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Krivolapchuk I.A.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2014

The following factors determining the functional state (FS) of the body of five-and six-year-old children (n = 155) have been identified during the research: parasympathetic regulation of FS (factor I); hemodynamic support of cognitive activity (factor II); efficiency of cognitive activity (factor III); nonspecific stability of the body (factor IV); sympathetic regulation of FS (factor V); general work capacity (factor VI). The systematic approach implemented in this study allowed consideration of the psychophysiological content of these factors. In general, the results of research demonstrate the existence of rather stable, qualitatively peculiar groups of variables characterizing different aspects of preschool children’s FS. There is a set of stable relationships between various elements of FS ensuring its integrity. The significant relationship between physical performance and FS aspects, such as productivity and efficiency of cognitive activity, sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of physiological functions, and nonspecific stability of body to cold-related illnesses, suggests the possibility of purposeful influence on children’s FS during intense activity using adequate programs of physical exercise. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2014.

Dubrovinskaya N.V.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2015

Behavioral characteristics of adolescents as determined by brain neurophysiological and neurochemical processes during puberty are reviewed. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

Antopol'skii A.B.,Russian Academy of Education
Scientific and Technical Information Processing | Year: 2015

This paper reviews the existing methods for monitoring and measuring electronic information resources, which are particularly applied in the fields of science and education. It also reviews a set of general indicators that characterize such resources (volume, scope, and composition), as well as indicators of use (popularity, citation, and usage, etc.). Possibilities for the integrated use of different instruments and methods that are applied to measure resources are discussed. © 2015, Allerton Press, Inc.

Schkolyar L.V.,Russian Academy of Education
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2016

The author, a leading expert of the Russian education, the author of textbooks and teaching aids for pre-school and musical education, creates a portrait of modern Russian preschooler. The manuscript presents the results of a study, which was attended by more than 1,000 preschool children from different Russian cities. Based on the analysis of the results of this study the author considers conceptual positions needed for child's successful socialization in modern social and cultural situation. The author asks the question: Why is art and aesthetic component is so important to achieve the ideal of the modern kindergarten? For this aim the author has developed and described modeling method of artistic and creative process, and made an analysis of the traditional pre-school education's programs. The method of artistic and creative process' modelling as opposed to verbal and informative method deepens problematical features, guiding children's thinking into the mainstream of identifying the origins of art and culture phenomenon. For a child who wants to be a composer, artist, writer, however, as a driver, astronaut, builder, it is not enough to know the signs of the profession and its attributes, but also to understand the meaning of the future activities. The author proved that the model of pre-school education should be based on the aesthetic principle. The author examines the conceptual positions updating the content of pre-school education. In particular, it is emphasized that the entry of the child into the culture associated with the direct and trusting relationship with the world, a predisposition to perception of beauty and harmony. At the same time author notes that nowadays it is growing the alarming trend of ignoring the emotional and sensual and the spiritual and moral sphere of humanity in the preschool and school education, which is obviously contrary to his nature. For example, in traditional preschool programs the artistic and aesthetic activity plays the "last roles" - and the plans, and in practice it is described after the so-called "leading areas of work.

Machinskaya R.I.,Russian Academy of Education | Kurgansky A.V.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2012

Coherence at the frequency of θ, α, and β EEG rhythms was analyzed in 14 adults and 23 children of 7-8 years old while they performed cognitive tasks requiring an involvement of working memory (WM). We used the pair matching paradigm in which subjects had to match a pair of stimuli shown in succession in the central visual field. The pairs of verbal and visuo-spatial stimuli were mixed together and presented in a pseudo random order. Each pair was preceded by a warning signal that did not specify a modality of upcoming stimuli. We analyzed EEG segments recorded (i) in the rest condition, (ii) prior to the first (reference) stimulus (maintenance of nonspecific voluntary attention), and (iii) prior to the second (test) stimulus (retention of information in WM). In the present study we focused on the regulatory functional components of WM, and therefore, the stimulus modality has not been taken into account. In adults, maintaining nonspecific voluntary attention was accompanied by an increase of the strength of θ-related functional coupling between medial areas of the frontal cortex and temporal cortical zones and by a strengthening of local β-related functional connectivity in the fronto-central areas of the cortex. In children, no such increase was found for θ rhythm; for β rhythm the increase was limited to several short-range functional links. In adults, the retention of information in WM was accompanied by the growth in α coherence in distant fronto-parietal links, predominantly in the right hemisphere, while in children information retention was accompanied by the growth of θ coherence in the inferio-temporal and parietal cortical regions. The results of the study point to a relative immaturity of the mechanisms of executive control of WM in children of 7-8 years old. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Kurgansky A.V.,Russian Academy of Education | Machinskaya R.I.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2012

We analyzed EEG recorded in the rest condition (eye closed) in 22 children aged from 7 to 8 years old who experienced learning difficulties and whose EEG recordings were characterized by sporadic shortterm appearance of bilateral synchronous slow waves over the frontal and/or frontal and central cortices-frontal theta-waves (FTW). The vector autoregressive modeling was used in order to assess the strength of directed cortico-cortical functional connectivity pattern for FTW and for surrounding EEG. The comparison of the two patterns showed that FTW is characterized by diffuse strengthening of the functional links connecting frontal, central and (to some extent) temporal cortices as well as the links directed to the above regions from the other cortical areas. The results of the study suggest that FTW is most probably caused by the common for the frontal and central cortices neuronal theta activity synchronized via cortico-subcortical links. This suggestion is in a good agreement with the view that FTW reflects the alterations in functioning of fronto-thalamic system. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Krivolapchuk I.A.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2011

The energy supply for muscle activity in healthy boys aged 13-14 years (n = 162) at various puberty stages (PSs) has been studied using functional and ergometric working capacity indices. It has been established that boys at PSs II-IV significantly differ in the indices of power, capacity, and efficiency of bioenergy systems. Three groups of bioenergy indices have been distinguished that differ in the direction of variations in adolescents depending on the rate of puberty. The first group includes the physiological variables the highest levels of which are observed in adolescents with high rates of development. All these indices belong to the anaerobic alactic and anaerobic glycolytic components of physical capability. The second group includes the physiological variables the highest levels of which are observed in adolescents with medium rates of development; the lowest levels, in adolescents with accelerated rates of development. These indices mainly reflect the set of aerobic capacities. The third group includes the physiological variables the highest levels of which are observed in adolescents with low rates of development and the lowest levels, in boys with accelerated rates of maturation. These indices reflect the maximal aerobic power and endurance. It was found that adolescents aged 13-14 years with moderate rates of development are characterized by higher indices of power and capacity of the aerobic energy supply system as compared to adolescents with accelerated maturation. This group of adolescents has also been observed to exhibit a lower maximal aerobic power against a background of higher capacity and efficiency of the aerobic system functioning as compared to adolescents with slow maturation. Adolescents with moderate rates of maturation have been shown to surpass schoolboys with accelerated or slow development with respect to the power of mixed aerobic-anaerobic work. Boys aged 13-14 years with accelerated development have been found to differ from schoolboys with moderate or slow maturation by high anaerobic capacity, relatively low aerobic capacities and an increase in the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system. This should be taken into consideration in terms of a differentiated approach to the formation of load during physical education and athletic training of adolescents aged 13-14 years. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Antopolskii A.B.,Russian Academy of Education
Scientific and Technical Information Processing | Year: 2014

Changes that are occurring in the information space of science are discussed. It is shown that global trends in this area, first of all the internetization of scientific communication and dissemination of open access to scientific publications, led to the occurrence of new methods of Scientometrics, namely, webometrics. Global and domestic webometric methods for creating indexes are described. The features of the Russian webometric index are listed. We conclude that the creation of a more complete and differentiated national index along with the world webometric index is advisable for adequate monitoring of the electronic resources of Russian science. Use of the experience of the Institute of Scientific and Educational Information of the Russian Academy of Education as a platform of the national experience index is proposed. © 2014 Allerton Press, Inc.

Olenev S.M.,Russian Academy of Education
Scientific and Technical Information Processing | Year: 2014

The evolution of the scientific application of the term information and its contemporary interpretation in social sciences and humanities is considered. The theoretical potential of this term, theoretical and practical basics of information technologies, and prospects for the development of social sciences and humanities, in which the concept of information is used, are analyzed. © 2014 Allerton Press, Inc.

Shmatko N.D.,Russian Academy of Education
Vestnik otorinolaringologii | Year: 2015

The objective of the present study was to characterize the peculiarities oforganization of pedagogical rehabilitation for the children with a cochlear implant and to demonstrate the most effective forms of their upbringing and education. Special attention is given to the organization ofsuch work during the preschool period with reference to potential difficulties encountered in the education of the children suffering a delay in the speech development.Abstract available from the publisher.

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