Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Saint Petersburg, Russia

Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Shamsutdinov Z.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Shamsutdinov N.Z.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Arid Ecosystems | Year: 2012

The environmental restoration of wasted biodiversity and productivity of degraded desert pastures of Central Asia is necessary. This study covers the results of long-term studies intended to develop biogeocenotic principles and adaptive methods of the environmental restoration of deserted pastures by sowing a mix of seeds of zonally typical dominant species of fodder subshrubs and perennial sod herbs that ensure fast the restoration of their productivity and botanical diversity. It is shown that the proposed methods are highly efficient both bioenergetically and economically. © 2012, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.3.1-01 | Award Amount: 9.55M | Year: 2013

Plants synthesize a staggering variety of secondary metabolites, and this chemodiversity is a poorly used pool of natural molecules with bioactive properties of importance for applications in the pharma and food industries. BacHBerry focusses on phenolic compounds, a large and diverse class of plant metabolites, which are currently in the spotlight due to their claimed beneficial effects in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, but that also have applications as cosmetics, flavours and food colorants etc. Berries are soft and colourful fruits, with great diversity, high content and unique profiles in phenolic compounds, making them a major source of these high-value metabolites. The BacHBerry project aims to develop a portfolio of sustainable methodologies to mine the potential of the untapped biodiversity of the bioactive phenolic compounds in an extensive collection of berry species. Full exploitation of this unrivalled natural resource requires an integrated and comprehensive effort from bioprospecting in berries using SMART high-throughput screens for the valorisation of phenolic bioactivities aligned with their identification using cutting edge analytics and subsequent elucidation of their biosynthetic pathways. This knowledge will facilitate metabolic engineering of suitable bacterial hosts for high-value phenolics production in scalable fermentation bioprocesses, ultimately serving as commercial production platforms. The consortium comprises a full chain of research and innovation, with 12 research groups, 5 SMEs and a large enterprise, representing 10 countries including partners from ICPC countries Russia, Chile and China, with the capacity to exploit novel bioactivities from berry fruits diversity. BacHBerry develops a pipeline of sustainable and cost-effective processes to facilitate production of added-value berry phenolics with immediate potential for commercialization and consequent socio-economic benefits for the European community and beyond.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2007-3-3-03 | Award Amount: 3.69M | Year: 2008

The animal by-products (AB-P) industry has always been a vital part of the world food production chain, providing valuable new products and reducing pollution loads. Anyway, the treatment of animal bioresources requires new and safe biotechnological tools and processes are developed. PROSPARE aims at developing a technological platform for multi-purpose processing of AB-P, in particular poultry ones, flexible enough to be tailored to different industrial sector needs. Using a novel biocatalytic approach unmarketable poultry secondary resources will be converted into value added peptide hydrolysates leading to marketable end-products, with programmable nutritional properties, and biodiesel. Innovative techniques will be used for the molecular characterization of the hydrolyzates. Safety issues associated with new technologies will be properly addressed and novel methods to assess the healthiness of intermediate and end-products developed and compared to standard ones. Platform feasibility will be demonstrated by scaling up to pre-industrial pilot level. The technological innovations will allow obtaining a range of products with programmed functional properties and sensory characteristics that will appeal to consumer objective and subjective requests. Functional characteristics to be targeted will include antioxidant, prebiotic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive properties. The outcome of the PROSPARE project is likely to generate a significant technological breakthrough in the field of AB-P treatment. This will therefore have an impact on the current Regulatory Framework both in EU and RF. An important aim of the project is to prepare the ground for the evolution of the Commission directives in that context. Moreover, taking advantage of this international cooperation, recommendations on how to harmonise, in the longer term, both legislations will also be delivered to the Commission.


Vodyanitskii Y.N.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2012

In line with the present-day ecological and toxicological data obtained by Dutch ecologists, heavy metals/metalloids form the following succession according to their hazard degree in soils: Se > Tl > Sb > Cd > V > Hg > Ni > Cu > Cr > As > Ba. This sequence substantially differs from the succession of heavy elements presented in the general toxicological GOST (State Norms and Standards) 17.4.1.02-8, which considers As, Cd, Hg, Se, Pb, and Zn to be strongly hazardous elements, whereas Co, Ni, Mo, Sb, and Cr to be moderately hazardous. As compared to the general toxicological approach, the hazard of lead, zinc, and cobalt is lower in soils, and that of vanadium, antimony, and barium is higher. The new sequence also differs from that of the metal hazard in soils according to the Russian standard on the maximal permissible concentration of mobile metal forms (MPC mob): Cu > Ni > Co > Cr > Zn. Neither an MPC mob nor an APC mob has been adopted for strongly hazardous thallium, selenium, and vanadium in Russia. The content of heavy metals in contaminated soils is very unevenly studied: 11 of them, i. e., Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, As, Mn, Co, Hg, and Se, are better known, while the rest, much worse, although there are dangerous elements (Ba, V, Tl) among them. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Khitrov N.B.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2012

On the basis of soil studies along routes and on key plots, 35 new areas of soils with definite features of vertigenesis have been identified in Belgorod and Voronezh oblasts and in the northern part of Volgograd oblast (in the Don River basin). Earlier, vertic soils were not noted for these areas. In the studied region, their portion in the soil cover is much less than 1%. All the delineated areas of vertic soils are confined to the outcrops of swelling clay materials of different origins (marine, lacustrine, glacial, and colluvial sediments) and ages (Quaternary or Tertiary) that may be found in four landscape positions: (1) in the deep closed depressions within vast flat watersheds; (2) in the bottoms of wide hollows on interfluvial slopes and, sometimes, on steeper slopes of local ravines; (3) in the hydromorphic solonetzic soil complexes, and (4) on steplike interfluvial surfaces with the outcrops of Tertiary clays. Within the studied areas, soils with different degrees of expression (six grades) of vertic properties are present. These soils belong to the type of dark vertic soils proper and to vertic subtypes of different soil types according to the Russian soil classification system; according to the WRB system, they belong to Vertisols proper and to reference soil units with a Vertic prefix in the groups of Chernozems, Phaeozems, and Solonetzes. Statistical data on the morphometric indices of the vertic properties (the depth and thickness of the soil horizons with slickensides, a wedge-shaped structure, and cracks filled with material from the upper horizons) and the depth and thickness of the Vertic horizon are analyzed. © N.B. Khitrov, 2012.


Khitrov N.B.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2012

A methodology for creating detailed soil maps on the basis of a dense grid of soil testing points and the numerical interpolation of experimental data on the soil properties is discussed. The study of the soil cover patterns combines regular sampling grids with equal spacing and additional sampling points chosen with due account for the soil cover specificity in particular areas. Soil diagnostics are performed at each of the points, and the diagnostic features of the soils are recorded in the field. In a laboratory, these data are arranged into a database, and a legend to the soil map is created. The necessary and sufficient set of the quantitative soil characteristics is selected, and quantitative criteria of the boundaries between the separate soil polygons are determined on the basis of numerical interpolation. Algorithms to delineate soil polygons on the basis of the selected indices are developed. Separate thematic map layers are produced for each of the selected soil characteristics. An integral soil map for the investigated area is obtained via the superposition of these layers. The thickness and/or the depths of the upper/lower boundaries of the soil layer with definite diagnostic characteristics making it possible to distinguish the given soil from its neighbors are used as the criteria for delineating the boundaries between soil polygons. Special criteria based on the proportions between the thicknesses or depths of several layers can also be applied for this purpose. The creation of a detailed soil map of a plot on the Kamennaya Steppe is discussed as an example of the practical application of this methodology. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Vodyanitskii Y.N.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2010

Iron hydroxides are subdivided into thermodynamically unstable (ferrihydrite, feroxyhyte, and lepidocrocite) and stable (goethite) minerals. Hydroxides are formed either from Fe3+ (as ferrihydrite) or Fe2+ (as feroxyhyte and lepidocrocite). The high amount of feroxyhyte in ferromanganic concretions is proved, which points to the leading role of variable redox conditions in the synthesis of hydroxides. The structure of iron hydroxides is stabilized by inorganic elements, i. e., ferrihydrite, by silicon; feroxyhyte, by manganese; lepidocrocite, by phosphorus; and goethite, by aluminum. Ferrihydrite and feroxyhyte are formed with the participation of biota, whereas the abiotic formation of lepidocrocite and goethite is possible. The iron hydroxidogenesis is more pronounced in podzolic soils than in chernozems, and it is more pronounced in iron-manganic nodules than in the fine earth. Upon the dissolution of iron hydroxides, iron isotopes are fractioned with light-weight 54Fe atoms being dissolved more readily. Unstable hydroxides are transformed into stable (hydr)oxides, i. e., feroxyhyte is spontaneously converted to goethite, and ferrihydrite, to hematite or goethite. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Vodyanitskii Y.N.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2011

Uranium has varying degrees of oxidation (+4 and +6) and is responsive to changes in the redox potential of the environment. It is deposited at the reduction barrier with the participation of biota and at the sorption barrier under oxidative conditions. Iron (hydr)oxides are the strongest sorbents of uranium. Uranium, being an element of medium biological absorption, can accumulate (relative to thorium) in the humus horizons of some soils. The high content of uranium in uncontaminated soils is most frequently inherited from the parent rocks in the regions of positive U anomalies: in the soils developed on oil shales and in the marginal zone of bogs at the reduction barrier. The development of nuclear and coal-fired power engineering resulted in the environmental contamination with uranium. The immobilization of anthropogenic uranium at artificial geochemical barriers is based on two preconditions: the stimulation of on-site metal-reducing bacteria or the introduction of strong mineral reducers, e. g., Fe at low degrees of oxidation. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Vodyanitskii Y.N.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2010

Iron's contribution to fixing heavy metals and metalloids in soils is very important. Iron compounds participating in redox processes control the behavior of siderophilic elements with variable oxidation degrees (Cr, As, and Sb). The behavior of heavy elements with permanent oxidation (Zn, Co, and Ni) indirectly depends on iron compounds. In organic soils, iron competes with heavy metals for active places in the functional groups of organic substances. Organic pollutants intensify the reduction of iron (hydr)oxides in an anaerobic environment, which influences the release of arsenic. Iron compounds are used as ameliorating agents and geochemical barriers for fixing heavy elements. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Kurtsev I.V.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Regional Research of Russia | Year: 2013

The current state of the subsistence support of the population in the Siberian Federal District, as well as ways for its improvement and raising living standards in the rural area, have been considered. Proposals for the development of land relations, improvement of environmental protection, intensification of the role of moral and ethical criteria of the rural way of life, and more complete utilization of the opportunities of Siberian agriculture for the maintenance of Russia's territorial integrity, have been made. The necessity of priority agricultural development in Siberia with the appropriate measures of state support has been justified. Copyright © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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