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Krivolapchuk I.A.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2014

The following factors determining the functional state (FS) of the body of five-and six-year-old children (n = 155) have been identified during the research: parasympathetic regulation of FS (factor I); hemodynamic support of cognitive activity (factor II); efficiency of cognitive activity (factor III); nonspecific stability of the body (factor IV); sympathetic regulation of FS (factor V); general work capacity (factor VI). The systematic approach implemented in this study allowed consideration of the psychophysiological content of these factors. In general, the results of research demonstrate the existence of rather stable, qualitatively peculiar groups of variables characterizing different aspects of preschool children’s FS. There is a set of stable relationships between various elements of FS ensuring its integrity. The significant relationship between physical performance and FS aspects, such as productivity and efficiency of cognitive activity, sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of physiological functions, and nonspecific stability of body to cold-related illnesses, suggests the possibility of purposeful influence on children’s FS during intense activity using adequate programs of physical exercise. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2014. Source

Dubrovinskaya N.V.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2015

Behavioral characteristics of adolescents as determined by brain neurophysiological and neurochemical processes during puberty are reviewed. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Source

Antopol'skii A.B.,Russian Academy of Education
Scientific and Technical Information Processing | Year: 2015

This paper reviews the existing methods for monitoring and measuring electronic information resources, which are particularly applied in the fields of science and education. It also reviews a set of general indicators that characterize such resources (volume, scope, and composition), as well as indicators of use (popularity, citation, and usage, etc.). Possibilities for the integrated use of different instruments and methods that are applied to measure resources are discussed. © 2015, Allerton Press, Inc. Source

Schkolyar L.V.,Russian Academy of Education
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2016

The author, a leading expert of the Russian education, the author of textbooks and teaching aids for pre-school and musical education, creates a portrait of modern Russian preschooler. The manuscript presents the results of a study, which was attended by more than 1,000 preschool children from different Russian cities. Based on the analysis of the results of this study the author considers conceptual positions needed for child's successful socialization in modern social and cultural situation. The author asks the question: Why is art and aesthetic component is so important to achieve the ideal of the modern kindergarten? For this aim the author has developed and described modeling method of artistic and creative process, and made an analysis of the traditional pre-school education's programs. The method of artistic and creative process' modelling as opposed to verbal and informative method deepens problematical features, guiding children's thinking into the mainstream of identifying the origins of art and culture phenomenon. For a child who wants to be a composer, artist, writer, however, as a driver, astronaut, builder, it is not enough to know the signs of the profession and its attributes, but also to understand the meaning of the future activities. The author proved that the model of pre-school education should be based on the aesthetic principle. The author examines the conceptual positions updating the content of pre-school education. In particular, it is emphasized that the entry of the child into the culture associated with the direct and trusting relationship with the world, a predisposition to perception of beauty and harmony. At the same time author notes that nowadays it is growing the alarming trend of ignoring the emotional and sensual and the spiritual and moral sphere of humanity in the preschool and school education, which is obviously contrary to his nature. For example, in traditional preschool programs the artistic and aesthetic activity plays the "last roles" - and the plans, and in practice it is described after the so-called "leading areas of work. Source

Krivolapchuk I.A.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2011

The energy supply for muscle activity in healthy boys aged 13-14 years (n = 162) at various puberty stages (PSs) has been studied using functional and ergometric working capacity indices. It has been established that boys at PSs II-IV significantly differ in the indices of power, capacity, and efficiency of bioenergy systems. Three groups of bioenergy indices have been distinguished that differ in the direction of variations in adolescents depending on the rate of puberty. The first group includes the physiological variables the highest levels of which are observed in adolescents with high rates of development. All these indices belong to the anaerobic alactic and anaerobic glycolytic components of physical capability. The second group includes the physiological variables the highest levels of which are observed in adolescents with medium rates of development; the lowest levels, in adolescents with accelerated rates of development. These indices mainly reflect the set of aerobic capacities. The third group includes the physiological variables the highest levels of which are observed in adolescents with low rates of development and the lowest levels, in boys with accelerated rates of maturation. These indices reflect the maximal aerobic power and endurance. It was found that adolescents aged 13-14 years with moderate rates of development are characterized by higher indices of power and capacity of the aerobic energy supply system as compared to adolescents with accelerated maturation. This group of adolescents has also been observed to exhibit a lower maximal aerobic power against a background of higher capacity and efficiency of the aerobic system functioning as compared to adolescents with slow maturation. Adolescents with moderate rates of maturation have been shown to surpass schoolboys with accelerated or slow development with respect to the power of mixed aerobic-anaerobic work. Boys aged 13-14 years with accelerated development have been found to differ from schoolboys with moderate or slow maturation by high anaerobic capacity, relatively low aerobic capacities and an increase in the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system. This should be taken into consideration in terms of a differentiated approach to the formation of load during physical education and athletic training of adolescents aged 13-14 years. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

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