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Golovnin I.S.,Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials
Atomic Energy | Year: 2011

The All Union Research Institute for Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) in 1953 was given the technical task of developing and fabricating fuel elements with kernels made of metallic plutonium for the zero-power BF-1 facility, the first physical-nuclear fast-neutron facility in the country. A requirement was set to ensure that such fuel elements would also work in the next experimental facility BF-2 which was being designed. The possibility of a local decrease of the volume on cool-down below the region of existence of plutonium below 100-150°C in connection with possible decay of the alloy was taken into account. After the research program was completed, BF-2 was replaced by a more powerful facility BR-5 and physical startup occurred in 1958. The need for successive search for systems that operate reliably led to the use as the material for the BR-5 fuel core plutonium dioxide, metallurgically completely compatible with corrosion-resistant steel cladding in a wide temperature range. Source


Titov A.O.,Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials
Atomic Energy | Year: 2016

Methods for depositing functional and protective coatings on articles used in the nuclear engineering and for general industrial purposes that have been developed at VNIINM are described. The methods and their advantages are examined and applications are substantiated. Examples of the adoption of the technologies described are presented. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source


Semenov A.A.,Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials
Atomic Energy | Year: 2016

The work on beryllium technologies performed at VNIINM over the years of its existence is described. The role of VNIINM in the creation and re-creation of the domestic production of materials based on metallic beryllium, beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydride is reflected. The unique properties of each material are examined in detail and the prospects for using the materials in science and engineering are presented. The prospects for creating new materials for x-ray and synchrotron engineering are especially noted: beryllium windows for extracting x-ray radiation and refraction x-ray lenses made from beryllium. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source


Shishov V.N.,Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials
ASTM Special Technical Publication | Year: 2011

A review is given on the effect of neutron irradiation on the microstructure and properties of Zr-Nb and Zr-Nb-Fe (Sn,O) alloys. The inreactor performance of Zr alloys is dependent on their composition and microstructure, and even small changes in the composition and processing lead to substantial changes in properties as a result of evolution of precipitates and matrix composition. The development of a new generation of alloys of Zr-Nb-Fe (Sn,O) system (that show higher resistance to the irradiationinduced growth, creep, and corrosion) required an examination of their microstructure during the manufacturing process and evolution after neutron irradiation. The basic irradiation phenomena involve irradiation-induced damages (formation of the a- and c-component dislocations) and redistribution of alloying elements. The influence produced by precipitates containing Zr, Nb, and particularly Fe on the properties under irradiation is demonstrated. Relationships between composition, microstructure, and irradiation-induced growth of the Zr-Nb-Fe-Sn are described. An increased content of iron (over limit of the solubility) in Zr-Nb alloys leads to lower irradiation growth and creep and to strengthening of the matrix as a result of Fe leaving Laves phase (HCP) particles with their transformation into β-Nb (bcc). β-Nb precipitates become depleted in niobium (or enriched in zirconium), and finely dispersed irradiation-induced secondary particles enriched in niobium are formed. The basic microstructures that illustrate neutron damage structures, precipitates instability, evolution, and irradiation growth are shown and discussed. Copyright © 2011 by ASTM International. Source


Shishov V.N.,Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials
Journal of ASTM International | Year: 2010

A review is given on the effect of neutron irradiation on the microstructure and properties of Zr-Nb and Zr-Nb-Fe (Sn,O) alloys. The in-reactor performance of Zr alloys is dependent on their composition and microstructure, and even small changes in the composition and processing lead to substantial changes in properties as a result of evolution of precipitates and matrix composition. The development of a new generation of alloys of Zr-Nb-Fe (Sn,O) system (that show higher resistance to the irradiation-induced growth, creep, and corrosion) required an examination of their microstructure during the manufacturing process and evolution after neutron irradiation. The basic irradiation phenomena involve irradiation-induced damages (formation of the a- and c-component dislocations) and redistribution of alloying elements. The influence produced by precipitates containing Zr, Nb, and particularly Fe on the properties under irradiation is demonstrated. Relationships between composition, microstructure, and irradiation-induced growth of the Zr-Nb-Fe-Sn are described. An increased content of iron (over limit of the solubility) in Zr-Nb alloys leads to lower irradiation growth and creep and to strengthening of the matrix as a result of Fe leaving Laves phase (HCP) particles with their transformation into β-Nb (bcc). β-Nb precipitates become depleted in niobium (or enriched in zirconium) and finely dispersed irradiation-induced secondary particles enriched in niobium are formed. The basic microstructures that illustrate neutron damage structures, precipitates instability, evolution, and irradiation growth are shown and discussed. Copyright © 2010 by ASTM International. Source

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