which from a health and wellness perspective are much further advanced than human beings, has to teach us. The integration of a complex set of newer research disciplines, including interkingdom signaling, semiochemical communication, and evolutionary biology, as well as significant recent activity in the areas of the microbiome, are highlighting a myriad of new ways that non-human bio-products can affect the human genome for positive transitions in health and wellness dynamics. “Bioquark has spent several years studying the natural ability of many species to turn back biological time in order to maintain health, fitness, and survival, developing a broad understanding of the combinatorial biochemical approaches they use to control nested hierarchies of disease (i.e. gene, cell, tissue, organism, environment),” said Dr. Sergei Paylian, Founder, CSO, and President, Bioquark Inc. “This research initiative is one more step in the path in allowing humans to recapture these capabilities to effectively counter our unfortunate progression into aging, disease and degeneration.” Bioquark Inc. is focused on the development of natural biologic based products, services, and technologies, with the goal of curing a wide range of diseases, as well as effecting complex regeneration. Bioquark is developing both biological pharmaceutical candidates, as well as products for the global consumer health and wellness market segments.
News Article | June 27, 2017
The Russian government has taken further steps to tighten its grip on the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) in Moscow. On 23 June, the State Duma—one of the two chambers of the Russian parliament—passed the first draft of a new law that would give President Vladimir Putin the final say in the elections for RAS's presidency. The bill introduces three main changes. The list of candidates must from now on be approved by the government, and can have not more than three names; a candidate can be elected by winning more than 50% of the vote, instead of the two-thirds needed until now; and the newly elected academy president must be approved by the Russian president. Elections for a new RAS president were supposed to take place last March but were postponed after all three candidates withdrew for reasons that have not been announced. RAS President Vladimir Fortov stepped down in March, and an acting president, Valery Kozlov, took over. The change to the election procedure is another step in a series of reforms at RAS. In 2013, the government established the Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations to manage the property of RAS and other research institutions; it also forced a merger of RAS with the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The government's professed motive is to make the academy's work more efficient. Among the Duma members who introduced the legislation were members of the academy, says Mikhail Gelfand, deputy director of the RAS Kharkevich Institute for Information Transmission Problems. One of them was Gennady Onishchenko, who has become widely known for recommending bans on food products from countries that had offended the Russian leadership during his time as chief sanitary inspector. During the parliamentary debate, Onishchenko argued that in the Soviet era, RAS was always told which candidates the government preferred. "No one was annoyed by that," he said. Before the debate in the Duma, Fortov and other academicians met twice with Putin behind closed doors to discuss the changes. Those meetings did not end in decisions, but were just "an exchange of opinions," Fortov told the TASS state news agency. Interfax quoted Kozlov as saying that Putin favored the proposal to have Russia's president approve a new RAS president. The reform proposal has been strongly criticized by the 1st July Club, an informal union of regular and corresponding RAS members named after the day when they first protested in 2013. In a letter to President Putin and members of both chambers of the parliament earlier this month, the group calls the three-candidate limit "absolutely unacceptable." It notes that elections can go forward even if only one candidate has been approved, effectively making the process a "fiction" and replacing it with a presidential appointment. RAS's "scientific level and reputation have been irreparably damaged by the merger with the medical and agronomy academies,” Gelfand says. “It has no muscle for resistance." Russia's parliament is expected to pass the final version of the bill in the coming weeks. If that happens, RAS will hold presidential elections according to the new procedures in the fall.
Knyazev G.G.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2012
Functional significance of delta oscillations is not fully understood. One way to approach this question would be from an evolutionary perspective. Delta oscillations dominate the EEG of waking reptiles. In humans, they are prominent only in early developmental stages and during slow-wave sleep. Increase of delta power has been documented in a wide array of developmental disorders and pathological conditions. Considerable evidence on the association between delta waves and autonomic and metabolic processes hints that they may be involved in integration of cerebral activity with homeostatic processes. Much evidence suggests the involvement of delta oscillations in motivation. They increase during hunger, sexual arousal, and in substance users. They also increase during panic attacks and sustained pain. In cognitive domain, they are implicated in attention, salience detection, and subliminal perception. This evidence shows that delta oscillations are associated with evolutionary old basic processes, which in waking adults are overshadowed by more advanced processes associated with higher frequency oscillations. The former processes rise in activity, however, when the latter are dysfunctional. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Orekhov A.N.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2013
The results of numerous clinical trials with statins and other drugs have demonstrated the principal possibility of the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis by pharmacotherapy. This review describes the use of cultured human arterial cells for the mass screening of anti-atherosclerotic substances, the investigation of the mechanisms responsible for their atherosclerosis-related effects, and the optimization of anti-atherosclerotic and anti-atherogenic drug and dietary therapies. Natural products can be considered promising drugs for anti-atherosclerotic therapy. Our basic studies have shown that cellular lipidosis is the principal event in the genesis of atherosclerotic lesions. Using cellular models and natural products, we have developed an approach to prevent lipid accumulation in arterial cells. Based on our knowledge of atherosclerosis, we developed drugs that possess direct anti-atherosclerotic activity. Two-year treatment with allicor (garlic powder) has a direct anti-atherosclerotic effect on carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic men. Inflaminat (calendula, elder, and violet), which possesses anti-cytokine activity, has been shown to cause the regression of carotid atherosclerosis following the treatment of asymptomatic men for one year. The phytoestrogen-rich drug karinat (garlic powder, extract of grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cones, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid) prevents the development of carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Thus, our basic findings were successfully translated into clinical practice. Because of this translation, a novel approach to antiatherosclerotic therapy was developed. Our clinical trial confirmed the efficacy of both the novel approach and the novel drugs. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.
Lukiw W.J.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center |
Alexandrov P.N.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2012
Human brain cells rely on a specific subset of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) to shape their gene expression patterns, and this is mediated through microRNA effects on messenger RNA (mRNA) speciation and complexity. In recent studies (a) in short post-mortem interval Alzheimer' disease (AD) brain tissues versus age-matched controls, and (b) in pro-inflammatory cytokine- and Aβ42 peptide-stressed human neuronal-glial (HNG) cells in primary culture, we have identified several brain-abundant miRNA species found to be significantly up-regulated, including miR-125b and miR- 146a. Both of these nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-activated, 22 nucleotide small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) target the mRNA of the key, innate-immune- and inflammation-related regulatory protein, complement factor-H (CFH; chr 1q32), resulting in significant decreases in CFH expression (p< 0.01, ANOVA). Our results further indicate that HNG cells respond to IL-1β+Aβ42-peptide-induced stress by significant NF-κB-modulated up-regulation of miRNA-125b- and miRNA-146a. The complex interactive signaling of NF-κB, miR-125b, miR-146a, and perhaps other miRNAs, further illustrate interplay between inducible transcription factors and multiple pro-inflammatory sncRNAs that regulate CFH expression. The novel concept of miRNA actions involving mRNA target convergence and divergence are proposed and discussed. The combinatorial use of NF-κB inhibitors with anti-miRNAs (AMs; antagomirs) may have potential against CFH-driven pathogenic signaling in neurodegenerative disease, and may redirect our therapeutic perspectives to novel treatment strategies that have not yet been considered. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2013-3.3.1 | Award Amount: 1.28M | Year: 2014
The IARC previously led an EU funded project Agenda for Research on Chernobyl Health (ARCH), the objective of which was to recommend a strategic health research agenda following the Chernobyl accident. The ARCH demonstrated that Chernobyl provides a unique opportunity to answer questions about radiation risks. The multidisciplinary group of experts strongly supported the need for well-designed and coordinated long-term studies. The new initiative emphasises the need to build partnerships with the three countries mainly affected, plus Japan, the USA and European countries in order to take the research agenda forward. The purpose is therefore to bring together both key scientific players and funding partners to decide on the research priorities and to seek sustainable funding for those priority areas. Work under this proposal will be divided into five closely integrated work packages (WPs): WP 1: Coordination and overall management WP 2: International collaboration and agreement on research programme 2.1: Setting up an International network of research institutes committed to long-term research on Chernobyl 2.2: Development of Chernobyl Research Programme and timetable WP 3: Assessment of Chernobyl research infrastructures 3.1: Evaluation of the cohorts of exposed populations suitable to form Chernobyl Life-span cohorts 3.2: Inventory of dosimetric approaches and existing databases 3.3: Inventory of stored biological samples WP 4: International collaboration on proposing funding mechanism WP 5: Agreement on coordinating structure and setting-up research framework The CO-CHER project has a potential to develop a sustainable plan for research into the health effects of the Chernobyl accident with optimal use of available resources. It is completely in line with the MELODI initiative for integrated, long term effort in low dose risk research. The coordination action will also open new collaborations outside existing European networks.
Bazanova O.M.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences |
Vernon D.,Canterbury Christ Church University
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014
Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it.To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness.Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Knyazev G.G.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2013
Self-referential processing has been principally investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, understanding of the brain functioning is not possible without careful comparison of the evidence coming from different methodological domains. This paper aims to review electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of self-referential processing and to evaluate how they correspond, complement, or contradict the existing fMRI evidence. There are potentially two approaches to the study of EEG correlates of self-referential processing. Firstly, because simultaneous registration of EEG and fMRI has become possible, the degree of overlap between these two signals in brain regions related to self-referential processing could be determined. Second and more direct approach would be the study of EEG correlates of self-referential processing per se. In this review, I discuss studies, which employed both these approaches and show that in line with fMRI evidence, EEG correlates of self-referential processing are most frequently found in brain regions overlapping with the default network, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex. In the time domain, the discrimination of self- and others-related information is mostly associated with the P300 ERP component, but sometimes is observed even earlier. In the frequency domain, different frequency oscillations have been shown to contribute to self-referential processing, with spontaneous self-referential mentation being mostly associated with the alpha frequency band. © 2013 Knyazev.
Lukashev A.N.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2010
Picornaviruses are small non-enveloped positive strand RNA viruses that can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations in humans and animals. Many of these viruses are highly diversified and globally prevalent. Natural recombination has been reported in most picornavirus genera and is a key genetic feature of these infectious agents. In several socially relevant picornavirus genera, such as enteroviruses, aphthoviruses, parechoviruses and cardioviruses, recombination, combined with dynamic global epidemiology, maintains virus species as a worldwide pool of genetic information. It can be suggested that on a short time scale recombination acts to promote virus diversity, and new recombinant forms of picornaviruses emerge frequently as 'snapshots' of this global pool. On a longer time scale, recombination maintains stability of a gene pool of a species by shuffling sequences and thus limiting divergence and speciation. This review covers existing evidence of recombination in most genera of the family Picornaviridae and possible implications for diagnostics, epidemiology and classification. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.