Russian Academy of Education
Russian Academy of Education
Kazantseva A.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Gaysina D.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Malykh S.,Russian Academy of Education |
Khusnutdinova E.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2011
Variations in personality traits are caused by interactions between multiple genes of small effect and environmental factors. To date, gender- and ethnicity-specific variations in personality have been established. In the present study, we aimed to test: 1) the effects of four polymorphisms of dopamine system genes: ANKK1/DRD2 Taq1A, DRD2 rs6275, SLC6A3 40-bp VNTR and rs27072, on personality traits; 2) whether these effects differ between men and women and between Russians and Tatars. A sample of 652 healthy individuals (222 men and 430 women) of Caucasian origin (233 Russians and 419 Tatars) from Russia was subjected to personality traits assessment with Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). The associations between each personality trait and polymorphisms were assessed with regression models adjusted for gender and ethnicity. There were significant effects of ANKK1/DRD2 Taq1A on Neuroticism (p = 0.016) and of SLC6A3 rs27072 on Persistence (p = 0.021) in both genders. The association between ANKK1/DRD2 Taq1A A2/A2-genotype and higher Novelty Seeking and lower Reward Dependence was shown in men only (p for gender interaction = 0.018). In women only, there was a significant association between SLC6A3 10R*G-haplotype and higher Persistence (p = 0.002). Our findings provide evidence for a modifying effect of gender on the associations between dopamine system genes and approach-related traits (in men) and Persistence (in women). © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Gorev A.S.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2017
We have analyzed the impact of voluntary relaxation on the functional organization and the effectiveness of the voluntary prestimulus attention in performing cognitive tasks in adolescents at the ages of 12–13 and 13–14 years. The effectiveness of cognitive task performance (audio-verbal short-term memory) was estimated on the basis of the number of correctly remembered words. We have found that both age groups are characterized by reduced capacity for voluntary relaxation and its impact on the effectiveness of cognitive task performance. The analysis of the coherence function of EEG rhythmic components in a situation of voluntary attention focused on the performance of cognitive tasks showed no significant change in the interaction of the prefrontal cortex with other cortical areas during the switch from quiet wakefulness or post-relaxation state to the preparation to perform the task, which is typical of adults and young children. Our findings can be a result of sub-optimal functioning of voluntary regulation mechanisms and organization of activities during adolescence. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Vasilyeva R.M.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2017
This article provides an overview of theoretical studies and clinical practice of using thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB). TEB is a noninvasive method for the measurement of cardiac output, cardiac index, systolic time intervals, and other hemodynamic parameters. The opinions of modern authors regarding the usage of this method are still controversial. However, many studies have proved that TEB is an accurate, reliable and promising method for monitoring the relative changes in hemodynamics in many clinical situations and in physiological studies of cardiac activity. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Klarin M.,Russian Academy of Education
International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education | Year: 2016
The paper suggests shifts in educational thinking about adult and continuing education practices including: goal setting, nature of the learner, character of education, and its elements including the sources in the educational process, evaluation of its outcomes, and social (micro-social) role of education. The author explores innovative vs. conventional adult learning, and introduces several new approaches to adult education. Several conceptual challenges (paradoxes) are considered that do not fit the traditional educationalist’s thinking. The conceptual shifts are explored as cognitive gaps, leading to insights about the nature of adult education, and pragmatic changes in shaping education to transform individual and collective experience. © 2016 IJCRSEE. All rights reserved.
Sataeva A.I.,Russian Academy of Education
Vestnik otorinolaringologii | Year: 2016
PURPOSE: To present the system of the teacher of the deaf work with a child with CI and their family at the initial rehabilitation stage aimed at reorganization of interaction between the child with CI and his family and transition of the child to the way of natural development.RESULTS: The paper presents a brief description of the teacher of the deaf systematic work at the initial rehabilitation stage, which includes four work sessions of the teacher, during which the logic of normal development of a hearing child during the first year of their life is reproduced. The main difficulties in interaction with a child with CI, faced by their parents are described. Indicators of completion of each session with a child with CI and their parents are specified. There is noted that 90 children passed to the way of natural development of communication and speech with their relatives and parents sought to improve their interaction with the children.CONCLUSION: The system of the teacher of the deaf work with children after CI surgery, developed in the Institute of Special Education of the Russian Academy of Education, allows to reconstruct interaction between the child and their parents on a normal sensory basis and for a child with CI to pass to the way of natural development of their communication and speech as early age hearing children do.Цель - представить систему работы сурдопедагога с ребенком с кохлеарным имплантом и его семьей на запускающем этапе реабилитации, смысл которого заключается в перестройке взаимодействия с ребенком и его семьей и переходе ребенка на путь естественного развития. Результаты. Представлено краткое описание системы работы сурдопедагога на запускающем этапе реабилитации, который включает четыре сессии работы сурдопедагога, в ходе которых воспроизводится логика нормального развития слышащего ребенка первого года жизни. Описаны основные трудности, которые испытывают родители во взаимодействии со своим ребенком с кохлеарным имплантом. Выделены показатели завершения каждой сессии в отношении ребенка с кохлеарным имплантом и его семьи. Вывод. Разработанная в Институте коррекционной педагогики РАО система работы сурдопедагога с детьми после операции кохлеарной имплантации позволила перестроить взаимодействие родителей со своим ребенком на полноценной сенсорной основе и перейти детям с кохлеарными имплантами на путь естественного развития коммуникации и речи.
Dubrovinskaya N.V.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2015
Behavioral characteristics of adolescents as determined by brain neurophysiological and neurochemical processes during puberty are reviewed. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Schkolyar L.V.,Russian Academy of Education
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2016
The author, a leading expert of the Russian education, the author of textbooks and teaching aids for pre-school and musical education, creates a portrait of modern Russian preschooler. The manuscript presents the results of a study, which was attended by more than 1,000 preschool children from different Russian cities. Based on the analysis of the results of this study the author considers conceptual positions needed for child's successful socialization in modern social and cultural situation. The author asks the question: Why is art and aesthetic component is so important to achieve the ideal of the modern kindergarten? For this aim the author has developed and described modeling method of artistic and creative process, and made an analysis of the traditional pre-school education's programs. The method of artistic and creative process' modelling as opposed to verbal and informative method deepens problematical features, guiding children's thinking into the mainstream of identifying the origins of art and culture phenomenon. For a child who wants to be a composer, artist, writer, however, as a driver, astronaut, builder, it is not enough to know the signs of the profession and its attributes, but also to understand the meaning of the future activities. The author proved that the model of pre-school education should be based on the aesthetic principle. The author examines the conceptual positions updating the content of pre-school education. In particular, it is emphasized that the entry of the child into the culture associated with the direct and trusting relationship with the world, a predisposition to perception of beauty and harmony. At the same time author notes that nowadays it is growing the alarming trend of ignoring the emotional and sensual and the spiritual and moral sphere of humanity in the preschool and school education, which is obviously contrary to his nature. For example, in traditional preschool programs the artistic and aesthetic activity plays the "last roles" - and the plans, and in practice it is described after the so-called "leading areas of work.
Machinskaya R.I.,Russian Academy of Education |
Kurgansky A.V.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2012
Coherence at the frequency of θ, α, and β EEG rhythms was analyzed in 14 adults and 23 children of 7-8 years old while they performed cognitive tasks requiring an involvement of working memory (WM). We used the pair matching paradigm in which subjects had to match a pair of stimuli shown in succession in the central visual field. The pairs of verbal and visuo-spatial stimuli were mixed together and presented in a pseudo random order. Each pair was preceded by a warning signal that did not specify a modality of upcoming stimuli. We analyzed EEG segments recorded (i) in the rest condition, (ii) prior to the first (reference) stimulus (maintenance of nonspecific voluntary attention), and (iii) prior to the second (test) stimulus (retention of information in WM). In the present study we focused on the regulatory functional components of WM, and therefore, the stimulus modality has not been taken into account. In adults, maintaining nonspecific voluntary attention was accompanied by an increase of the strength of θ-related functional coupling between medial areas of the frontal cortex and temporal cortical zones and by a strengthening of local β-related functional connectivity in the fronto-central areas of the cortex. In children, no such increase was found for θ rhythm; for β rhythm the increase was limited to several short-range functional links. In adults, the retention of information in WM was accompanied by the growth in α coherence in distant fronto-parietal links, predominantly in the right hemisphere, while in children information retention was accompanied by the growth of θ coherence in the inferio-temporal and parietal cortical regions. The results of the study point to a relative immaturity of the mechanisms of executive control of WM in children of 7-8 years old. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Krivolapchuk I.A.,Russian Academy of Education
Human Physiology | Year: 2011
The energy supply for muscle activity in healthy boys aged 13-14 years (n = 162) at various puberty stages (PSs) has been studied using functional and ergometric working capacity indices. It has been established that boys at PSs II-IV significantly differ in the indices of power, capacity, and efficiency of bioenergy systems. Three groups of bioenergy indices have been distinguished that differ in the direction of variations in adolescents depending on the rate of puberty. The first group includes the physiological variables the highest levels of which are observed in adolescents with high rates of development. All these indices belong to the anaerobic alactic and anaerobic glycolytic components of physical capability. The second group includes the physiological variables the highest levels of which are observed in adolescents with medium rates of development; the lowest levels, in adolescents with accelerated rates of development. These indices mainly reflect the set of aerobic capacities. The third group includes the physiological variables the highest levels of which are observed in adolescents with low rates of development and the lowest levels, in boys with accelerated rates of maturation. These indices reflect the maximal aerobic power and endurance. It was found that adolescents aged 13-14 years with moderate rates of development are characterized by higher indices of power and capacity of the aerobic energy supply system as compared to adolescents with accelerated maturation. This group of adolescents has also been observed to exhibit a lower maximal aerobic power against a background of higher capacity and efficiency of the aerobic system functioning as compared to adolescents with slow maturation. Adolescents with moderate rates of maturation have been shown to surpass schoolboys with accelerated or slow development with respect to the power of mixed aerobic-anaerobic work. Boys aged 13-14 years with accelerated development have been found to differ from schoolboys with moderate or slow maturation by high anaerobic capacity, relatively low aerobic capacities and an increase in the tone of the parasympathetic nervous system. This should be taken into consideration in terms of a differentiated approach to the formation of load during physical education and athletic training of adolescents aged 13-14 years. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Antopolskii A.B.,Russian Academy of Education
Scientific and Technical Information Processing | Year: 2014
Changes that are occurring in the information space of science are discussed. It is shown that global trends in this area, first of all the internetization of scientific communication and dissemination of open access to scientific publications, led to the occurrence of new methods of Scientometrics, namely, webometrics. Global and domestic webometric methods for creating indexes are described. The features of the Russian webometric index are listed. We conclude that the creation of a more complete and differentiated national index along with the world webometric index is advisable for adequate monitoring of the electronic resources of Russian science. Use of the experience of the Institute of Scientific and Educational Information of the Russian Academy of Education as a platform of the national experience index is proposed. © 2014 Allerton Press, Inc.